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Open AccessArticle

The Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Rice Bran Phenolic Extracts

1
Australian Research Council (ARC) Industrial Transformation Training Centre (ITTC) for Functional Grains, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia
2
School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
3
School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
4
School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(6), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060829
Received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be linked to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary polyphenols have been demonstrated to contain potent bioactivity against specific inflammatory pathways. Rice bran (RB), a by-product generated during the rice milling process, is normally used in animal feed or discarded due to its rancidity. However, RB is known to be abundant in bioactive polyphenols including phenolic acids. This study investigates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of RB phenolic extracts (25, 50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) on RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells stimulated with hydrogen peroxide and lipopolysaccharide. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation such as malondialdehyde (MDA), intracellular reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-12, p70 (IL-12p70), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were measured in vitro. Treatment with RB extracts significantly decreased the production of MDA, intracellular reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12p70, and IFN-γ) when compared to the control. It is proposed that RB phenolic extracts, via their metal chelating properties and free radical scavenging activity, target pathways of oxidative stress and inflammation resulting in the alleviation of vascular inflammatory mediators. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice bran; polyphenols; oxidative stress; antioxidant; inflammation; anti-inflammatory rice bran; polyphenols; oxidative stress; antioxidant; inflammation; anti-inflammatory
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Saji, N.; Francis, N.; Schwarz, L.J.; Blanchard, C.L.; Santhakumar, A.B. The Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Rice Bran Phenolic Extracts. Foods 2020, 9, 829.

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