Special Issue "Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Interests: food microbiology; starter selection; biotechnologies; functional foods; lactic acid bacteria; sourdough
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Erica Pontonio
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
Interests: functional foods; lactic acid bacteria; sourdough fermentation; nutritional profile; starter selection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Consumers’ interest in plant-based milk substitutes is growing according to changes of lifestyle. Widespread lactose intolerance and cow’s milk allergies are the main causes for consumers’ demand for milk alternatives, together with ethical considerations and an increasing awareness of the sustainable production of food. As plant-based foods are gaining popularity, the market is growing accordingly, and businesses are being called on to allocate resources in the development of novel dairy-type products. Legumes, oil seeds, cereals, and pseudo-cereals have been already employed to produce cow’s milk substitutes and probiotics foods. Fermentation, both spontaneous and using selected starters, has been recognized as a natural and economic choice to provide adequate palatability to derived foods and beverages, leading to several nutritional and functional improvements. However, the stability, textural, nutritional, and sensory downsides of the use plant-based substitutes still need to be overcome.

Prof. Dr. Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
Dr. Erica Pontonio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Non-dairy
  • Milk substitutes
  • Fermentation
  • Lactose-free
  • Milk intolerance
  • Milk allergy
  • Plant-based milk
  • Dairy-type foods

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products: Trends and Challenges
Foods 2021, 10(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020222 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
The growing prevalence of allergenicity towards cow’s milk, lactose intolerance, and hypercholesterolemia, as well as the trend of plant-based diets (vegetarian and vegan), is pushing the food industry and the global market towards the design, supply and production of novel plant-based milk alternatives [...] Read more.
The growing prevalence of allergenicity towards cow’s milk, lactose intolerance, and hypercholesterolemia, as well as the trend of plant-based diets (vegetarian and vegan), is pushing the food industry and the global market towards the design, supply and production of novel plant-based milk alternatives [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Design and Characterization of a Novel Fermented Beverage from Lentil Grains
Foods 2020, 9(7), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070893 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
The experimental activities carried out in this study aimed at designing a lentil-based beverage rich in soluble and digestible proteins. In order to extract soluble proteins, lentil grains were soaked in water overnight, blended, treated with proteolytic enzymes and fermented with Lactobacillus strains. [...] Read more.
The experimental activities carried out in this study aimed at designing a lentil-based beverage rich in soluble and digestible proteins. In order to extract soluble proteins, lentil grains were soaked in water overnight, blended, treated with proteolytic enzymes and fermented with Lactobacillus strains. Protein enzymatic hydrolysis, carried out with four commercial food grade enzyme preparations, showed that bromelin, at the enzyme to substrate ratio of 10%, was the best solution to produce this novel beverage. Even though the seven Lactobacillus strains were all able to ferment aqueous extract within 24 h, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. fermentum DSM 20052 and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei DSM 20312 showed the highest growth rate and the lowest pH values. In fermented lentil-based beverages, the antinutritional factor phytic acid decreased up to 30%, similarly, the highest reduction in raffinose oligosaccharides content reached about 12% the initial concentration. It is worthy of note that the viable density of all strains remained higher than 7 log cfu/mL after 28 days of cold storage. The results here reported show for the first time the possibility to obtain a probiotic lentil-based beverage rich in soluble proteins, peptides and amino acids with low content in main antinutritional factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Quality of Plant-Based Drinks Sold in Italy: The Food Labelling of Italian Products (FLIP) Study
Foods 2020, 9(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050682 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Plant-based drinks represent a heterogeneous class of beverages, made from several vegetal sources, with a market rapidly expanding around the world. These beverages are mainly drunk in the replacement of milk. Thus, aims of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the nutritional [...] Read more.
Plant-based drinks represent a heterogeneous class of beverages, made from several vegetal sources, with a market rapidly expanding around the world. These beverages are mainly drunk in the replacement of milk. Thus, aims of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the nutritional declaration of 330 plant-based drinks currently available on the Italian market; (ii) compare their nutrition facts based on type, presence or not of organic certification and nutrition (NC) or health claims (HC), and of specific claims (“no added sugars” and “source of calcium”); (iii) compare their nutrition composition with cow’s milk. A high variability in terms of nutrient profile among products was observed. Limited difference was found between products belonging to both organic and NC categories, while products carrying HC showed lower energy, carbohydrates, sugar, and higher protein contents than the related counterparts. Compared to cow’s milk, plant-based drinks showed differences in terms of nutrient profile, mostly regarding the lower protein content (except for soy drinks). Overall, due to the variability, findings from the present survey show that plant-based drinks sold in Italy cannot be considered tout court as milk substitutes and support the importance of improving knowledge towards food labeling to make conscious food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Thermal and Mineral Sensitivity of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilised using Lentil Proteins
Foods 2020, 9(4), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040453 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
Oil-in-water emulsion systems formulated with plant proteins are of increasing interest to food researchers and industry due to benefits associated with cost-effectiveness, sustainability and animal well-being. The aim of this study was to understand how the stability of complex model emulsions formulated using [...] Read more.
Oil-in-water emulsion systems formulated with plant proteins are of increasing interest to food researchers and industry due to benefits associated with cost-effectiveness, sustainability and animal well-being. The aim of this study was to understand how the stability of complex model emulsions formulated using lentil proteins are influenced by calcium fortification (0 to 10 mM CaCl2) and thermal processing (95 or 140 °C). A valve homogeniser, operating at first and second stage pressures of 15 and 3 MPa, was used to prepare emulsions. On heating at 140 °C, the heat coagulation time (pH 6.8) for the emulsions was successively reduced from 4.80 to 0.40 min with increasing CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 10 mM, respectively. Correspondingly, the sample with the highest CaCl2 addition level developed the highest viscosity during heating (95 °C × 30 s), reaching a final value of 163 mPa·s. This was attributed to calcium-mediated interactions of lentil proteins, as confirmed by the increase in the mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) to 36.5 µm for the sample with 6 mM CaCl2, compared to the unheated and heated control with D[4,3] values of 0.75 and 0.68 µm, respectively. This study demonstrated that the combination of calcium and heat promoted the aggregation of lentil proteins in concentrated emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Amino Acid Composition of Novel Plant Drinks from Oat, Lentil and Pea
Foods 2020, 9(4), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040429 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Plant-based drinks (PBDs) as alternatives to milk is a fast-growing market in much of the western world, with the demand increasing every year. However, most PBDs from a single plant ingredient do not have an amino acid profile that matches human needs. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Plant-based drinks (PBDs) as alternatives to milk is a fast-growing market in much of the western world, with the demand increasing every year. However, most PBDs from a single plant ingredient do not have an amino acid profile that matches human needs. Therefore, this study set out to combine plant ingredients to achieve a more balanced amino acid profile of novel plant drinks, by combining a high content of oat with the pulses pea (Pisum sativum) and lentil (Lens culinaris) in a solution. After removal of the sediment, the resulting plant drinks were composed of what could be kept in suspension. The amino acid and protein composition of the plant drinks were investigated with capillary electrophoresis, to identify the amino acids, and SDS-PAGE to assess the proteins present. The amino acid profile was compared against recommended daily intake (RDI). It was determined that the plant drinks with only oat and lentil did not have a strong amino acid profile, likely due to the higher pH of the lentil concentrate affecting which proteins could be kept in solution. Plant drinks with a combination of both lentil and pea, or only pea, added to the oat drink had an improved concentration of the amino acids that were otherwise in the low end compared to RDI. This includes a high content of phenylalanine, leucine and threonine, as well as a moderate amount of isoleucine, valine and methionine, and a contribution of histidine and lysine. An assessment of stability and sensory parameters was also conducted, concluding there was an advantage of combining oat with a legume, especially pea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Faba Bean Protein Ingredients Produced Using Dry Fractionation and Isoelectric Precipitation: Techno-Functional, Nutritional and Environmental Performance
Foods 2020, 9(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030322 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3217
Abstract
Dry fractionated faba bean protein-rich flour (FPR) produced by milling/air classification, and faba bean protein isolate (FPI) produced by acid extraction/isoelectric precipitation were compared in terms of composition, techno-functional properties, nutritional properties and environmental impacts. FPR had a lower protein content (64.1%, dry [...] Read more.
Dry fractionated faba bean protein-rich flour (FPR) produced by milling/air classification, and faba bean protein isolate (FPI) produced by acid extraction/isoelectric precipitation were compared in terms of composition, techno-functional properties, nutritional properties and environmental impacts. FPR had a lower protein content (64.1%, dry matter (DM)) compared to FPI (90.1%, DM), due to the inherent limitations of air classification. Of the two ingredients, FPR demonstrated superior functionality, including higher protein solubility (85%), compared to FPI (32%) at pH 7. Foaming capacity was higher for FPR, although foam stability was similar for both ingredients. FPR had greater gelling ability compared to FPI. The higher carbohydrate content of FPR may have contributed to this difference. An amino acid (AA) analysis revealed that both ingredients were low in sulfur-containing AAs, with FPR having a slightly higher level than FPI. The potential nutritional benefits of the aqueous process compared to the dry process used in this study were apparent in the higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and lower trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) in FPI compared to FPR. Additionally, vicine/convicine were detected in FPR, but not in FPI. Furthermore, much lower levels of fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) were found in FPI compared to FPR. The life cycle assessment (LCA) revealed a lower environmental impact for FPR, partly due to the extra water and energy required for aqueous processing. However, in a comparison with cow’s milk protein, both FPR and FPI were shown to have considerably lower environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Wild Lactobacillus casei Group Strains: Potentiality to Ferment Plant Derived Juices
Foods 2020, 9(3), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030314 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Plant derived beverages have recently gained consumers’ interest, particularly due to their intrinsic functional properties. They can also act as non-dairy carriers for probiotics and prebiotics, meeting the needs of lactose allergic/intolerant people and vegans. Direct fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices by [...] Read more.
Plant derived beverages have recently gained consumers’ interest, particularly due to their intrinsic functional properties. They can also act as non-dairy carriers for probiotics and prebiotics, meeting the needs of lactose allergic/intolerant people and vegans. Direct fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices by probiotic lactic acid bacteria could be a tool to increase safety, shelf-life, nutrients bioavailability and to improve sensorial features of plant derived juices. This study aims to screen wild Lactobacillus casei-group strains isolated from dairy matrices for probiotic features, such as acid and bile salts resistance, and test them for the potentiality to ferment celery and orange juices. Strains’ ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) in situ is also checked. These evaluations were performed for the first time in fruit and vegetables matrices by means of an impedometric analysis, recently shown to be a suitable and rapid method to measure microorganisms’ growth, acidification performances and EPS production. This study allowed the selection of three potentially probiotic L. casei-group wild strains able to ferment fruit and vegetable juices and also producing EPS. These strains with three-in-one abilities could be used to produce new functional fermented plant derived juices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Composition, Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Commercial Plant-Based Yogurts
Foods 2020, 9(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030252 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the key physicochemical, sensory and quality attributes of plant-based yogurts made from soy, coconut, cashew, almond and hemp, including a dairy benchmark yogurt. The soy, coconut and cashew-based yogurts showed textural parameters comparable to the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the key physicochemical, sensory and quality attributes of plant-based yogurts made from soy, coconut, cashew, almond and hemp, including a dairy benchmark yogurt. The soy, coconut and cashew-based yogurts showed textural parameters comparable to the dairy yogurt, with firmness values of 0.46, 0.44, 0.51 and 0.36 N, respectively. Rheological analysis showed that one of the soy-based yogurts was similar to the dairy yogurt in terms of apparent viscosity, in addition to water-holding capacity (82.8% and 75.7%, respectively). Other plant-based yogurts, e.g., hemp, showed different rheological and textural parameters to the other plant-based products, relating this to the agar and rice starch components of the hemp formulation. The sensory analysis demonstrated that some plant-based yogurts were similarly appreciated to dairy-based products. This was due mainly to the presence of specific hydrocolloids, sweeteners and flavours in the formulations; for example, the acceptability of the soy- and dairy-based yogurts were identical (5.95). The results obtained in this study allowed identification of key quality attributes of plant-based yogurt products and highlighted relationships between such attributes and formulation, which can be exploited in future product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Techno-Functional, Nutritional and Environmental Performance of Protein Isolates from Blue Lupin and White Lupin
Foods 2020, 9(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020230 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Similarly prepared protein isolates from blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and white lupin (L. albus) were assessed in relation to their composition, functional properties, nutritional attributes and environmental impacts. Blue lupin protein isolate (BLPI) and white lupin protein isolate (WLPI) [...] Read more.
Similarly prepared protein isolates from blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and white lupin (L. albus) were assessed in relation to their composition, functional properties, nutritional attributes and environmental impacts. Blue lupin protein isolate (BLPI) and white lupin protein isolate (WLPI) were found to be quite similar in composition, although differences in the electrophoretic protein profiles were apparent. Both lupin protein isolates (LPIs) had good protein solubility (76.9% for BLPI and 69.8% for WLPI at pH 7) and foaming properties. However, a remarkable difference in heat gelation performance was observed between BLPI and WLPI. WLPI had a minimum gelling concentration of 7% protein, whereas BLPI required 23% protein in order to form a gel. WLPI also resulted in stronger gels over a range of concentrations compared to BLPI. Nutritional properties of both LPIs were similar, with no significant differences in in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and both had very low trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) content. The amino acid profiles of both LPIs were also similar, with sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) being the limiting amino acid in each case. Environmental impacts revealed by the life cycle assessment (LCA) were almost identical for BLPI and WLPI, and in most categories the LPIs demonstrated considerably better performance per kg protein when compared to cow’s whole milk powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Development, Characterization, and Bioactivity of Non-Dairy Kefir-Like Fermented Beverage Based on Flaxseed Oil Cake
Foods 2019, 8(11), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110544 - 03 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2323
Abstract
Flaxseed oil cake (FOC) was evaluated as a potential substrate for the production of a novel kefir-like fermented beverage. Three variants containing 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) of FOC were inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25 °C for 24 [...] Read more.
Flaxseed oil cake (FOC) was evaluated as a potential substrate for the production of a novel kefir-like fermented beverage. Three variants containing 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) of FOC were inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25 °C for 24 h. After processing, beverages were stored in refrigerated conditions (6 °C) for 21 days. Changes in microbial population, pH, acidity, levels of proteins, polyphenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars were estimated. Additionally, viscosity, firmness, color, and antioxidant properties were determined. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria as well as yeast were capable of growing well in the FOC without any supplementation. During refrigerated storage, the viability of the microorganisms were over the recommended minimum level for kefir products. As a result of fermentation, the beverages showed excellent antioxidant activity. Because of the functional characteristics conferred to the FOC beverages, the use of kefir grains showed adequate potential for the industrial application. Therefore, this beverages could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for beneficial microflora consumption, especially by vegans and lactose-intolerant consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Probiotic Properties and DNA Protection Activity of Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from A Honey-Based Kefir Beverage
Foods 2019, 8(10), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100485 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
The probiotic characteristics of three acid-tolerant microbial strains, viz., Lactobacillus satsumensis LPBF1, Leuconostoc mesenteroides LPBF2 and Saccharomyes cerevisiae LPBF3, isolated from a honey-based kefir functional beverage, were studied following the requirements established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation/World Health [...] Read more.
The probiotic characteristics of three acid-tolerant microbial strains, viz., Lactobacillus satsumensis LPBF1, Leuconostoc mesenteroides LPBF2 and Saccharomyes cerevisiae LPBF3, isolated from a honey-based kefir functional beverage, were studied following the requirements established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), including host-associated stress resistance, epithelium adhesion ability, and antimicrobial activity. The three microbial strains tolerated different pH values (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 7.0) and bile salt concentrations (0.3% and 0.6%), and survive in the presence of simulated gastric juice, which are conditions imposed by the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, they showed high percentages of hydrophobicity, auto aggregation and anti-pathogenic against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with no hemolytic activity. The protective capacity of human DNA through microbial treatment was investigated by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay. The three selected strains showed DNA protection effect against damage caused by hydroxyl radical (H2O2). However, when the S. cerevisiae treatment was applied, the most effective DNA protection index was observed, which can be associated to its high production of extracellular antioxidants as reveled by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylhydrate (DPPH) method. These results indicated that the three selected microbial strains could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in food products. As well-adapted microbial cells, the selected strains can be used for production of non-dairy functional beverages, especially for vegans and/or vegetarians and lactose intolerants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Effect of Innovative Food Processing Technologies on the Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties and Quality of Non-Dairy Plant-Based Beverages
Foods 2020, 9(3), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030288 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
Increase in allergenicity towards cow’s milk, lactose intolerance, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, and flexitarian choice of food consumption have increased the market for cow’s milk alternatives. Non-dairy plant-based beverages are useful alternatives because of the presence of bioactive components with health-promoting properties, which [...] Read more.
Increase in allergenicity towards cow’s milk, lactose intolerance, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, and flexitarian choice of food consumption have increased the market for cow’s milk alternatives. Non-dairy plant-based beverages are useful alternatives because of the presence of bioactive components with health-promoting properties, which attract health-conscious consumers. However, the reduced nutritional value and sensory acceptability of the plant-based beverages (such as flavor, taste, and solubility) compared to cow’s milk pose a big threat to its place in the market. Thermal treatments are commonly used to ensure the quality of plant-based beverages during storage. However, the application of high temperatures can promote the degradation of thermolabile compounds and some detrimental reactions, thus reducing protein digestibility and amino acid availability of non-dairy plant-based beverages substitutes. New and advanced food processing technologies, such as high-pressure processing, high-pressure homogenization, pulsed electric fields, and ultrasound, are being researched for addressing the issues related to shelf life increase, emulsion stability, preservation of nutritional content and sensorial acceptability of the final product. However, the literature available on the application of non-thermal processing technologies on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of plant-based beverages is scarce. Concerted research efforts are required in the coming years in the functional plant-based beverages sector to prepare newer, tailor-made products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop