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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 138 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The aromatic composition and bioactive compounds from used cork stoppers and cork byproducts may be [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
How Far is the Spanish Snack Sector from Meeting the Acrylamide Regulation 2017/2158?
Foods 2020, 9(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020247 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
In 2017, the European Commission published Regulation 2017/2158 establishing mitigation measures and benchmark levels to reduce acrylamide in foods. Acrylamide was determined in seventy potato crisp samples commercialized in Spain. The aim was to update knowledge about the global situation in the snack [...] Read more.
In 2017, the European Commission published Regulation 2017/2158 establishing mitigation measures and benchmark levels to reduce acrylamide in foods. Acrylamide was determined in seventy potato crisp samples commercialized in Spain. The aim was to update knowledge about the global situation in the snack sector and evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies applied, especially since the publication of the Regulation. Results were compared with data previously published in 2004, 2008, and 2014, assessing the evolution over recent years. Average acrylamide content in 2019 (664 µg/kg, range 89–1930 μg/kg) was 55.3% lower compared to 2004, 10.3% lower compared to 2008 and practically similar to results from 2014. Results support the effectiveness of mitigation measures implemented by Spanish potato crisp manufacturers. However, 27% of samples exhibited concentrations above the benchmark level established in the Regulation (750 μg/kg), which suggests that efforts to reduce acrylamide formation in this sector must be continued. Besides the variability seen between samples, acrylamide significantly correlated with the color parameter a*, which enables discrimination of whether potato crisps contain above or below benchmark content. The calculated margin of exposure for carcinogenicity was below the safety limit, which should be considered from a public health point of view. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Evidences of Antibacterial Effects of Cranberry Against Periodontal Pathogens
Foods 2020, 9(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020246 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
The worrying rise in antibiotic resistances emphasizes the need to seek new approaches for treating and preventing periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of cranberry in a validated in vitro biofilm model. After chemical [...] Read more.
The worrying rise in antibiotic resistances emphasizes the need to seek new approaches for treating and preventing periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of cranberry in a validated in vitro biofilm model. After chemical characterization of a selected phenolic-rich cranberry extract, its values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were calculated for the six bacteria forming the biofilm (Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans). Antibacterial activity of the cranberry extract in the formed biofilm was evaluated by assessing the reduction in bacteria viability, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with propidium monoazide (PMA), and by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and anti-biofilm activity by studying the inhibition of the incorporation of different bacteria species in biofilms formed in the presence of the cranberry extract, using qPCR and CLSM. In planktonic state, bacteria viability was significantly reduced by cranberry (p < 0.05). When growing in biofilms, a significant effect was observed against initial and early colonizers (S. oralis (p ≤ 0.017), A. naeslundii (p = 0.006) and V. parvula (p = 0.010)) after 30 or 60 s of exposure, while no significant effects were detected against periodontal pathogens (F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis or A. actinomycetemcomitans (p > 0.05)). Conversely, cranberry significantly (p < 0.001 in all cases) interfered with the incorporation of five of the six bacteria species during the development of 6 h-biofilms, including P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and F. nucleatum. It was concluded that cranberry had a moderate antibacterial effect against periodontal pathogens in biofilms, but relevant anti-biofilm properties, by affecting bacteria adhesion in the first 6 h of development of biofilms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Rice Protein Hydrolysates as an Egg Replacement on the Physicochemical Properties of Flaky Egg Rolls
Foods 2020, 9(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020245 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
Eggs are linked to some health-related problems, for example, allergy, and religious restrictions, thus the food manufacturer is challenged to find egg replacements and include the physicochemical properties of egg in food. In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein was used to [...] Read more.
Eggs are linked to some health-related problems, for example, allergy, and religious restrictions, thus the food manufacturer is challenged to find egg replacements and include the physicochemical properties of egg in food. In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein was used to produce rice protein hydrolysates (RPHs) for use as an egg replacement in flaky egg rolls. Formulations were control (A), rice protein isolate (B), RPH15 (C), RPH30 (D), and RPH60 (E), respectively. The protein content of formula E increased from 19.69 to 22.18 g/100 g, while carbohydrate and sugar content decreased to 64.12 and 12.26 g/100 g, respectively. Overall amino acid contents significantly increased as compared with formula A. The overall acceptability for sensory evaluation was higher with formula C. The color of the sample was highly affected by the protein-rich ingredients accounting to a Maillard reaction progression and causing a decrease in brightness (L*) and increase in redness (a*). RPHs successfully maintained the functional and physiochemical properties, along with flavor and texture, of flaky egg rolls and could be an egg replacement. These high-value RPHs produced by enzymatic hydrolysis could be beneficial for various applications, particularly food and related industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Phycobiliproteins from Atacama Cyanobacteria as Food Colorants in a Dairy Beverage Prototype
Foods 2020, 9(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020244 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
The interest of the food industry in replacing artificial dyes with natural pigments has grown recently. Cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins (PBPs), phycoerythrin (PE) and phycocyanin (PC), are colored water-soluble proteins that are used as natural pigments. Additionally, red PE and blue PC have antioxidant capabilities. [...] Read more.
The interest of the food industry in replacing artificial dyes with natural pigments has grown recently. Cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins (PBPs), phycoerythrin (PE) and phycocyanin (PC), are colored water-soluble proteins that are used as natural pigments. Additionally, red PE and blue PC have antioxidant capabilities. We have formulated a new food prototype based on PBP-fortified skim milk. PBPs from Andean cyanobacteria were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and freeze-drying. The stability of PE and PC was evaluated by changes in their absorption spectra at various pH (1–14) and temperature (0–80 °C) values. Purified PBPs showed chemical stability under pH values of 5 to 8 and at temperatures between 0 and 50 °C. The antioxidant property of PBP was confirmed by ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical ion scavenging, and FRAP (Ferric Antioxidant Power) assays. The absence of PBP toxicity against Caenorhabditis elegans was confirmed up to 1 mg PBP/mL. Skim milk fortified with PE obtained a higher score after sensory tests. Thus, a functional food based on skim milk-containing cyanobacterial PBPs can be considered an innovative beverage for the food industry. PBPs were stable at an ultra-high temperature (138 °C and 4 s). PBP stability improvements by changes at its primary structure and the incorporation of freeze-dried PBPs into sachets should be considered as alternatives for their future commercialization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enzymatic, Phyto-, and Physicochemical Evaluation of Apple Juice under High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide and Thermal Processing
Foods 2020, 9(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020243 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
In this study, the changes in enzyme activities, total polyphenols, phenolic profile, and physicochemical properties from thermally (25–75 °C) and high-pressure carbon dioxide (HP-CO2) (25–65 °C/20 MPa)-treated apple juice were investigated. The HP-CO2 exhibited complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) [...] Read more.
In this study, the changes in enzyme activities, total polyphenols, phenolic profile, and physicochemical properties from thermally (25–75 °C) and high-pressure carbon dioxide (HP-CO2) (25–65 °C/20 MPa)-treated apple juice were investigated. The HP-CO2 exhibited complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) at 65 °C, whereas PPO was still active at 75 °C under thermal processing (TP). Similarly, the relative activity of peroxidase (POD) significantly decreased by 71% at 65 °C under HP-CO2 processing, whereas TP was less effective. HP-CO2 and TP treatments at 65 °C reduced the browning degree (BD) value to 0.47 and 0.89, respectively. Thus, HP-CO2 inhibits the browning reactions caused by PPO and POD enzymes at each operating temperature. The concentration of epicatechin and catechin increased significantly with increasing temperature above 45 °C in TP-treated juices. HP-CO2 treatment increased the same phenolic compounds at 35 °C and 9 MPa, whereas high-temperature and -pressure conditions caused insignificant changes in concentration of epicatechin and catechin. Changes in others phenolic compounds were insignificant under TP and HP-CO2 treatment. Overall, HP-CO2 is a promising technology to get high-quality juices with lower enzyme activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of High-Pressure Technologies in Food Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant, Biochemical, and In-Life Effects of Punica granatum L. Natural Juice vs. Clarified Juice by Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membrane
Foods 2020, 9(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020242 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
A clarification method was proposed to ameliorate the technological quality of fruit juices by preserving bioactive compounds. This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities and the in vivo effects of Punica granatum L. natural (NJ) and clarified (CJ) juice by [...] Read more.
A clarification method was proposed to ameliorate the technological quality of fruit juices by preserving bioactive compounds. This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities and the in vivo effects of Punica granatum L. natural (NJ) and clarified (CJ) juice by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. CJ was more active as an antioxidant and as a α-glucosidase inhibitor than NJ. Mice were orally gavaged with water (Control), NJ, and CJ for 28 days. NJ group showed significant decrease of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, and creatine-phosphokinase. CJ administration was associated with urea, creatine-phosphokinase, and triglycerides values significantly lower with respect to the control. Oxidative status was ameliorated with CJ administration, showing a reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) reduction of 32% and a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) boosting of 23% compared to the control, whereas NJ did not show a similar effect. Results confirmed the beneficial properties of pomegranate juice, showing that membrane clarification may enhance such effects in terms of antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technology in Food Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Volatile Profile of Lemon Peel Oils as Affected by Rootstock
Foods 2020, 9(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020241 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
Citrus limon (L.) Burm is an important crop that grows between latitudes 30° North and 30° South, the main producers being China, the USA, Mexico, India, Brazil, and Spain. In Spain, lemon grows mainly in Mediterranean areas such as Murcia, Valencia, and Andalucía. [...] Read more.
Citrus limon (L.) Burm is an important crop that grows between latitudes 30° North and 30° South, the main producers being China, the USA, Mexico, India, Brazil, and Spain. In Spain, lemon grows mainly in Mediterranean areas such as Murcia, Valencia, and Andalucía. The most cultivated varieties are “Fino” and “Verna”. In this study, five varieties of lemon, “Verna”, “Bétera”, “Eureka”, “Fino 49”, and “Fino 95” were evaluated on different rootstocks: three new Forner-Alcaide (“FA13”, “FA5”, “FA517”), Citrus macrophylla, Wester, and Citrus aurantium L. Hydrodistillation was used to obtain essential oil from fresh peels and then the volatile profile was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 26 volatile compounds were identified, limonene being the main one followed by β-pinene, γ-terpinene, sabinene, and α-pinene. The results revealed that Forner-Alcaide rootstocks (“FA5” > “FA517” > “FA13”) proved to be the best rootstocks for the aroma quality as they led to high volatile contents, followed by C. aurantium and C. macrophylla. Among the other varieties, the most aromatic one was “Eureka”. The whole trend was as follows (in decreasing order): “Eureka” > “Bétera” > “Fino 95” > “Verna” > “Fino 49”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Nanocoatings Enriched with Essential Oils on ‘Rocha’ Pear Long Storage
Foods 2020, 9(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020240 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
The effect of coating ‘Rocha’ pears with alginate-based nanoemulsions enriched with lemongrass essential oil (LG) or citral (Cit) was investigated. Fruit were treated with the nanoemulsions: sodium alginate 2% (w/w) + citral 1% (w/w) (Cit1%); [...] Read more.
The effect of coating ‘Rocha’ pears with alginate-based nanoemulsions enriched with lemongrass essential oil (LG) or citral (Cit) was investigated. Fruit were treated with the nanoemulsions: sodium alginate 2% (w/w) + citral 1% (w/w) (Cit1%); sodium alginate 2% (w/w) + citral 2% (w/w) (Cit2%); sodium alginate 2% (w/w) + lemongrass 1.25% (w/w) (LG1.25%); sodium alginate 2% (w/w) + lemongrass 2.5% (w/w) (LG2.5%). Then, fruit were stored at 0 °C and at 95% relative humidity, for six months. Fruit samples were taken after two, four and six months, and then placed at 22 °C. Upon removal and after 7 d shelf-life, fruit were evaluated for colour CIE (L*, h◦), firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), weight loss, electrolytic leakage, microbial growth, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning. All nanoemulsions had droplets in the nano range <500 nm, showed uniformity of particle size and stable dispersion. Cit-nanoemulsions had lower droplet size and higher stability than LG. No nanoemulsion showed cytotoxicity. Coatings reduced fruit colour evolution and preserved better firmness than control. After shelf-life, better firmness was found in LG-coated fruit. Coatings did not affect SSC and TA. Microbial growth was below the safety limits in all treatments. Fruit treated with LG-nanoemulsions did not show scald symptoms and panelists preferred LG1.25% coated fruit. Cit2% treated fruit showed the highest scald and internal browning symptoms, while LG1.25% did not show any disorders. This study suggests that LG-nanocoatings have the potential for preserving the quality of ‘Rocha’ pear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of IHF-QD Microscopic Analysis for the Detection of Food Allergenic Components: Peanuts and Wheat Protein
Foods 2020, 9(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020239 - 23 Feb 2020
Viewed by 694
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analytically evaluate quantum dots in immunohistofluorescence (IHF-QD) microscopic imaging as detectors of food allergens—peanut and wheat. The experiment was designed as two in silico experiments or simulations: (a) models of pastry samples were prepared with the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to analytically evaluate quantum dots in immunohistofluorescence (IHF-QD) microscopic imaging as detectors of food allergens—peanut and wheat. The experiment was designed as two in silico experiments or simulations: (a) models of pastry samples were prepared with the addition of allergenic components (peanut and wheat protein components) and without the addition of allergenic components, and (b) positive and negative commercial samples underwent food allergen detection. The samples from both simulations were tested by the ELISA and IHF-QD microscopic methods. The primary antibodies (secondary antibodies to a rabbit Fc fragment with labeled CdSe/ZnS QD) were labelled at 525, 585, and 655 nm emissions. The use of quantum dots (QDs) has expanded to many science areas and they are also finding use in food allergen detection, as shown in the study. The study indicated that differences between the ELISA and IHF-QD microscopic methods were not observable among experimentally produced pastry samples with and without allergenic components, although differences were observed among commercial samples. The important value of the study is certainly the differences found in the application of different QD conjugates (525, 585, and 655). The highest contrast was found in the application of 585 QD conjugates that can serve for the possible quantification of present food allergens—peanuts and wheat. The study clearly emphasized that QD can be used for the qualitative detection of food allergens and can represent a reliable analytical method for food allergen detection in different food matrixes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Approach Food Allergy)
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Open AccessArticle
Screening of Polyphenols and Antioxidative Activity in Industrial Beers
Foods 2020, 9(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020238 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Antioxidative molecules, such as polyphenols can preserve and prolong the freshness of packaged beers. The aim of this work was to assess the content of polyphenolic compounds (by Folin-Ciocalteu and standard European Brewery Convention method) in different types of industrially produced beers (lager, [...] Read more.
Antioxidative molecules, such as polyphenols can preserve and prolong the freshness of packaged beers. The aim of this work was to assess the content of polyphenolic compounds (by Folin-Ciocalteu and standard European Brewery Convention method) in different types of industrially produced beers (lager, pilsner, black and dark), packaged in brown glass bottles. The results of this research indicate that there are significant changes in polyphenol concentrations in correlation with beer type. Polyphenolic content was highest in dark and black beers. Antioxidative activity was also more pronounced in dark and black beers. Most prominent phenolic acid in all samples was gallic acid. Two samples of dark and three samples of black beers had >10 mg/100 mL of this polyphenol, with maximal value of 14.22 mg/100 mL in sample CK (black beer). This would indicate that black beers are richer in polyphenolic content than the light (lager and pilsner) beers and the moderate consumption of such beer could contribute to the health of consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Characterization of Polyphenols from Food Matrix)
Open AccessReview
Evaluation of the Suitability of Mammalian In Vitro Assays to Assess the Genotoxic Potential of Food Contact Materials
Foods 2020, 9(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020237 - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Background: Non-targeted screening of food contact materials (FCM) for non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) reveals a great number of unknown and unidentified substances present at low concentrations. In the absence of toxicological data, the application of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) or of [...] Read more.
Background: Non-targeted screening of food contact materials (FCM) for non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) reveals a great number of unknown and unidentified substances present at low concentrations. In the absence of toxicological data, the application of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) or of EU Regulation 10/2011 requires methods able to fulfill safety threshold criteria. In this review, mammalian in vitro genotoxicity assays are analyzed for their ability to detect DNA-damaging substances at limits of biological detection (LOBD) corresponding to the appropriate safety thresholds. Results: The ability of the assays to detect genotoxic effects varies greatly between substance classes. Especially for direct-acting mutagens, the assays lacked the ability to detect most DNA reactive substances below the threshold of 10 ppb, making them unsuitable to pick up potential genotoxicants present in FCM migrates. However, suitability for the detection of chromosomal damage or investigation of other modes of action makes them a complementary tool as part of a standard test battery aimed at giving additional information to ensure safety. Conclusion: improvements are necessary to comply with regulatory thresholds to consider mammalian genotoxicity in vitro assays to assess FCM safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Composition and Manufacturing Approach on the Physical and Rehydration Properties of Milk Protein Concentrate Powders
Foods 2020, 9(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020236 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
This study investigated the physical and rehydration properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders with five different protein contents (i.e., 38.9, 53.7, 63.6, 74.1, and 84.7%, w/w) prepared by recombining the ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate of skim milk. [...] Read more.
This study investigated the physical and rehydration properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders with five different protein contents (i.e., 38.9, 53.7, 63.6, 74.1, and 84.7%, w/w) prepared by recombining the ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate of skim milk. Powder density and flowability increased, while the powder particle size decreased with decreasing powder protein content. The amount of non-wetting MPC powder decreased with decreasing protein content, demonstrating greater wettability for lower protein powders. At protein contents >65% (w/w), the dispersibility and solubility of the powders decreased significantly, likely due to the greater hydrophobic interactions between casein proteins and a lower concentration of lactose. Therefore, as the protein content of the MPC powders was decreased, their rehydration properties improved. The results obtained in this study provide novel insights into the relationship between the composition of recombined UF retentate and UF permeate streams on the subsequent powder particle size, density, and rehydration properties, and demonstrate that such powders possess similar properties to those prepared using conventional direct membrane filtration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Semi-Processed Frozen Prickly Pear Juice as Affected by Cultivar and Harvest Time
Foods 2020, 9(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020235 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Consumer interest toward natural ingredients is creating a growing trend in the food industry and research for the development of natural products such as colorants, antimicrobials and antioxidants. Semi-processed frozen prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) juices (PPJs), obtained from three cultivars [...] Read more.
Consumer interest toward natural ingredients is creating a growing trend in the food industry and research for the development of natural products such as colorants, antimicrobials and antioxidants. Semi-processed frozen prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) juices (PPJs), obtained from three cultivars with white, red and yellow pulp, with different harvest times (“Agostani” and “Bastardoni”), were characterized for betalains, total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, antioxidant capacity (by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH)) and antimicrobial potential against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Through chemical assays, PPJs showed high contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids and betalains and marked antioxidant capacity. PPJs from the first harvest (“Agostani”) revealed the significantly highest amount of polyphenols in white cultivar and of betacyanin and betaxanthin in yellow and red cultivars; antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in “Agostani” PPJs than in “Bastardoni” ones. Regarding antimicrobial potential, all PPJs revealed good antibacterial activity, particularly against Salmonella enterica as evidenced by the widest inhibition haloes. These results encourage the suitability of the first flowering prickly pear fruits, with low market value as fresh fruit but with high nutritional features, to be processed as semi-finished product. In particular, its use as ingredient in foods with high risk of Salmonella contamination may act as a natural preservative. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combination of Low Fluctuation of Temperature with TiO2 Photocatalytic/Ozone for the Quality Maintenance of Postharvest Peach
Foods 2020, 9(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020234 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
Chilling injury, tissue browning, and fungal infection are the major problems of peach fruit during post-harvest storage. In this study, a precise temperature control cold storage with low-temperature fluctuation (LFT) and internal circulation flow system is designed. An ozone (O3) generator [...] Read more.
Chilling injury, tissue browning, and fungal infection are the major problems of peach fruit during post-harvest storage. In this study, a precise temperature control cold storage with low-temperature fluctuation (LFT) and internal circulation flow system is designed. An ozone (O3) generator and a (titanium dioxide) TiO2 photocatalytic reactor were applied to cold storage to investigate the variation of LFT combined with ozone fumigation and a TiO2 photocatalytic reactor in the efficiency of delaying ripening and maintaining peach fruit quality. Results showed that the temperature fluctuation with the improved control system was only ±0.1 to ±0.2 °C compared with that of ±0.5 to ±1.0 °C in conventional cold storage. LFT significantly reduced the chilling injury of peach fruit during storage. Although LFT combined with fumigation of 200 mg m−3 ozone periodical treatment slightly damaged the peach fruit after 40 d of storage, its combination with the TiO2 photocatalytic system significantly improved the postharvest storage quality of the fruit. This treatment maintained higher titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), better firmness, color, microstructure, and lower decay rate, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities, total phenol accumulation, respiratory intensity, ethylene production, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content during 60 d of storage. All the results show that LFT combined with the TiO2 photocatalytic system might be a promising technology for quality preservation in peach fruit storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Preservation Technology for the Fresh Fruit and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification and Distribution of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in South Pacific Fish and Shellfish Species
Foods 2020, 9(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020233 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
Fatty acid composition and distribution in edible species of fish and shellfish captured in the South Pacific were studied, with a focus on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Fatty acids were quantified using gas-chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and [...] Read more.
Fatty acid composition and distribution in edible species of fish and shellfish captured in the South Pacific were studied, with a focus on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Fatty acids were quantified using gas-chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and the distribution of different fatty acids within lipid classes (neutral and polar lipids) was achieved after oil extraction using the Folch method and separation of lipid classes via solid-phase extraction for further GC-FID analysis. Red cusk-eel was the fish species with the lowest content of both EPA and DHA (40.8 and 74.4 mg/100 g, respectively) whereas mackerel contained the highest amount (414.7 and 956.0 mg/100 g for EPA and DHA, respectively). Sea squirt was the shellfish species with the highest content of EPA and DHA (375.0 and 165.7 mg/100 g, respectively) whereas the lowest amount of EPA + DHA was found in Chilean abalone (63.6 mg/100 g). PUFA were mostly found in neutral or polar lipids depending on the studied species. Indexes used to discuss the nutritional quality of lipids (PUFA/SFA, n-6/n-3 ratio and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid index) were calculated and reported in the manuscript. This information provides a novel nutritional insight which may be useful to help nutritionists and other health professionals give more accurate counseling for the population to reach the recommended daily intakes of EPA and DHA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Analysis of a Processed Food Intended for Vitamin A Supplementation
Foods 2020, 9(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020232 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Provitamin A and pre-formed vitamin A compounds are essential micronutrients for humans. However, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects the health status of nearly 50% of populations in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and is especially pronounced in preschool children and pregnant women. The [...] Read more.
Provitamin A and pre-formed vitamin A compounds are essential micronutrients for humans. However, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects the health status of nearly 50% of populations in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and is especially pronounced in preschool children and pregnant women. The objective of this research was to determine an acceptable flavor/ingredient combination to produce a palatable food product that incorporates sweet potatoes, peanut paste, and chickpeas. We sought to determine the acceptability of the three product formulations and to determine the influence of demographic data on ratings for the sensory attributes of each sample. To address VAD issues, three formulations of a product incorporating sweet potato puree (to increase β-carotene content), pure peanut butter (to provide fat for β-carotene absorption), and chickpeas (to provide a complete protein source), were developed: (1) an unflavored control, and two formulations with added natural seasonings: (2) curry-flavored, and (3) pumpkin spice-flavored. Sensory analysis of the three products showed that the curry-flavored product received the highest acceptability in terms of overall liking, flavor, texture, and appearance (p < 0.001). Since the demographic effect was not statistically significant (p > 0.05), it is highly likely that the curry-flavored product can be implemented in other countries or areas with high acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Food Processing on Consumer Acceptability)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Glazing with Different Materials on the Quality of Tuna During Frozen Storage
Foods 2020, 9(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020231 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
This study investigated and determined the changes in various qualities of tuna samples that were glazed with rosmarinic acid, a bamboo leaf antioxidant, and sodium lactate and stored at −18 °C for 180 days. The water-holding capacity, cooking loss, color, texture, protein content, [...] Read more.
This study investigated and determined the changes in various qualities of tuna samples that were glazed with rosmarinic acid, a bamboo leaf antioxidant, and sodium lactate and stored at −18 °C for 180 days. The water-holding capacity, cooking loss, color, texture, protein content, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) were monitored, to study the effect of tuna glazed with different materials on the quality every 30 days. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to measure the water distribution of tuna in this paper. The results showed that the quality of unglazed tuna decreased significantly after 180 days of frozen storage. During frozen storage, the hardness and a* values of RG (glazed with the rosmarinic acid group), SG (glazed with the sodium lactate group), and CG (glazed with the composite of rosmarinic acid, sodium lactate, and the antioxidant of bamboo leaf) tuna decreased slowly, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) value of AG (glazed with the antioxidant of bamboo leaf group) tuna increased slowly. After 180 days of frozen storage, CG tuna had the highest protein content and the lowest TVB-N value, which may have been due to the synergistic effect of glazing materials. The tuna with CG also had the best freshness and quality after frozen storage. Considering the results, a composite of rosemary (0.3%), sodium lactate (3.4%), and antioxidants of bamboo leaves (0.12%) is the best material for glazing tuna. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Techno-Functional, Nutritional and Environmental Performance of Protein Isolates from Blue Lupin and White Lupin
Foods 2020, 9(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020230 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Similarly prepared protein isolates from blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and white lupin (L. albus) were assessed in relation to their composition, functional properties, nutritional attributes and environmental impacts. Blue lupin protein isolate (BLPI) and white lupin protein isolate (WLPI) [...] Read more.
Similarly prepared protein isolates from blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and white lupin (L. albus) were assessed in relation to their composition, functional properties, nutritional attributes and environmental impacts. Blue lupin protein isolate (BLPI) and white lupin protein isolate (WLPI) were found to be quite similar in composition, although differences in the electrophoretic protein profiles were apparent. Both lupin protein isolates (LPIs) had good protein solubility (76.9% for BLPI and 69.8% for WLPI at pH 7) and foaming properties. However, a remarkable difference in heat gelation performance was observed between BLPI and WLPI. WLPI had a minimum gelling concentration of 7% protein, whereas BLPI required 23% protein in order to form a gel. WLPI also resulted in stronger gels over a range of concentrations compared to BLPI. Nutritional properties of both LPIs were similar, with no significant differences in in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and both had very low trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) content. The amino acid profiles of both LPIs were also similar, with sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) being the limiting amino acid in each case. Environmental impacts revealed by the life cycle assessment (LCA) were almost identical for BLPI and WLPI, and in most categories the LPIs demonstrated considerably better performance per kg protein when compared to cow’s whole milk powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Oilseeds from a Brazilian Semi-Arid Region: Edible Potential Regarding the Mineral Composition
Foods 2020, 9(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020229 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Oilseeds from five native plant species with edible potential from the Brazilian Caatinga semi-arid region (Diplopterys pubipetala, Barnebya harleyi, Croton adamantinus, Hippocratea volubilis, and Couroupita guianensis) were investigated regarding their mineral contents. The minerals, Na, K, Ca, [...] Read more.
Oilseeds from five native plant species with edible potential from the Brazilian Caatinga semi-arid region (Diplopterys pubipetala, Barnebya harleyi, Croton adamantinus, Hippocratea volubilis, and Couroupita guianensis) were investigated regarding their mineral contents. The minerals, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Cr, Al, were analyzed by high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR–CS AAS) and P by the vanadomolybdophosphoric acid colorimetric method. K, Mg, and P were the main elements found (1.62–3.7 mg/g, 362–586 µg/g, and 224–499 µg/g dry weight (dw), respectively). B. harley seeds contained the highest amounts of K and P, while C. guianensis seeds were the richest in Mg. Fe was the most abundant oligoelement (2.3–25.6 µg/g dw). Cr contents were below the limit of quantification for all samples and Al amounts were low: 0.04–1.80 µg/g dw. A linear discriminant analysis clearly differentiated B. harleyi and C. guianensis samples from the remaining ones. In sum, these oilseeds from the Brazilian Caatinga semi-arid region seem to have the potential to be used as natural sources of minerals, mainly K. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
The Snacking Chameleon: Psychological Proximity Increases Imitation of Food Intake Independently of Brand Choice
Foods 2020, 9(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020228 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
Observing other people snacking can affect one’s own consumption behavior. The present experiment tested whether temporal distance moderates imitation of brand choice and the number of snacks consumed. Based on previous research demonstrating that psychological distance (e.g., temporal or spatial distance) reduces imitation [...] Read more.
Observing other people snacking can affect one’s own consumption behavior. The present experiment tested whether temporal distance moderates imitation of brand choice and the number of snacks consumed. Based on previous research demonstrating that psychological distance (e.g., temporal or spatial distance) reduces imitation of movements, we hypothesized that participants would imitate the amount of food intake to a lesser degree when they temporally distance themselves from a model person. To test this idea, participants (n = 113) were asked to imagine their life either the next day (proximal condition) or in one year (distant condition). Next, participants watched a video clip depicting a model person who chose one of two brands of pretzels and ate either plenty or just a few of the pretzels. Then, participants chose one of the two brands of pretzels, served themselves as many of the pretzels as they liked, and ate them while filling in a tasting questionnaire. As expected, participants primed with proximity imitated snack intake more than participants primed with distance. The brand choice was not affected by self-distancing. Implications for snacking behavior are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Visuals Affect Food Choice?)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Key Off-Flavor Compounds in Thermally Treated Watermelon Juice via Gas Chromatography–Olfactometry–Mass Spectrometry, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Experiments
Foods 2020, 9(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020227 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Thermally treated watermelon juice (TW) presents a strong unpleasant smell, resulting in poor consumer acceptance. It is necessary to identify the key off-flavor compounds in TW. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) coupled with gas chromatography–olfactometry–mass spectrometry (GC–O–MS) were applied to [...] Read more.
Thermally treated watermelon juice (TW) presents a strong unpleasant smell, resulting in poor consumer acceptance. It is necessary to identify the key off-flavor compounds in TW. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) coupled with gas chromatography–olfactometry–mass spectrometry (GC–O–MS) were applied to the extraction and analysis of the volatile compounds in TW. Five aroma-active compounds and seven off-flavor compounds were quantitatively analyzed by the standard curve method. Based on the flavor dilution factor (FD), odor attribute, odor activity value (OAV) of volatile compounds, and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) analysis, seven key off-flavor compounds were preliminarily identified as follows: (E)-2-heptenal, decanal, octanol, diisopropyl disulfide, hexanol, (E)-2-decenal, and (E)-2-octenol. Aroma recombination proved that these off-flavor compounds above had a negative impact on the overall flavor in TW. Omission experiments were taken to confirm them further. Finally, octanol, diisopropyl disulfide, and (E)-2-decenal were identified as the most potent off-flavor compounds in TW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical, Barrier, Mechanical, and Biodegradability Properties of Modified Starch Films with Nut By-Products Extracts
Foods 2020, 9(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020226 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
Starch-based films with phenolic extracts could replace the use of petroleum-based plastics. In this study, octenyl succinate starch (OSS) films with pecan nutshell extract (PSE) or hazelnut skin extract (HSE) were prepared. The water resistance, as well as the optical, physical, mechanical, and [...] Read more.
Starch-based films with phenolic extracts could replace the use of petroleum-based plastics. In this study, octenyl succinate starch (OSS) films with pecan nutshell extract (PSE) or hazelnut skin extract (HSE) were prepared. The water resistance, as well as the optical, physical, mechanical, and biodegradable properties of these films, were investigated. The PSE and HSE improved the water resistance (decreasing the solubility to 17% and increasing the contact angle to 96.80°) and UV-light barrier properties of the films. For PSE and HSE, as their concentrations increased, the film rigidity decreased since these extracts acted as plasticizers. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depicted a homogeneous surface as a result of extracts dispersion through the polymeric matrix and the interactions between the phenolic compounds (PC) of the extracts and the OSS. The phenolic extracts from nut by-products and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch could be used to develop films to replace the conventional plastics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into the Identification of the Specific Spoilage Organisms in Chicken Meat
Foods 2020, 9(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020225 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Poultry meat deterioration is caused by environmental conditions, as well as proliferation of different bacterial groups, and their interactions. It has been proposed that meat spoilage involves two bacterial groups: one group that initiates the deterioration process, known as specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), [...] Read more.
Poultry meat deterioration is caused by environmental conditions, as well as proliferation of different bacterial groups, and their interactions. It has been proposed that meat spoilage involves two bacterial groups: one group that initiates the deterioration process, known as specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), and the other known as spoilage associated organisms (SAOs) which represents all bacteria groups recovered from meat samples before, during, and after the spoilage process. Numerous studies have characterized the diversity of chicken meat SAOs; nonetheless, the identification of the SSOs remains a long-standing question. Based on recent genomic studies, it is suggested that the SSOs should possess an extensive genome size to survive and proliferate in raw meat, a cold, complex, and hostile environment. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed comparative genomic analyses in members of the meat microbiota to identify microorganisms with extensive genome size and ability to cause chicken meat spoilage. Our studies show that members of the Pseudomonadaceae family have evolved numerous biological features such as large genomic size, slow-growing potential, low 16S rRNA copy number, psychrotrophic, and oligotrophic metabolism to initiate the spoilage of poultry meat. Moreover, inoculation experiments corroborated that these biological traits are associated with the potential to cause chicken meat deterioration. Together, these results provide new insights into the identification of SSO. Further studies are in progress to elucidate the impact of the SSO on meat quality and microbiota diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory and Chemical Drivers of Wine Consumers’ Preference for a New Shiraz Wine Product Containing Ganoderma lucidum Extract as a Novel Ingredient
Foods 2020, 9(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020224 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
This study explored wine consumers’ preferences towards a novel Australian Shiraz wine product containing Ganoderma lucidum (GL). Wine consumers (n = 124) were asked to complete a questionnaire and participate in a blind tasting of six GL wine products (differing [...] Read more.
This study explored wine consumers’ preferences towards a novel Australian Shiraz wine product containing Ganoderma lucidum (GL). Wine consumers (n = 124) were asked to complete a questionnaire and participate in a blind tasting of six GL wine products (differing in the amount and timing of GL extract additions). Based on individual liking scores for each GL wine product that was tasted, four hedonic clusters C1 (n = 44, preferred control and low levels of GL additions), C2 (n = 28, preferred control only), C3 (n = 26, generally preferred all GL additions) and C4 (n = 26, preferred 1 g/L additions and 4 g/L post-fermentation) were identified. Sensory attributes of the GL wine products were also profiled with rate-all-that-apply (n = 65) and the 31 sensory attributes that significantly differentiated the wines underwent principal component analysis with the hedonic clusters overlaid to explain consumers’ preferences. There was a clear separation between hedonic clusters. Sensory attributes and volatile flavor compounds that significantly differentiated the wines were subjected to partial least squares regression, which indicated the important positive drivers of liking among the hedonic clusters. Pepper and jammy aroma, 3-methylbutanoic acid (linked to fruity notes) and non-fruit aftertaste positively drove C2′s preference, whereas spice flavor and hexanoic acid (known for leafy and woody descriptors) drove C3′s liking. There were no positive drivers for C1′s liking but bitter taste, cooked vegetable, and toasty aromas drove this cluster’ dislike. C4 preferred brown appearance, tobacco aroma, and jammy and cooked vegetable flavors. These findings provide the wine industry with deeper insights into consumers’ liking towards new GL wine products targeted at the Australasian market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Foods and Nutritional Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Roasting Time and Cryogenic Milling on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Dried Ginseng Powder
Foods 2020, 9(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020223 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 597
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of reduced particle size of ginseng by roasting and cryogenic milling on increasing its water solubility and physiological activity. The samples were roasted for different times (9–21 min) and generated in different sizes (10–50, and >50 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of reduced particle size of ginseng by roasting and cryogenic milling on increasing its water solubility and physiological activity. The samples were roasted for different times (9–21 min) and generated in different sizes (10–50, and >50 μm). All roasted samples revealed significantly smaller particle sizes than did non-roasted samples, based on Sauter mean diameter (D [3,2], p < 0.05). Furthermore, the particle sizes of roasted samples decreased until roasting up to 15 min. In terms of the water solubility index (WSI), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and total polysaccharides according to particle size, 10–20 μm-sized samples showed the highest values when compared with >50 μm-sized samples. Based on roasting time, WSI values of all samples roasted for up to 15 min were higher than those of the control (not roasted) (p < 0.05). Antioxidant activity and TPC also increased with increasing roasting time. Total polysaccharide content was the highest upon roasting for 15 min, except for the 10–20 μm sample. Ginsenoside content of roasted samples >20 μm size was higher than that of the control (not roasted) except after 15 min of roasting. Therefore, roasting and cryogenic milling are effective in producing ginseng root powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Nonstarch Genetic Modifications on Starch Structure and Properties
Foods 2020, 9(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020222 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 555
Abstract
This paper examines if, in maize, starch structure and starch-dependent properties might be altered by pleiotropic effects arising from genetic modifications that are not directly related to starch synthesis. The molecular structure, specifically the starch chain-length distributions (CLDs), of two maize lines transformed [...] Read more.
This paper examines if, in maize, starch structure and starch-dependent properties might be altered by pleiotropic effects arising from genetic modifications that are not directly related to starch synthesis. The molecular structure, specifically the starch chain-length distributions (CLDs), of two maize lines transformed with Bar (bialaphos resistance) and Cry1c genes (an artificial gene, encoding proteinaceous insecticidal δ-endotoxins) were compared to those of their control lines. The two transgenes are responsible for herbicidal resistance and insect tolerance, respectively. The starch CLDs were measured by enzymatic debranching and measuring the molecular weight distributions of the resulting linear chains. It was found that although all the lines had similar amylose contents, the CLDs of both amylopectin and amylose for Cry1c were noticeably different from the others, having more short amylopectin and long amylose chains. These CLDs are known to affect functional properties, and indeed it was found that the Cry1c transgenic lines showed a lower gelatinization temperature and faster digestion rate than the control or Bar lines. However, a slower digestion rate is nutritionally desirable. Thus, pleiotropic effects from genetic modifications can indirectly but significantly affect the starch synthesis pathway and thus change functional properties of significance for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Structure, Processing and Digestion)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Targeted Authentication Approach for Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Foods 2020, 9(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020221 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 790
Abstract
The aim of this study is to develop a non-targeted approach for the authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using vibrational spectroscopy signatures combined with pattern recognition analysis. Olive oil samples (n = 151) were grouped as EVOO, virgin olive oil [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to develop a non-targeted approach for the authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using vibrational spectroscopy signatures combined with pattern recognition analysis. Olive oil samples (n = 151) were grouped as EVOO, virgin olive oil (VOO)/olive oil (OO), and EVOO adulterated with vegetable oils. Spectral data was collected using a compact benchtop Raman (1064 nm) and a portable ATR-IR (5-reflections) units. Oils were characterized by their fatty acid profile, free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), pyropheophytins (PPP), and total polar compounds (TPC) through the official methods. The soft independent model of class analogy analysis using ATR-IR spectra showed excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (89%) for detection of EVOO. Both techniques identified EVOO adulteration with vegetable oils, but Raman showed limited resolution detecting VOO/OO tampering. Partial least squares regression models showed excellent correlation (Rval ≥ 0.92) with reference tests and standard errors of prediction that would allow for quality control applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality, Safety, and Authenticity)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Millet Flour on Antioxidant, Anti-ACE, and Anti-Microbial Activities of Wheat Wafers
Foods 2020, 9(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020220 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 561
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, and anti-microbial activities of wheat wafers enriched with 1%, 2%, or 3% (w/w) of millet flour (M1, M2, or M3, respectively). All samples were characterized by [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, and anti-microbial activities of wheat wafers enriched with 1%, 2%, or 3% (w/w) of millet flour (M1, M2, or M3, respectively). All samples were characterized by a richer composition of protein, polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and reducing sugar in comparison with the control sample. The highest content of the components, i.e., 1.03 mg mL−1, 0.021 mg mL−1, 2.26 mg mL−1, 0.17 µg mL−1, and 0.63 mg mL−1, respectively, was detected in sample M3. The same sample was characterized by 803.91 and 42.79% of water and oil absorption capacity, respectively. The additive did not change the rheological features of the wafers. The 3% addition of millet flour to the wafer formulation induced the highest antioxidant activity against DPPH, Fe2+ chelation, and ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysates (IC50 = 191.04, 0.46, and 157.73 µg mL−1, respectively). The highest activities were determined in the M3 fraction <3.0 kDa (IC50 = 3.46, 0.26, and 16.27 µg mL, respectively). In turn, the M2 fraction was characterized by the highest antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 75 µg mL−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant in Food Safety and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Stevia vs. Sucrose: Influence on the Phytochemical Content of a Citrus–Maqui Beverage—A Shelf Life Study
Foods 2020, 9(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020219 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 926
Abstract
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been related with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and other pathophysiological situations, such as obesity or diabetes mellitus. Given the increasing awareness on this fact, food industries are developing new products to reduce the amount of added [...] Read more.
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been related with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and other pathophysiological situations, such as obesity or diabetes mellitus. Given the increasing awareness on this fact, food industries are developing new products to reduce the amount of added sugar in development of food products development. Accordingly, in the present work, new functional beverages, constituting a dietary source of bioactive phenolics and supplemented with stevia or sucrose, were designed in order to study the influence of the sweetener during processing and shelf-life. This study is of critical for the informed selection of the sweetener based on its effect on the final phytochemical profile of beverages, especially taking into consideration that there are no previous studies on Stevia rebaudiana. Physicochemical features and phytochemical composition, as well as stability of the different beverages concerning these parameters, were evaluated for 90 days during storage under different conditions (refrigeration (4 °C) and room temperature (25 °C) under light or darkness conditions). Physicochemical parameters (pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and color) did not display statistically significant differences between beverages. Storage temperature was the greatest determinant affecting the stability of all the analyzed bioactive compounds (vitamin C, anthocyanins, and flavanones). The main difference between sweeteners was observed in flavanones, which exhibited a higher loss during storage under day light conditions when stevia was added instead of sucrose. In addition, the juices’ colors were rather stable, keeping a reddish coloration and natural appearance throughout the shelf life. Hence, stevia could be considered as an alternative sweetener by the beverage industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of High Hydrostatic Pressure, Ultrasound, and Heat Treatments on the Quality of Strawberry–Apple–Lemon Juice Blend
Foods 2020, 9(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020218 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
Changes in the microbial, physicochemical, and sensory properties of blended strawberry–apple–lemon juice were investigated to comparatively assess the influence of three processing treatments, namely high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (500 MPa/15 min/20 °C), ultrasound (US) (376 W/10 min/35 °C), and heat treatment (HT) (86 [...] Read more.
Changes in the microbial, physicochemical, and sensory properties of blended strawberry–apple–lemon juice were investigated to comparatively assess the influence of three processing treatments, namely high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (500 MPa/15 min/20 °C), ultrasound (US) (376 W/10 min/35 °C), and heat treatment (HT) (86 °C/1 min) over 12 days of storage at 4 °C. The results showed that the total aerobic bacteria (TAB) counts in the HHP-, US-, and HT-treated juice blends were less than 2 log10 CFU/mL, the yeast and mold (Y & M) counts were less than 1.3 log10 CFU/mL, and the coliforms most probable number (MPN/100 mL) was less than 3 after 10 days at 4 °C. Anthocyanins were maintained by HHP, but decreased by 16% and 12% after US and HT, respectively. Total phenols increased by 18% and 7% after HHP and US, respectively, while they were maintained by the HT. Furthermore, better maintenance of total phenols, total anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, antioxidant capacity, color, and sensory values were observed in the HHP-treated juice blend stored for 10 days at 4 °C, compared to both the US- and HT-treated samples. Therefore, HHP was proposed to be a better processing technology for juice blend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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