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Open AccessArticle

Lab-Made Electronic Nose for Fast Detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus

1
Veterinary Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2
Animal Quarantine, Agriculture Quarantine Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Jakarta 12550, Indonesia
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Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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Institute of Halal Industry and Systems (IHIS) Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010020
Received: 15 December 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 5 February 2020 / Published: 9 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
The aim of this study is to determine the performance of a lab-made electronic nose (e-nose) composed of an array of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors in the detection and differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) incubated in trypticsoy broth (TSB) media. Conventionally, the detection of L. monocytogenes and B. cereus is often performed by enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These techniques require trained operators and expert, expensive reagents and specific containment. In this study, three types of samples, namely, TSB media, L. monocytogenes (serotype 4b American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 13792), and B. cereus (ATCC) 10876, were used for this experiment. Prior to measurement using the e-nose, each bacterium was inoculated in TSB at 1 × 103–104 CFU/mL, followed by incubation for 48 h. To evaluate the performance of the e-nose, the measured data were then analyzed with chemometric models, namely linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA and QDA), and support vector machine (SVM). As a result, the e-nose coupled with SVM showeda high accuracy of 98% in discriminating between TSB media and L. monocytogenes, and between TSB media and B. cereus. It could be concluded that the lab-made e-nose is able to detect rapidly the presence of bacteria L. monocytogenes and B. cereus on TSB media. For the future, it could be used to identify the presence of L. monocytogenes or B. cereus contamination in the routine and fast assessment of food products in animal quarantine. View Full-Text
Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes; Bacillus cereus; electronic nose; LDA; QDA; SVM Listeria monocytogenes; Bacillus cereus; electronic nose; LDA; QDA; SVM
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Astantri, P.F.; Prakoso, W.S.A.; Triyana, K.; Untari, T.; Airin, C.M.; Astuti, P. Lab-Made Electronic Nose for Fast Detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Vet. Sci. 2020, 7, 20.

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