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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 147 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) TDN is one of the key wine aroma components in aged Riesling wines. It has a kerosene/petrol odor, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Colorimetric Sensor Array for Monitoring, Modelling and Comparing Spoilage Processes of Different Meat and Fish Foods
Foods 2020, 9(5), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050684 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Meat spoilage is a very complex combination of processes related to bacterial activities. Numerous efforts are underway to develop automated techniques for monitoring this process. We selected a panel of pH indicators and a colourimetric dye, selective for thiols. Embedding these dyes into [...] Read more.
Meat spoilage is a very complex combination of processes related to bacterial activities. Numerous efforts are underway to develop automated techniques for monitoring this process. We selected a panel of pH indicators and a colourimetric dye, selective for thiols. Embedding these dyes into an anion exchange cellulose sheets, i.e., the commercial paper sheet known as “Colour Catcher®” commonly used in the washing machine to prevent colour run problems, we obtained an array made of six coloured spots (here named Dye [email protected]). The array, placed over the tray containing a sample of meat or fish (not enriched at any extend with spoilage products), progressively shows a colour change in the six spots. Photos of the array were acquired as a function of time, RGB indices were used to follow the spoilage, Principal Component Analysis to model the data set. We demonstrate that the array allows for the monitoring the overall spoilage process of chicken, beef, pork and fish, obtaining different models that mimic the degradation pathway. The spoilage processes for each kind of food, followed by the array colour evolution, were eventually compared using three-way PCA, which clearly shows same degradation pattern of protein foods, altered only according to the different substrates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated to Glutenin Polymer Characteristics of Wheat
Foods 2020, 9(5), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050683 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 413
Abstract
The polymers of wheat glutenins are studied here using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (A4F). Molecular mass (Mw), gyration radius (Rw), and the polydispersity index (PI) of polymers were measured over a four-year, multi-local wheat trial in France. The experiment, involving 11 locations [...] Read more.
The polymers of wheat glutenins are studied here using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (A4F). Molecular mass (Mw), gyration radius (Rw), and the polydispersity index (PI) of polymers were measured over a four-year, multi-local wheat trial in France. The experiment, involving 11 locations and 192 cultivars, offered the opportunity to approach the genetic and environmental factors associated with the phenotypic values of the polymer characteristics. These characteristics, which were all highly influenced by environmental factors, exhibited low broad-sense heritability coefficients and were not influenced by grain protein content and grain hardness. The 31 alleles encoding the glutenin subunits explained only 17.1, 25.4, and 16.8% of the phenotypic values of Mw, Rw, and PI, respectively. The climatic data revealed that a 3.5 °C increase between locations of the daily average temperature, during the last month of the grain development, caused an increase of more than 189%, 242%, and 434% of the Mw, Rw, and PI, respectively. These findings have to be considered in regard to possible consequences of global warming and health concerns assigned to gluten. It is suggested that the molecular characteristics of glutenins be measured today, especially for research addressing non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Quality of Plant-Based Drinks Sold in Italy: The Food Labelling of Italian Products (FLIP) Study
Foods 2020, 9(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050682 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Plant-based drinks represent a heterogeneous class of beverages, made from several vegetal sources, with a market rapidly expanding around the world. These beverages are mainly drunk in the replacement of milk. Thus, aims of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the nutritional [...] Read more.
Plant-based drinks represent a heterogeneous class of beverages, made from several vegetal sources, with a market rapidly expanding around the world. These beverages are mainly drunk in the replacement of milk. Thus, aims of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the nutritional declaration of 330 plant-based drinks currently available on the Italian market; (ii) compare their nutrition facts based on type, presence or not of organic certification and nutrition (NC) or health claims (HC), and of specific claims (“no added sugars” and “source of calcium”); (iii) compare their nutrition composition with cow’s milk. A high variability in terms of nutrient profile among products was observed. Limited difference was found between products belonging to both organic and NC categories, while products carrying HC showed lower energy, carbohydrates, sugar, and higher protein contents than the related counterparts. Compared to cow’s milk, plant-based drinks showed differences in terms of nutrient profile, mostly regarding the lower protein content (except for soy drinks). Overall, due to the variability, findings from the present survey show that plant-based drinks sold in Italy cannot be considered tout court as milk substitutes and support the importance of improving knowledge towards food labeling to make conscious food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Flaxseed Gum Solution Functional Properties
Foods 2020, 9(5), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050681 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Flaxseed gum (FG) is a by-product of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal production that is useful as a food thickener, emulsifier, and foaming agent. FG is typically recovered by hot-water extraction from flaxseed hull or whole seed. However, FG includes complex polymer [...] Read more.
Flaxseed gum (FG) is a by-product of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal production that is useful as a food thickener, emulsifier, and foaming agent. FG is typically recovered by hot-water extraction from flaxseed hull or whole seed. However, FG includes complex polymer structures that contain bioactive compounds. Therefore, extraction temperature can play an important role in determining its functional properties, solution appearance, and solution stability during storage. These characteristics of FG, including FG quality, determine its commercial value and utility. In this study, FG solution functional properties and storage stability were investigated for solutions prepared at 70 and 98 °C. Solutions of FG prepared at 98 °C had lower initial viscosity than solutions extracted at 70 °C; though the viscosity of these solutions was more stable during storage. Solutions prepared by extraction at both tested temperatures exhibited similar tolerance to 0.1 mol/L salt addition and freeze-thaw cycles. Moreover, the higher extraction temperature produced a FG solution with superior foaming and emulsification properties, and these properties were more stable with storage. Foams and emulsions produced from FG extracted at higher temperatures also had better stability. FG extracted at 98 °C displayed improved stability and consistent viscosity, foamability, and emulsification properties in comparison to solutions prepared at 70 °C. Therefore, the FG solution extracted at 98 °C had more stable properties and, potentially, higher commercial value. This result indicates that FG performance as a commercial food additive can influence food product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Pesticide Residue Dynamics in Lettuce, Onion, Leek, Carrot and Parsley
Foods 2020, 9(5), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050680 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 391
Abstract
The dynamics of 32 active substances contained in pesticide formulations (15 fungicides and 17 insecticides) were analyzed in iceberg lettuce, onion, leek, carrot, and parsley. Pesticide residues were monitored from the time of application until harvest. In total, 114 mathematical models of residue [...] Read more.
The dynamics of 32 active substances contained in pesticide formulations (15 fungicides and 17 insecticides) were analyzed in iceberg lettuce, onion, leek, carrot, and parsley. Pesticide residues were monitored from the time of application until harvest. In total, 114 mathematical models of residue dissipation were developed using a first-order kinetic equation. Based on these models, it was possible to predict the action pre-harvest interval (the time between the last pesticide application and crop harvest) needed to attain a targeted action threshold (value significantly lower than the maximum limit) for low-residue vegetable production. In addition, it was possible to determine an action pre-harvest interval based on an action threshold of 0.01 mg kg−1 to produce vegetables intended for zero-residue production. The highest amount of pesticide residues were found in carrot and parsley leaves several days after treatment, and pesticide dissipation was generally slow. Lower amounts were found in leeks and lettuce, but pesticide dissipation was faster in lettuce. According to our findings, it seems feasible to apply reduced pesticide amounts to stay below unwanted residue levels. However, understanding the effectivity of reduced pesticide application for controlling relevant pest organisms requires further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Residual Pesticide in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Applicability of Confocal Raman Microscopy to Observe Microstructural Modifications of Cream Cheeses as Influenced by Freezing
Foods 2020, 9(5), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050679 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Confocal Raman microscopy is a promising technique to derive information about microstructure, with minimal sample disruption. Raman emission bands are highly specific to molecular structure and with Raman spectroscopy it is thus possible to observe different classes of molecules in situ, in complex [...] Read more.
Confocal Raman microscopy is a promising technique to derive information about microstructure, with minimal sample disruption. Raman emission bands are highly specific to molecular structure and with Raman spectroscopy it is thus possible to observe different classes of molecules in situ, in complex food matrices, without employing fluorescent dyes. In this work confocal Raman microscopy was employed to observe microstructural changes occurring after freezing and thawing in high-moisture cheeses, and the observations were compared to those obtained with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Two commercially available cream cheese products were imaged with both microscopy techniques. The lower resolution (1 µm/pixel) of confocal Raman microscopy prevented the observation of particles smaller than 1 µm that may be part of the structure (e.g., sugars). With confocal Raman microscopy it was possible to identify and map the large water domains formed during freezing and thawing in high-moisture cream cheese. The results were supported also by low resolution NMR analysis. NMR and Raman microscopy are complementary techniques that can be employed to distinguish between the two different commercial formulations, and different destabilization levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Emulsifying and Anti-Oxidative Properties of Proteins Extracted from Industrially Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Press-Cake
Foods 2020, 9(5), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050678 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 402
Abstract
One of the functional proteins in rapeseed—the amphiphilic protein oleosin—could be used to stabilize emulsions. The objectives of this study were to extract oleosins from cold-pressed rapeseed press-cake, optimize the extraction process, and investigate their emulsifying and anti-oxidative capacity. The proteins were recovered [...] Read more.
One of the functional proteins in rapeseed—the amphiphilic protein oleosin—could be used to stabilize emulsions. The objectives of this study were to extract oleosins from cold-pressed rapeseed press-cake, optimize the extraction process, and investigate their emulsifying and anti-oxidative capacity. The proteins were recovered from industrially cold-pressed rapeseed press-cake at different alkali pHs. Emulsifying properties and oxidation rates were assessed. Oleosin extracted at pH 9 stabilized smaller emulsion droplets than oleosin extracted at pH 12, although the protein yield was higher at pH 12. Emulsions were formulated from flaxseed oil and corn oil and were stabilized by oleosin, bovine serum albumin, de-oiled lecithin and Tween 20 h and the emulsions were stored in accelerated conditions (30 °C) for 12 days. Oleosin stabilized emulsions to the same extent as commercial food-grade emulsifiers. Flaxseed oil emulsions stabilized by oleosin had a significantly lower concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) which indicates a lower oxidation rate compared to BSA, de-oiled lecithin and Tween 20. For corn oil emulsions, oleosin and BSA had a similar capacity to delay oxidation and were significantly more efficient compared to de-oiled lecithin and Tween 20. Rapeseed oleosin recovered from cold-pressed rapeseed press-cake could be a suitable natural emulsifier with anti-oxidation properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Ingredients from Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle
Yield and Quality Characteristics of Brassica Microgreens as Affected by the NH4:NO3 Molar Ratio and Strength of the Nutrient Solution
Foods 2020, 9(5), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050677 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
Microgreens are gaining more and more interest, but little information is available on the effects of the chemical composition of the nutrient solution on the microgreen yield. In this study, three Brassica genotypes (B. oleracea var. italica, B. oleracea var. botrytis [...] Read more.
Microgreens are gaining more and more interest, but little information is available on the effects of the chemical composition of the nutrient solution on the microgreen yield. In this study, three Brassica genotypes (B. oleracea var. italica, B. oleracea var. botrytis, and Brassica rapa L. subsp. sylvestris L. Janch. var. esculenta Hort) were fertigated with three modified strength Hoagland nutrient solutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 strength) or with three modified half-strength Hoagland nutrient solutions with three different NH4:NO3 molar ratios (5:95, 15:85, and 25:75). Microgreen yields and content of inorganic ions, dietary fiber, proteins, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene were evaluated. Micro cauliflower showed the highest yield, as well as a higher content of mineral elements and α-tocopherol (10.4 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight (FW)) than other genotypes. The use of nutrient solution at half strength gave both a high yield (0.23 g cm−2) and a desirable seedling height. By changing the NH4:NO3 molar ratio in the nutrient solution, no differences were found on yield and growing parameters, although the highest β-carotene content (6.3 mg 100 g−1 FW) was found by using a NH4:NO3 molar ratio of 25:75. The lowest nitrate content (on average 6.8 g 100 g−1 dry weight) was found in micro broccoli and micro broccoli raab by using a nutrient solution with NH4:NO3 molar ratios of 25:75 and 5:95, respectively. Micro cauliflower fertigated with a NH4:NO3 molar ratio of 25:75 showed the highest dry matter (9.8 g 100 g−1 FW) and protein content (4.2 g 100 g−1 FW). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Meat Spoilage Microbiota Initial Load on the Growth and Survival of Three Pathogens on a Naturally Fermented Sausage
Foods 2020, 9(5), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050676 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Meat products are potential vehicles for transmitting foodborne pathogens like Salmonella, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes. We aimed to evaluate (1) the effect of the meat’s initial natural microbiota on Salmonella, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes growth and [...] Read more.
Meat products are potential vehicles for transmitting foodborne pathogens like Salmonella, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes. We aimed to evaluate (1) the effect of the meat’s initial natural microbiota on Salmonella, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes growth and survival in a batter to prepare a naturally fermented sausage, made with and without curing salts and wine (2) the effect of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture and wine on the survival of the three pathogens during the manufacturing of a naturally fermented sausage made with meat with a low initial microbial load. The results revealed that the reduced contamination that is currently expected in raw meat is favorable for the multiplication of pathogens due to reduced competition. The inhibitory effect of nitrite and nitrate on Salmonella, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes was confirmed, particularly when competition in meat was low. In any attempt to reduce or eliminate nitrite from naturally fermented sausages, the use of LAB starters should be considered to ensure an unfavorable competition environment for pathogens. In the experiment with naturally fermented sausage, chouriço, the reduction in aw strongly inhibited the challenged pathogens, particularly when a LAB starter culture and wine were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Covid-19 and the Subsequent Lockdown Modified Dietary Habits of Almost Half the Population in an Italian Sample
Foods 2020, 9(5), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050675 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The Covid-19 pandemic led to lockdowns in several parts of the world and, hence, changed some daily habits, including social interactions, the ability to perform sports, and—possibly—diet. The Italian government established and promulgated lockdown policies on 9 March 2020. We aim at assessing [...] Read more.
The Covid-19 pandemic led to lockdowns in several parts of the world and, hence, changed some daily habits, including social interactions, the ability to perform sports, and—possibly—diet. The Italian government established and promulgated lockdown policies on 9 March 2020. We aim at assessing the effects of Covid-19-induced confinement policies on self-reported food consumption of self-selected Italians by means of a questionnaire that was created and diffused by the Internet. Nearly half, i.e., 49.6% of responders did not substantially modify their diet during the lockdown; however, 46.1% of them reported that they were eating more during confinement, and 19.5% gained weight. In particular, we report an increase in “comfort food” consumption, notably chocolate, ice-cream, and desserts (42.5%) and salty snacks (23.5%). In addition, 42.7% percent of this cohort attributed this increase to higher anxiety levels. Related to this, 36.8% of responders reported a decrease in alcohol consumption, even though 10.1% of them reported an increase. Interestingly, 21.2% of responders increased their consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables. Only 33.5% of those who declared decreased consumption attributed this change of diet to lower availability and ease of purchasing such items. Equally interesting, over half of responders, i.e., 56.2%, admitted that fruit and vegetables did not appeal to them while in lockdown. Purchases of ready-made meals were reduced by nearly 50%. Future large-scale similar studies should be undertaken worldwide and will help public health authorities shape their reactions to future, unavoidable pandemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Heterogeneous Fenton Degradation of Patulin in Apple Juice Using Carbon-Encapsulated Nano Zero-Valent Iron (CE-nZVI)
Foods 2020, 9(5), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050674 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin found mainly in matured apples, is produced by different species of fungi, mainly Penicillium expansum, and is found in various fruits and vegetables used to produce juice. Little focus has been placed on nano-technological methods for the mitigation of [...] Read more.
Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin found mainly in matured apples, is produced by different species of fungi, mainly Penicillium expansum, and is found in various fruits and vegetables used to produce juice. Little focus has been placed on nano-technological methods for the mitigation of this problem. In this work, carbon-encapsulated nano-zero valent iron (CE-nZVI) particles were synthesized and used as heterogeneous Fenton agents for the degradation of PAT in apple juice. The particles were found to have a spherical shape with a diameter of 130 ± 50 nm. In a heterogeneous Fenton degradation (involving CE-nZVI) process, a concentration of 0.05 g/L CE-nZVI with 0.5 mM H2O2 was used. Since the Fenton oxidation process is pH-dependent, placebo degradation was observed at varying pH conditions with an average percentage of PAT degradation of 27.8%, 87.0%, 98.0%, and 99.75% at pH 6, 5, 4.5, and 3.5 respectively, between 1 min to 4 h in a water matrix. In a juice matrix, at the regular pH of juice (3.6), percentage PAT degradation of 72% and 89% was obtained after a 2-h treatment using heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (CE-nZVI/H2O2) systems, using 0.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM H2O2, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Polyvalent Phage CoNShP-3 as a Natural Antimicrobial Agent Showing Lytic and Antibiofilm Activities against Antibiotic-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Strains
Foods 2020, 9(5), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050673 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Synthetic antimicrobials have a negative impact on food quality and consumer health, which is why natural antimicrobials are urgently needed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) has gained considerable importance for food poisoning and infection in humans and animals, particularly in biofilms. As a result, this [...] Read more.
Synthetic antimicrobials have a negative impact on food quality and consumer health, which is why natural antimicrobials are urgently needed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) has gained considerable importance for food poisoning and infection in humans and animals, particularly in biofilms. As a result, this study was conducted to control the CoNS isolated from food samples in Egypt. CoNS isolates were selected on the basis of their antibiotic susceptibility profiles and their biofilm-associated behavior. In this context, a total of 29 different bacteriophages were isolated and, in particular, lytic phages (6 isolates) were selected. The host range and physiological parameters of the lytic phages have been studied. Electron microscopy images showed that lytic phages were members of the families Myoviridae (CoNShP-1, CoNShP-3, and CoNSeP-2 isolates) and Siphoviridae (CoNShP-2, CoNSsP-1, and CoNSeP-1 isolates). CoNShP-1, CoNShP-2, and CoNShP-3 were found to be virulent to Staphylococcus haemolyticus, CoNSsP-1 to Staphylococcus saprophyticus and CoNSeP-1 and CoNSeP-2 to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Interestingly, the CoNShP-3 exhibited a typical polyvalent behavior, where not only lysis CoNS, but also other genera include Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. In addition, CoNShP-3 phage showed high stability at different temperatures and pH levels. Indeed, CoNShP-3 phage showed an antibiofilm effect against Staphylococcus epidermidis CFS79 and Staphylococcus haemolyticus CFS43, respectively, while Staphylococcus saprophyticus CFS28 biofilm was completely removed. Finally, CoNShP-3 phage demonstrated a high preservative efficacy over short and long periods of storage against inoculated CoNS in chicken breast sections. In conclusion, this study highlights the control of CoNS pathogens using a polyvalent lytic phage as a natural antibacterial and antibiofilm agent from a food safety perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spruce Galactoglucomannan-Stabilized Emulsions Enhance Bioaccessibility of Bioactive Compounds
Foods 2020, 9(5), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050672 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The increasing public awareness of health and sustainability has prompted the development of functional foods rich in health-promoting ingredients. Processing technologies and sustainable multifunctional ingredients are needed for structuring these formulations. Spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM), the main hemicelluloses in softwood cell walls, are an [...] Read more.
The increasing public awareness of health and sustainability has prompted the development of functional foods rich in health-promoting ingredients. Processing technologies and sustainable multifunctional ingredients are needed for structuring these formulations. Spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM), the main hemicelluloses in softwood cell walls, are an abundantly available, emerging sustainable food hydrocolloid that have the ability to efficiently emulsify and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. In this study, we illustrate how this lignocellulosic stabilizer affects the digestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vitro. A 100% decrease in the initial TAG content was observed during the in vitro digestion, suggesting that complete hydrolysis of the TAGs was achieved by the digestive enzymes. Besides, no release of mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides or phenolic compounds from GGM was detected. Our results demonstrate that the GGM-stabilized emulsion could potentially deliver lipophilic bioactive ingredients and enhance their bioaccessibility. In addition, this bio-stabilizer itself would remain stable in the upper gastrointestinal track and serve as a prebiotic for gut microbiota. We anticipate GGM to complement or even replace many of the conventional carriers of bioactive components in future health care products and functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacillus subtilis Fermentation of Malva verticillata Leaves Enhances Antioxidant Activity and Osteoblast Differentiation
Foods 2020, 9(5), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050671 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Malva verticillata, also known as Chinese mallow, is an herbaceous plant with colorful flowers and has been used as a medicine for thousands of years. This study investigated this herb for potential antioxidant activity or an association with osteoblast differentiation. M. verticillate [...] Read more.
Malva verticillata, also known as Chinese mallow, is an herbaceous plant with colorful flowers and has been used as a medicine for thousands of years. This study investigated this herb for potential antioxidant activity or an association with osteoblast differentiation. M. verticillate leaves were fermented with B. subtilis MV1 at 30 °C for 7 days to enhance their biological activities. The resultant aqueous extract (MVW) and the fermented leaves (MVB) were measured for antioxidant and osteoblast differentiation. The results showed that the total phenolic, flavonoid, and antioxidant activity, as well as the osteoblast differentiation of the MVB increased (2 to 6 times) compared with those of the MVW. MVB induced phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase in C3H10T1/2 cells, and the phosphorylation was attenuated via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibitors. Moreover, runt-related transcription factor 2 and osterix in the nucleus increased in a time-dependent manner. The messenger RNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and bone sialoprotein increased about 9.4- and 65-fold, respectively, compared to the non-treated cells. MVB stimulated C3H10T1/2 cells in the osteoblasts via TGF-β signaling. Thus, fermented M. verticillata extract exhibited enhanced antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Light Microscopy as a Tool to Evaluate the Functionality of Starch in Food
Foods 2020, 9(5), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050670 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Light microscopy (LM) is commonly used in the study of biological materials to determine the morphology of cells and tissues. The potential of this technique for studying the structure of food products is also recognized but less known. Especially rare are information regarding [...] Read more.
Light microscopy (LM) is commonly used in the study of biological materials to determine the morphology of cells and tissues. The potential of this technique for studying the structure of food products is also recognized but less known. Especially rare are information regarding LM studies of the supramolecular structure of starch. The aim of the work was to fill this gap by providing data on the possibilities for application of LM in starch studies. It was shown that in spite of an enormous progress in the development of microscopic techniques, including both increase of resolution and improvement of image analysis methods, light microscopy still has a huge potential for starch studies. The advantage of LM over other microscopic techniques is the possibility of differentiating between amylose and amylopectin by iodine staining. That makes LM especially useful in the analysis of the process of gelatinization of starch, the extent of molecular dispersion of its macromolecules, and the changes in its structure caused by modification. Moreover, it can be particularly useful for studying the changes in the supramolecular structure of starch in a food product matrix, providing more information than scanning electron microscopy (SEM)–the most common technique used for these purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch: Properties, Processing, and Functionality in Food Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Storage Conditions on Degradation of Chlorophyll and Emulsifying Capacity of Thylakoid Powders Produced by Different Drying Methods
Foods 2020, 9(5), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050669 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Thylakoid membranes isolated from spinach have previously been shown to inhibit lipase/co-lipase and prolong satiety in vivo. There is a need to develop thylakoid products that not only have the desired characteristics and functionality after processing, but also are stable and provide equivalent [...] Read more.
Thylakoid membranes isolated from spinach have previously been shown to inhibit lipase/co-lipase and prolong satiety in vivo. There is a need to develop thylakoid products that not only have the desired characteristics and functionality after processing, but also are stable and provide equivalent effect on appetite over the promised shelf life. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate how the thylakoid powders’ characteristics and functionality were affected by moisture during storage. Thylakoids produced by drum-drying, spray-drying, and freeze-drying were incubated in controlled atmosphere with different relative humidity (10 RH%, 32 RH%, 48 RH% and 61 RH%) for 8 months. The water content in all powders was increased during storage. The water absorption was moisture-dependent, and the powders were considered hygroscopic. Relative humidity showed a definite influence on the rate of chlorophyll degradation and loss of green color in thylakoid powders after storage which correlated with impaired emulsifying capacity. Spray-dried powder had the overall highest chlorophyll content and emulsifying capacity at all RH-levels investigated. Spray drying was therefore considered the most suitable drying method yielding a powder with best-maintained functionality after storage. The results can be applied towards quality control of high-quality functional foods with appetite suppressing abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Ingredients from Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle
GC–MS Analysis, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Achillea Odorata Subsp. Pectinata and Ruta Montana Essential Oils and Their Potential Use as Food Preservatives
Foods 2020, 9(5), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050668 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 526
Abstract
In order to discover new natural resources with biological properties, the chemical composition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the potential use as food preservative of essential oils of Moroccan Achillea odorata subsp. pectinata (AOpEO) and Ruta montana (RMEO) were studied. [...] Read more.
In order to discover new natural resources with biological properties, the chemical composition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the potential use as food preservative of essential oils of Moroccan Achillea odorata subsp. pectinata (AOpEO) and Ruta montana (RMEO) were studied. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 21 and 25 compounds in AOpEO and RMEO, respectively. The results showed that the major compounds of AOpEO are camphor (45.01%), bornyl acetate (15.07%), borneol (11.33%), β-eudesmol (4.74%), camphene (3.58%), and 1.8-cineole (eucalyptol) (2.96%), whereas 2-undecanone (63.97%), camphor (3.82%) and cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (3.66%) were the main components of RMEO. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydraziyl radical (DPPH) and reducing power assays. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils were tested against bacterial strains and food contaminant yeast using agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. A significant antimicrobial activity of AOpEO was observed against Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans, compared to RMEO. The efficacy of AOpEO was also evaluated in model food systems (cabbage and barley) artificially inoculated during storage. The results found that the adding of a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 4× MIC were potent in decreasing the Proteus mirabilis growth in food model systems. Our findings suggested that AOpEO may be potentially used as an alternative food preservative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Incorporation of Tannin Extract from Quebracho Colorado Wood on Color Parameters, Lipid Oxidation, and Sensory Attributes of Beef Patties
Foods 2020, 9(5), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050667 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 538
Abstract
The tannin extract of Quebracho Colorado wood (Schinopsis balansae and Schinopsis lorentzii) is rich in proanthocyanidins with demonstrated powerful scavenging activity against free radicals. Currently, this extract is used in the wine industry to improve sensory attributes, stabilize color, and act [...] Read more.
The tannin extract of Quebracho Colorado wood (Schinopsis balansae and Schinopsis lorentzii) is rich in proanthocyanidins with demonstrated powerful scavenging activity against free radicals. Currently, this extract is used in the wine industry to improve sensory attributes, stabilize color, and act as a redox buffer. In this study, we hypothesized that condensed tannins from Quebracho Colorado wood could be incorporated into beef patties as a natural antioxidant source to improve shelf life. Patties formulated with tannin extract (0, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) were evaluated for instrumental color, lipid oxidation, and sensory attributes. Patties were displayed under refrigerated aerobic conditions (PVC film) for 6 days for color and lipid oxidation analysis. For sensory analysis, patties were frozen immediately after formulation. Control (0%) samples were redder than samples formulated with 1.5% tannin during the first 4 days of display. For b*, samples formulated with 1.5% tannin were predominantly yellower during display. After day 4, chroma values were higher in samples formulated with 1.5% tannin. The inclusion of tannin extract improved lipid stability, however, levels above 0.5% decreased tenderness, softness, juiciness, and overall desirability of patties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Different Dehydration Levels on Volatile Profiles, Phenolic Contents and Skin Hardness of Alkaline Pre-Treated Grapes cv Muscat of Alexandria (Vitis vinifera L.)
Foods 2020, 9(5), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050666 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
A dehydration experiment was carried out on Vitis vinifera L. cv Muscat of Alexandria (synonym Zibibbo) following the process for the production of renowned special dessert wines produced on Pantelleria island (Sicily, Italy). Harvested berries were pre-treated in a sodium hydroxide dipping solution [...] Read more.
A dehydration experiment was carried out on Vitis vinifera L. cv Muscat of Alexandria (synonym Zibibbo) following the process for the production of renowned special dessert wines produced on Pantelleria island (Sicily, Italy). Harvested berries were pre-treated in a sodium hydroxide dipping solution (45 g/L, dipped for 185 s, 25 °C) to accelerate the drying process, rinsed, and dehydrated in simulated conditions (relative humidity 30%, 30 °C temperature, air speed 0.9 m/s). Three dehydration levels were achieved, corresponding to “Passolata”, “Bionda”, and “Malaga” stages (35%, 50%, and 65% of weight loss, respectively) of the Pantelleria denomination of origin (DOC). Grape skin mechanical properties, technological parameters, phenolics, and aroma profile varied considerably during dehydration. The most important aroma compounds for their olfactory impact, such as linalool, geraniol, nerol, and citronellol, especially in glycosylated forms, significantly increased in dried grapes compared to fresh ones, even if aroma profile modification occurred. A decrease in break skin force could have induced higher release of flavonoids. The findings showed relevant changes, allowing winemakers to better select the ratio of fresh and dehydrated grapes in the function of the final desired wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine, Brewing, Analysis and Grape-Derived Products)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Coffee By-Products Including Leaf, Flower, Cherry, Husk, Silver Skin, and Spent Grounds as Novel Foods within the European Union
Foods 2020, 9(5), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050665 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as animal feed. [...] Read more.
The coffee plant Coffea spp. offers much more than the well-known drink made from the roasted coffee bean. During its cultivation and production, a wide variety of by-products are accrued, most of which are currently unused, thermally recycled, or used as animal feed. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of novel coffee products in the food sector and their current legal classification in the European Union (EU). For this purpose, we have reviewed the literature on the composition and safety of coffee flowers, leaves, pulp, husk, parchment, green coffee, silver skin, and spent coffee grounds. Some of these products have a history of consumption in Europe (green coffee), while others have already been used as traditional food in non-EU-member countries (coffee leaves, notification currently pending), or an application for authorization as novel food has already been submitted (husks, flour from spent coffee grounds). For the other products, toxicity and/or safety data appear to be lacking, necessitating further studies to fulfill the requirements of novel food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Foods and Nutritional Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Controlled Hydrothermal Treatments on Mung Bean Starch Structure and Its Relationship with Digestibility
Foods 2020, 9(5), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050664 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 471
Abstract
The changes in structure and digestion properties of mung bean starch due to hydrothermal treatment at various controlled temperatures were investigated. Results showed the increase in onset temperature (To) from 66.33 °C to 76.69 °C and decrease in enthalpies (∆Hg [...] Read more.
The changes in structure and digestion properties of mung bean starch due to hydrothermal treatment at various controlled temperatures were investigated. Results showed the increase in onset temperature (To) from 66.33 °C to 76.69 °C and decrease in enthalpies (∆Hg and ∆Hr) until the starch was completely gelatinized. The degree of molecular order (DMO) and degree of double helix (DDH) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 1.35 to 1.01 and 1.38 to 0.98 respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the consecutive decrease in relative crystallinity (RC) while RVA analysis showed that peak and final viscosities were decreased significantly (p < 0.05). However, digestion kinetics indicated that degree of gelatinization increased the access of enzymes. As starch was partially gelatinized it yielded significantly lower glycemic index but no significant (p > 0.05) change in starch digestibility was observed after 70 °C. Hence, 70 °C can be considered as the critical hydrothermal treatment temperature in mung bean starch. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that controlled hydrothermal treatment had negative effect on the DMO, DDH, RC and the granular damage increased vulnerability of mung bean starch to digestion. These findings gave insight into sequential changes in the structure and digestibility occurring during gelatinization process due to hydrothermal treatment. Controlled gelatinization in mung beans at 70 °C is useful and must be employed to produce the foods with lower starch digestibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Structure, Processing and Digestion)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chia as Breadmaking Ingredient on Nutritional Quality, Mineral Availability, and Glycemic Index of Bread
Foods 2020, 9(5), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050663 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Chia seeds and chia flour could be used as ingredients to enrich foods owing to their high amount of nutrients. The goal of this investigation was to provide further information about how replacing wheat flour with chia ingredients (seeds, whole flour, semi-defatted, and [...] Read more.
Chia seeds and chia flour could be used as ingredients to enrich foods owing to their high amount of nutrients. The goal of this investigation was to provide further information about how replacing wheat flour with chia ingredients (seeds, whole flour, semi-defatted, and low-fat flours) affects the nutritional and functional value of bread. The higher levels of proteins, lipids and minerals determined in raw chia flours directly affected the increase of these nutrients. High levels of phytates were found in chia ingredients (5.1–6.6 μmol/g d.b.), which affect Zn and Fe bioavailability, as predicted by phytate/mineral molar ratios. Bread with chia had a high amount of linoleic acid, especially in bread with chia seeds, owing to protection of seed integrity during baking. Chia ingredients did not show limiting essential amino acids such as lysine, which is deficient in cereals. Glycemic index was lower in bread with chia ingredients compared to control. The beneficial effects on glucose metabolism together with the nutritional and functional characteristics could be clinically important for prevention of metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Fungistatic and Fungicidal Capacity of a Biosurfactant Extract Obtained from Corn Steep Water
Foods 2020, 9(5), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050662 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds that are produced by microorganisms, which in addition to their surfactant capacity, can possess interesting antimicrobial activities that are used in their incorporation into the agrifood industry. In this work, the preservative capacity of a novel biosurfactant extract obtained [...] Read more.
Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds that are produced by microorganisms, which in addition to their surfactant capacity, can possess interesting antimicrobial activities that are used in their incorporation into the agrifood industry. In this work, the preservative capacity of a novel biosurfactant extract obtained from a residual stream of the corn-milling industry was evaluated against two different fungi (Aspergillus brasiliensis and Candida albicans) under different biosurfactant concentrations (0.33–0.99 mg/mL), temperatures (4–40 °C), and incubation times (5–11 days). All the assays started with the same concentration of fungi (2 × 106 CFU/mL). The results showed that temperature played an important role in the bactericidal and fungistatic effects of this biosurfactant extract. It was observed that at a low biosurfactant concentration (0.33 mg/mL) and low or high temperatures in the range tested, this biosurfactant extract possessed an important fungicidal effect (complete inhibition) on A. brasiliensis, while at intermediate temperatures, it achieved a fungistatic effect (50% of inhibition). Regarding C. albicans, it was observed that this strain was more resistant than A. brasiliens, although it was possible to achieve growth inhibitions of 76.3% at temperatures of 40 °C after 8 days of incubation with a biosurfactant concentration of 0.99 mg/mL. This work supports the possible application of biosurfactants extracted from corn steep water as preservatives and antimicrobial agents against fungal contaminations on agrifood products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of HPLC and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Techniques for Detection and Quantification of Aflatoxins in Different Food Samples
Foods 2020, 9(5), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050661 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Background: In Jordan as in other worldwide countries, mycotoxins are considered a serious national problem in food supplies. As a result, almost all nations are setting and adopting different regulations targeting the control of mycotoxins levels in the domestic food supply, including the [...] Read more.
Background: In Jordan as in other worldwide countries, mycotoxins are considered a serious national problem in food supplies. As a result, almost all nations are setting and adopting different regulations targeting the control of mycotoxins levels in the domestic food supply, including the problem of reliable sampling and analysis methods. Objective: It is necessary to improve and give evidence of analytical abilities of laboratories within Jordan and developing countries enabling them to monitor mycotoxins effectively in food to overcome non-tariff obstacles. Methods: We analyzed 40 samples from wheat, corn, dried fig and dried coffee beans for total aflatoxin content using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immunesorbent Assay (ELISA) methods. Results: 40% of samples from wheat, 60% from corn, 30% from dried fig, and 50% from dried coffee beans were found positive when speaking of total aflatoxins, with average values between 1.14 and 4.12 μg/kg. Obtained results allow considering all tested food samples as fit for human consumption if compared with the labeled regulatory limit of allowed aflatoxins in the European Union. In detail, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification for methods used in this study were significantly lower than the maximum limits established by the European Union. Highlights: The procedure used in this study is suitable for detection of mycotoxins at very low concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle
Variations of Saponins, Minerals and Total Phenolic Compounds Due to Processing and Cooking of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds
Foods 2020, 9(5), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050660 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a grain of great nutritional interest that gained international importance during the last decade. Before its consumption, this grain goes through many processes that can alter its nutritional value. Here we report the effect of processing (polishing [...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a grain of great nutritional interest that gained international importance during the last decade. Before its consumption, this grain goes through many processes that can alter its nutritional value. Here we report the effect of processing (polishing and milling) and cooking (boiling and steaming) on the saponin content, mineral profile of 14 elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), protein content, and total phenolic compound. The polishing caused an average drop in the saponin content from 1.7% to 0.46% but induced important losses in mineral content (K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni), and phenolic compounds. However, the greatest nutritional degradation happened after milling due to the elimination of seed teguments and embryos, where over 50% of many minerals, 60% of protein content, and almost the totality of phenolic compounds, were lost. Cooking effect was less important than processing, but some significant losses were attested. Boiling caused a loss of up to 40% for some minerals like K, B, and Mo because of their hydrosolubility, and 88% of the polyphenols, while steaming allowed a better retention of those nutrients. Consuming polished quinoa instead of semolina and using steaming instead of boiling are trade-offs consumer needs to make to get optimal benefits from quinoa virtues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Breast Milk Mineral Content and Maternal Adherence to Healthy Dietary Patterns in Spain: A Transversal Study
Foods 2020, 9(5), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050659 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 507
Abstract
The composition of breast milk is influenced by many factors, some of which dependent on the mother and others on the child. Changes in lactation and other factors depending on the mother’s physiology and anthropometric characteristics, as well as her nutritional status and [...] Read more.
The composition of breast milk is influenced by many factors, some of which dependent on the mother and others on the child. Changes in lactation and other factors depending on the mother’s physiology and anthropometric characteristics, as well as her nutritional status and diet, are of key importance. Breast milk minerals have been extensively studied with highly uneven results. In this work, a comparison will made with data across the world. To understand the factors that might explain the disparity, several minerals (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Se and I) have been analyzed using ICP-MS in a set of human milk samples (n = 75). The samples had an identical geographical origin (Galicia, in northwestern Spain) but different lactation circumstances, including maternal anthropometric data, lactating time, newborn sex and maternal adherence to healthy dietary patterns (Mediterranean Diet, MD, or Atlantic Diet, AD). The required concentrations of essential elements reported in the literature are similar to those found in these Spanish women. A univariate approach revealed that factors such as lactating time, body mass index (BMI) and newborn sex have a significant influence in breastmilk mineral content. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, minerals in milk are particularly associated with lactating time, but also with newborn sex, maternal BMI, age and diet pattern in some cases. More precisely, these results suggest that the iron and selenium concentrations in the milk of Galician donors may be positively influenced by maternal adherence to AD and MD, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduction of Sulfur Compounds through Genetic Improvement of Native Saccharomyces cerevisiae Useful for Organic and Sulfite-Free Wine
Foods 2020, 9(5), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050658 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Sulfites and sulfides are produced by yeasts in different amounts depending on different factors, including growth medium and specific strain variability. In natural must, some strains can produce an excess of sulfur compounds that confer unpleasant smells, inhibit malolactic fermentation and lead to [...] Read more.
Sulfites and sulfides are produced by yeasts in different amounts depending on different factors, including growth medium and specific strain variability. In natural must, some strains can produce an excess of sulfur compounds that confer unpleasant smells, inhibit malolactic fermentation and lead to health concerns for consumers. In organic wines and in sulfite-free wines the necessity to limit or avoid the presence of sulfide and sulfite requires the use of selected yeast strains that are low producers of sulfur compounds, with good fermentative and aromatic aptitudes. In the present study, exploiting the sexual mass-mating spores’ recombination of a native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain previously isolated from grape, three new S. cerevisiae strains were selected. They were characterized by low sulfide and sulfite production and favorable aromatic imprinting. This approach, that occurs spontaneously also in nature, allowed us to obtain new native S. cerevisiae strains with desired characteristics that could be proposed as new starters for organic and sulfite-free wine production, able to control sulfur compound production and to valorize specific wine types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
An HS-GC-IMS Method for the Quality Classification of Virgin Olive Oils as Screening Support for the Panel Test
Foods 2020, 9(5), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050657 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
Sensory evaluation, carried out by panel tests, is essential for quality classification of virgin olive oils (VOOs), but is time consuming and costly when many samples need to be assessed; sensory evaluation could be assisted by the application of screening methods. Rapid instrumental [...] Read more.
Sensory evaluation, carried out by panel tests, is essential for quality classification of virgin olive oils (VOOs), but is time consuming and costly when many samples need to be assessed; sensory evaluation could be assisted by the application of screening methods. Rapid instrumental methods based on the analysis of volatile molecules might be considered interesting to assist the panel test through fast pre-classification of samples with a known level of probability, thus increasing the efficiency of quality control. With this objective, a headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometer (HS-GC-IMS) was used to analyze 198 commercial VOOs (extra virgin, virgin and lampante) by a semi-targeted approach. Different partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) chemometric models were then built by data matrices composed of 15 volatile compounds, which were previously selected as markers: a first approach was proposed to classify samples according to their quality grade and a second based on the presence of sensory defects. The performance (intra-day and inter-day repeatability, linearity) of the method was evaluated. The average percentages of correctly classified samples obtained from the two models were satisfactory, namely 77% (prediction of the quality grades) and 64% (prediction of the presence of three defects) in external validation, thus demonstrating that this easy-to-use screening instrumental approach is promising to support the work carried out by panel tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
The Inhibition of Amylase and ACE Enzyme and the Reduction of Immunoreactivity of Sourdough Bread
Foods 2020, 9(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050656 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
This study examines the potential health benefits of different types of wheat sourdough bread against diseases of civilization. Celiac disease, diabetes and hypertension affect large numbers of the world’s population, increasing demand for novel treatments and ways of improving patient welfare. Different types [...] Read more.
This study examines the potential health benefits of different types of wheat sourdough bread against diseases of civilization. Celiac disease, diabetes and hypertension affect large numbers of the world’s population, increasing demand for novel treatments and ways of improving patient welfare. Different types of artisan breads were subjected to in vitro simulated digestion prior to analysis. The G12 test and ELISA with human sera were used for immunoreactivity analysis. The activity of α-amylase inhibitors and angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE) was also assessed. The addition of sourdough to the analyzed wheat bread raised the content of α-amylase inhibitors and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors while reducing their immunoreactivity. However, despite decreases in the antigenicity of the wheat flour proteins, the sera showed various reactions, depending on the individual patient’s susceptibility to gluten. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Black Bean Anthocyanin-Rich Extract from Supercritical and Pressurized Extraction Increased In Vitro Antidiabetic Potential, While Having Similar Storage Stability
Foods 2020, 9(5), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050655 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Black bean is a source of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds that are associated with health benefits. This work aimed to optimize the extraction and determine the stability and biological potential of black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts recovered by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and [...] Read more.
Black bean is a source of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds that are associated with health benefits. This work aimed to optimize the extraction and determine the stability and biological potential of black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts recovered by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The highest concentration of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds were recovered with SFE using 300 bar, 60 °C and co-solvent ethanol/distilled water (50/50, v/v). Eleven non-colored phenolic compounds were identified in SFE extract using Ultra performance liquid chromatography - Electrospray ionization–Quadrupole -Time of flight - Mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QToF-MS/MS). Myricetin, syringic acid, rutin hydrate and chlorogenic acid presented the highest relative area among identified compounds. Compared to leaching extraction, SFE extracts showed a similar storage stability at 4, 25 and 32 °C (p < 0.05), but with a higher antioxidant potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) IC50: 0.078 ± 0.01; 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) IC50: 0.161 ± 0.03) and antidiabetic potential (α-amylase IC50: 124.76 ± 12.97; α-glucosidase IC50: 31.30 ± 0.84; dipeptidyl peptidase-IV IC50: 0.195 ± 0.01). SFE extraction is an efficient method to obtain anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds with exceptional biological potential. Full article
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