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Open AccessArticle

Alternative Vaccination Routes against Paratuberculosis Modulate Local Immune Response and Interference with Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Laboratory Animal Models

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Animal Health Department, NEIKER-Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario. Derio, E-48160 Bizkaia, Spain
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Department of Animal Health, Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña (CSIC-ULE), Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, E-24071 Leon, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010007
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 29 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is an enteric granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that mainly affects ruminants. Current vaccines have shown to be cost–effective control reagents, although they are restricted due to cross-interference with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed and this study is focused on evaluating alternative vaccination routes and their effect on the local immune response. The MAP oral challenge rabbit model was used to evaluate and compare an experimental inactivated MAP vaccine through oral (VOR) and intradermal (VID) routes. The VID group presented the highest proportion of animals with no visible lesions and the lowest proportion of animals with MAP positive tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the VID group presented a dominantly M1 polarized response indicating an ability to control MAP infection. In general, all vaccinated groups showed lower calprotectin levels compared to the non-vaccinated challenged group suggesting less active granulomatous lesions. The VID group showed some degree of skin test reactivity, whereas the same vaccine through oral administration was completely negative. These data show that PTB vaccination has an effect on macrophage polarization and that the route influences infection outcome and can also have an impact on bTB diagnosis. Future evaluation of new immunological products against mycobacterial diseases should consider assaying different vaccination routes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; vaccination routes; rabbit model; macrophage polarization; skin test Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; vaccination routes; rabbit model; macrophage polarization; skin test
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Arrazuria, R.; Ladero, I.; Molina, E.; Fuertes, M.; Juste, R.; Fernández, M.; Pérez, V.; Garrido, J.; Elguezabal, N. Alternative Vaccination Routes against Paratuberculosis Modulate Local Immune Response and Interference with Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Laboratory Animal Models. Vet. Sci. 2020, 7, 7.

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