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Open AccessArticle

Physical Properties and Consumer Evaluation of Cocoa Bean Shell-Functionalized Biscuits Adapted for Diabetic Consumers by the Replacement of Sucrose with Tagatose

1
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Sciences (DISAFA), University of Turin, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
2
RD3 Department-Unit of Pharmacognosy, Bioanalysis and Drug Discovery, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4
Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(6), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060814
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 21 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Quality of Cocoa and Its Products)
The cocoa bean shell (CBS), a by-product of the cocoa industry, has been reported to be rich in fiber and polyphenols, which could contribute to reducing the metabolism of sugars and glucose adsorption. The production of CBS-based biscuits in which sucrose is replaced with tagatose (a low-glycemic sugar with prebiotic properties), benefiting diabetic consumers, is proposed. Six prototype biscuits were produced using sucrose, tagatose, and CBS powder at 0%, 10%, and 20% as a wheat flour replacement. Biscuits were studied in terms of fiber content, and those with 10% and 20% CBS showed to contain 5.66% and 8.70–8.71% of total dietary fiber, respectively. Moreover, the physicochemical and structural properties of the biscuits were studied to evaluate their differences due to the use of sucrose and tagatose combined with CBS. Significant effects mainly caused by the reducing nature and lower solubility of tagatose with respect to sugar, and the water retention capacities of CBS were observed. Finally, the biscuits were evaluated by performing a consumer acceptance evaluation, and their perceptible sensorial differences were studied by performing a Napping® sensory characterization. CBS-based biscuits represent an interesting possibility for cocoa by-product revalorization, although an optimized recipe is recommended, especially when employing tagatose. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa bean shell; cocoa by-product; functionalized biscuits; tagatose; fiber content cocoa bean shell; cocoa by-product; functionalized biscuits; tagatose; fiber content
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Rojo-Poveda, O.; Barbosa-Pereira, L.; Orden, D.; Stévigny, C.; Zeppa, G.; Bertolino, M. Physical Properties and Consumer Evaluation of Cocoa Bean Shell-Functionalized Biscuits Adapted for Diabetic Consumers by the Replacement of Sucrose with Tagatose. Foods 2020, 9, 814.

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