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Open AccessArticle

Schirmer Tear Test Value and Corneal Lesions’ Incidence during General Anesthesia for Non-Ophthalmic Surgery in Non-Brachycephalic Dogs: A Pilot Study Comparing Three Different Lubricant Eye Drop Formulations

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Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Napoli Federico II, 80137 Napoli, Italy
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Medical Manager (Veterinary Division Aurora Biofarma), 20131 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010025
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 17 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2019)
Aim of this blinded, prospective, randomized clinical study was to compare three different lubricant eye drops (LED) in healthy adult dogs undergoing general anaesthesia (GA) for non-ophthalmic surgery. Tear production rate was monitored by means of Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), and incidence of post-operative corneal abrasions/ulcerations was detected by corneal staining. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed before premedication, at extubation time and 24 h after GA in twenty-five non-brachycephalic dogs (fifty eyes) undergoing elective orthopaedic or spinal surgery procedures. Dogs were randomly allocated to one of three groups receiving as prophylactic LED either carmellose sodium (GC), or 1% hyaluronic acid (GH), or 0.25% hyaluronic acid (GL). In each eye STT-1 was repeated every hour during GA, before instilling one drop of the assigned LED. In all groups STT-1 values drastically decreased during GA, while 24 h later nine eyes (18%) had STT-1 values lower than 15 mm/minute. All of the three formulations tested were fully effective in preventing corneal ulceration (0% in all groups), while 10% of eyes reported superficial de-epithelialization. Fluorescein staining demonstrated that hourly prophylactic LED application prevented exposure keratopathy during general anesthesia in 90% of the eyes in non-brachycephalic dogs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cornea; schirmer tear test-1; general anesthesia; lubricant eye drops; exposure keratopathy; dog cornea; schirmer tear test-1; general anesthesia; lubricant eye drops; exposure keratopathy; dog
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Di Palma, C.; Micieli, F.; Lamagna, B.; Nieddu, A.; Uccello, V.; Fatone, G.; Vesce, G. Schirmer Tear Test Value and Corneal Lesions’ Incidence during General Anesthesia for Non-Ophthalmic Surgery in Non-Brachycephalic Dogs: A Pilot Study Comparing Three Different Lubricant Eye Drop Formulations. Vet. Sci. 2020, 7, 25.

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