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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2020) – 131 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Type 2 diabetes mellitus corresponds to 90% of the worldwide cases of diabetes, mainly due to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Authentication of the Origin, Variety and Roasting Degree of Coffee Samples by Non-Targeted HPLC-UV Fingerprinting and Chemometrics. Application to the Detection and Quantitation of Adulterated Coffee Samples
Foods 2020, 9(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030378 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
In this work, non-targeted approaches relying on HPLC-UV chromatographic fingerprints were evaluated to address coffee characterization, classification, and authentication by chemometrics. In general, high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprints were good chemical descriptors for the classification of coffee samples by partial [...] Read more.
In this work, non-targeted approaches relying on HPLC-UV chromatographic fingerprints were evaluated to address coffee characterization, classification, and authentication by chemometrics. In general, high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprints were good chemical descriptors for the classification of coffee samples by partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) according to their country of origin, even for nearby countries such as Vietnam and Cambodia. Good classification was also observed according to the coffee variety (Arabica vs. Robusta) and the coffee roasting degree. Sample classification rates higher than 89.3% and 91.7% were obtained in all the evaluated cases for the PLS-DA calibrations and predictions, respectively. Besides, the coffee adulteration studies carried out by partial least squares regression (PLSR), and based on coffees adulterated with other production regions or variety, demonstrated the good capability of the proposed methodology for the detection and quantitation of the adulterant levels down to 15%. Calibration, cross-validation, and prediction errors below 2.9%, 6.5%, and 8.9%, respectively, were obtained for most of the evaluated cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Texture Preferences of Chinese, Korean and US Consumers: A Case Study with Apple and Pear Dried Fruits
Foods 2020, 9(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030377 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 540
Abstract
The present study aimed to understand the drivers of liking dried apple and pear chips with various textures among Chinese (n = 58), Korean (n = 58), and US (n = 56) consumers. The possibility of hedonic transfer from snack [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to understand the drivers of liking dried apple and pear chips with various textures among Chinese (n = 58), Korean (n = 58), and US (n = 56) consumers. The possibility of hedonic transfer from snack texture preferences to fruit-chip texture preferences was also investigated among Chinese and Koreans. Fourteen fruit-chip samples with four textural properties (crispy, puffy, soft, and jelly-like) were selected. Consumers rated their level of liking for each sample, and then they performed hedonic-based projective mapping with the same samples. In the hedonic texture transfer investigation, consumers rated their acceptance of nine snacks with various textures but possessing similar textures to those of dried fruit samples. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and multiple factor analysis. Most consumers disliked samples with a soft or jelly-like texture, while liked samples with a crispy texture. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the liking of puffy samples, with both Chinese and Koreans liking puffy samples as much as crispy ones for their melting characteristics in the mouth, while US consumers perceived the puffy samples as being Styrofoam-like and disliked them. Hedonic transfer was observed from snack texture preferences to fruit-chip. Individual texture preferences for snacks seem to significantly affect the texture preferences for fruit chips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Health and Safety in Cross Cultural Consumer Contexts)
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Open AccessArticle
Influences of Electron Beam Irradiation on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Zearalenone- and Ochratoxin A-Contaminated Corn and In Vivo Toxicity Assessment
Foods 2020, 9(3), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030376 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Electron beam irradiation (EBI) has high energy, no induced radioactivity, and strong degradation capacity toward mycotoxins, such as zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA). In this study, we determined EBI’s influence on the physical and chemical properties of corn contaminated with ZEN and [...] Read more.
Electron beam irradiation (EBI) has high energy, no induced radioactivity, and strong degradation capacity toward mycotoxins, such as zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA). In this study, we determined EBI’s influence on the physical and chemical properties of corn contaminated with ZEN and OTA. Moreover, the toxicity of corn after EBI was assessed through a mouse experiment. Amylose content and starch crystallinity in corn decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at an irradiation dose higher than 20 kGy. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that the starch particles of corn began to be crushed at 10 kGy. Essential and total amino acid contents in corn decreased significantly with increasing irradiation dose of EBI (p < 0.05). Feeding EBI-treated corn fodders to mice could significantly improve blood biochemical indexes. The EBI-treated group was not significantly different from the normal corn group and did not display histopathological changes of the liver. EBI treatment can influence the quality of corn to some extent and effectively lower the toxicity of ZEN and OTA in contaminated corn. The results provide a theoretical and practical basis for the processing of EBI-treated corn and its safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Typicality Assessment of Onions (Allium cepa) from Different Geographical Regions Based on the Volatile Signature and Chemometric Tools
Foods 2020, 9(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030375 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the main agricultural commodities produced and consumed around the world. In the present work, for the first time, the volatile signature of onions from different geographical regions of Madeira Island (Caniço, Santa Cruz, Ribeira Brava, [...] Read more.
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the main agricultural commodities produced and consumed around the world. In the present work, for the first time, the volatile signature of onions from different geographical regions of Madeira Island (Caniço, Santa Cruz, Ribeira Brava, and Porto Moniz) was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC-qMS) and chemometric tools, showing that the volatile signature was affected by the geographical region of cultivation. Sulfur compounds, furanic compounds, and aldehydes are the most dominant chemical groups. Some of the identified volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) were detected only in onions cultivated in specific regions; 17 VOMs were only identified in onions cultivated at Caniço, eight in Porto Moniz, two in Santa Cruz, two in Ribeira Brava, while 12 VOMs are common to all samples from the four regions. Moreover, some VOMs belonging to sulfur compounds (dipropyl disulfide, 3-(acetylthio)-2-methylfuran), furanic compounds (dimethylmethoxyfuranone, ethyl furanone, acetyloxy-dimethylfuranone), and lactones (whiskey lactone isomer), could be applied as potential geographical markers of onions, providing a useful tool to authenticate onions by farming regions where the influence of latitude seems to be an important factor for yielding the chemical profile and may contribute to geographical protection of food and simultaneously benefiting both consumers and farmers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Pharmacological Activity, Biochemical Properties, and Pharmacokinetics of the Major Natural Polyphenolic Flavonoid: Quercetin
Foods 2020, 9(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030374 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Flavonoids are a class of natural substances present in plants, fruits, vegetables, wine, bulbs, bark, stems, roots, and tea. Several attempts are being made to isolate such natural products, which are popular for their health benefits. Flavonoids are now seen as an essential [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are a class of natural substances present in plants, fruits, vegetables, wine, bulbs, bark, stems, roots, and tea. Several attempts are being made to isolate such natural products, which are popular for their health benefits. Flavonoids are now seen as an essential component in a number of cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medicinal formulations. Quercetin is the major polyphenolic flavonoid found in food products, including berries, apples, cauliflower, tea, cabbage, nuts, and onions that have traditionally been treated as anticancer and antiviral, and used for the treatment of allergic, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders, eye and cardiovascular diseases, and arthritis. Pharmacologically, quercetin has been examined against various microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and Plasmodium, Babesia, and Theileria parasites. Additionally, it has shown beneficial effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and this activity is due to its inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase. It has also been documented to possess antioxidant, antifungal, anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, and cytotoxic activity. Quercetin has been documented to accumulate in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and small intestines, with lower levels seen in the brain, heart, and spleen, and it is extracted through the renal, fecal, and respiratory systems. The current review examines the pharmacokinetics, as well as the toxic and biological activities of quercetin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Hot-Water Extract from Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) on Acrylamide Formation, Quality and Consumer Acceptability of Bread
Foods 2020, 9(3), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030373 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
Acrylamide is a harmful substance that could be inhibited by natural products. Vine tea is an edible herb belonging to the Vitaceae family and has been approved by Chinese authorities as a new food ingredient in 2013. However, the effects of vine tea [...] Read more.
Acrylamide is a harmful substance that could be inhibited by natural products. Vine tea is an edible herb belonging to the Vitaceae family and has been approved by Chinese authorities as a new food ingredient in 2013. However, the effects of vine tea extract on acrylamide formation and bread quality are rarely investigated. In this study, the polyphenol composition of hot-water extract from vine tea was characterized by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS), and its effects on acrylamide formation, quality, and consumer acceptability of bread were investigated. Vine tea extract and its main polyphenol, dihydromyricetin, significantly inhibited the acrylamide formation in bread, especially the low dose of vine tea extract (1.25 g/kg), which decreased the acrylamide formation by 58.23%. The color and texture of bread were significantly affected by vine tea extract or dihydromyricetin, whereas the moisture content was not changed remarkably. Triangle and paired preference tests indicated that, although the aroma, appearance, and taste of the bread with vine tea extract significantly differ from those of the control bread, vine tea extract did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of vine tea extract could be used to develop a new and healthy bread product with low acrylamide content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pit Mud on Bacterial Community and Aroma Components in Yellow Water and Their Changes during the Fermentation of Chinese Strong-Flavor Liquor
Foods 2020, 9(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030372 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 536
Abstract
As the main by-product of Chinese strong-flavor liquor, yellow water plays an important role in the formation of flavor components. Yellow water from different fermentation periods (30th day, 45th day, 60th day) was selected to analyze the aroma components by Headspace solid phase [...] Read more.
As the main by-product of Chinese strong-flavor liquor, yellow water plays an important role in the formation of flavor components. Yellow water from different fermentation periods (30th day, 45th day, 60th day) was selected to analyze the aroma components by Headspace solid phase micro-extraction Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, and the microorganism community was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis of DNA. As the fermentation time was prolonged, the main flavor components significantly increased, and the amount of the common microbial population between yellow water and pit mud increased gradually. Among the common microorganisms, Lactobacillus accounted for the largest proportion, at about 56.96%. The microbes in the yellow water mainly belonged to Firmicutes. The abundance of Bacilli (the main bacteria) gradually decreased with time, at 87.60% at the 30th day down to 68.87% at the 60th day, but Clostridia gradually increased from 10.29% to 27.48%. At the genus level, some microbes increased significantly from the 30th day to 60th day, such as Caproiciproducens, which increased from 2.65% to 6.30%, and Sedimentibacter, increasing from 0.47% to 2.49%. RDA analysis indicated that the main aroma components were positively correlated with Clostridia and negatively correlated with Bacilli. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of L-Theanine Incorporated in a Functional Food Product (Mango Sorbet) on Physiological Responses in Healthy Males: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial
Foods 2020, 9(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030371 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Consumption of L-Theanine (L-THE) has been associated with a sensation of relaxation, as well as a reduction of stress. However, these physiological responses have yet to be elucidated in humans where L-THE is compared alongside food or as a functional ingredient within the [...] Read more.
Consumption of L-Theanine (L-THE) has been associated with a sensation of relaxation, as well as a reduction of stress. However, these physiological responses have yet to be elucidated in humans where L-THE is compared alongside food or as a functional ingredient within the food matrix. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological responses of a single intake of a potential functional food product (mango sorbet) containing L-THE (ms-L-THE; 200 mgw/w) in comparison to a flavour and colour-matched placebo (ms). Eighteen healthy male participants were recruited in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The participants were required to consume ms-L-THE or placebo and their blood pressure (BP) (systolic and diastolic), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored continuously over 90 minutes. Eleven males (age 27.7 ± 10.8 years) completed the study. Changes in area under the curve for systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HRV over the 90 minute observation period indicated no differences between the three conditions (all p > 0.05) or within individual groups (all p > 0.05). The values for heart rate were also not different in the placebo group (p = 0.996) and treatment group (p = 0.066), while there was a difference seen at the baseline (p = 0.003). Based on the findings of this study, L-THE incorporated in a food matrix (mango sorbet) demonstrated no reduction in BP or HR and showed no significant parasympathetic interaction as determined by HRV high-frequency band and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. Further studies should be focussed towards the comparison of pure L-THE and incorporation within the food matrix to warrant recommendations of L-THE alongside food consumption. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Nutraceuticals in Human Health
Foods 2020, 9(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030370 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
The combined and concerted action of nutrient and biologically active compounds is flagged as an indicator of a “possible beneficial role” for health. The use and applications of bioactive components cover a wide range of fields, in particular the nutraceuticals. In this context, [...] Read more.
The combined and concerted action of nutrient and biologically active compounds is flagged as an indicator of a “possible beneficial role” for health. The use and applications of bioactive components cover a wide range of fields, in particular the nutraceuticals. In this context, the Special Issue entitled “Nutraceuticals in Human Health” is focused on the all aspects around the nutraceuticals, ranging from analytical aspects to clinical trials, from efficacy studies to beneficial effects on health status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health)
Open AccessEditorial
The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables
Foods 2020, 9(3), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030369 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
We edited this Special Issue with the objective of bringing forth new data on the phytochemicals from vegetables and fruits, which are recommended for their health-promoting properties. Epidemiological, toxicological and nutritional studies suggested an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lower incidence [...] Read more.
We edited this Special Issue with the objective of bringing forth new data on the phytochemicals from vegetables and fruits, which are recommended for their health-promoting properties. Epidemiological, toxicological and nutritional studies suggested an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lower incidence of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart problems, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. In this Special Issue, the protective roles (antioxidant and others bioactivities), new sustainable approaches to determine the quality, and the processing techniques that can modify the initial nutritional and antioxidant content of fruits, vegetables and additives have been addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Beneficial Fatty Acid Ratio of Salvia hispanica L. (Chia Seed) Potentially Inhibits Adipocyte Hypertrophy, and Decreases Adipokines Expression and Inflammation in Macrophage
Foods 2020, 9(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030368 - 22 Mar 2020
Viewed by 819
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the role of Salvia hispanica L., (chia seed) fatty acid content in adipocyte lipid accumulation and human macrophage immunoregulatory potential. Chia seed fatty acid was extracted using hexane by the cold percolation method. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine the role of Salvia hispanica L., (chia seed) fatty acid content in adipocyte lipid accumulation and human macrophage immunoregulatory potential. Chia seed fatty acid was extracted using hexane by the cold percolation method. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a 3:1 ratio of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid composition and it was more beneficial for human health. We treated it with increasing concentrations (0–6.4 μg/mL) of chia seed fatty acid extract to determine the cytotoxicity on the preadipocytes and macrophage; no significant cytotoxicity was observed. Chia seed, in 0.2 and 0.4 μg/mL doses, significantly arrested adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage foam cell development. The gene expression levels of adipocyte confirmed the increased expression of adipocyte mitochondrial thermogenesis related genes, such as uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARγC1α) and PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16); and the down regulated expression of the lipid synthesis related gene sterol regulatory element binding of protein-1c (SREBP-1c). In addition, adipogenesis related genes, such as the proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) expressions, have been down regulated by chia seed treatment. Macrophage treated with chia seed-treated adipocyte condition media significantly inhibited the obesity associated inflammatory genes and protein expression levels, such as monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), prostaglandins E2, interleukin-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In conclusion, a 3:1 ratio of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid composition of chia seed fatty acid content potentially inhibits lipid accumulation, and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, via UCP-1 and PRDM16 expression. Macrophage recruitment to adipocyte and the development of obesity associated inflammation was suppressed by chia seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of B-Ring Substitution and Acylation with Hydroxy Cinnamic Acids on the Inhibition of Porcine α-Amylase by Anthocyanin-3-Glycosides
Foods 2020, 9(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030367 - 21 Mar 2020
Viewed by 714
Abstract
An inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase is postulated for polyphenols. Thus, ingestion of those secondary plant metabolites might reduce postprandial blood glucose level (hyperglycemia), which is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus type II. In addition to a previous study investigating [...] Read more.
An inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase is postulated for polyphenols. Thus, ingestion of those secondary plant metabolites might reduce postprandial blood glucose level (hyperglycemia), which is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus type II. In addition to a previous study investigating structure−effect relationships of different phenolic structures, the effect of anthocyanins is studied in detail here, by applying an α-amylase activity assay, on the basis of the conversion of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-4-O-ß-galactopyranosyl maltoside (GalG2CNP) and detection of CNP release by UV/Vis spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). All anthocyanin-3-glucosides showed a mixed inhibition with a strong competitive proportion, Kic < 134 µM and Kiu < 270 µM; however, the impact of the B-ring substitution was not statistically significant. UV/Vis detection failed to examine the inhibitory effect of acylated cyanidins isolated from black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus var. Autrorubens Alef.). However, ITC measurements reveal a much stronger inhibitory effect compared to the cyanidin-3-glucoside. Our results support the hypothesis that anthocyanins are efficient α-amylase inhibitors and an additional acylation with a cinnamic acid boosts the observed effect. Therefore, an increased consumption of vegetables containing acylated anthocyanin derivatives might help to prevent hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Stability Evaluation of pH-Adjusted Goat Milk for Developing Ricotta Cheese with a Mixture of Cow Cheese Whey and Goat Milk
Foods 2020, 9(3), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030366 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 704
Abstract
Excess summer milk and a lack of product diversity are major problems facing Taiwan’s dairy goat industry. Gouda and Mozzarella cheeses made with cow milk are popular products for leisure farms in Taiwan, and they produce a large amount of cheese whey as [...] Read more.
Excess summer milk and a lack of product diversity are major problems facing Taiwan’s dairy goat industry. Gouda and Mozzarella cheeses made with cow milk are popular products for leisure farms in Taiwan, and they produce a large amount of cheese whey as waste. Our objective is to identify the unstable phenomena of pH-adjusted goat milk through the use of Turbiscan Lab® Expert and to produce ricotta cheeses using cow cheese whey waste and excess goat milk. Delta backscattering (∆BS) profiles and the Turbiscan stability index (TSI) were used to evaluate the stability characteristics of goat milk adjusted to pH 6.7–5.2. The results show coagulation phenomena in skimmed goat milk and sedimentation phenomena in full-fat goat milk, when the pH was adjusted to 5.2. The TSI values of goat milk at pH 5.7 and 5.2 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of a control. Therefore, 80/20 cow cheese whey/skimmed goat milk and 80/20 cow cheese whey/full-fat goat milk mixtures were acidified to pH 5.5 and heated at 90 °C for 30 min to produce ricotta cheeses A and B. The hardness value, moisture, protein, and ash contents of ricotta cheese A were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of ricotta cheese B, but no significant difference was found in terms of sensory evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessReview
Essential Oils as Potential Alternative Biocontrol Products against Plant Pathogens and Weeds: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030365 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Naturally produced by aromatic plants, essential oils (EO) contain a wide range of volatile molecules, including mostly secondary metabolites, which possess several biological activities. Essential oils properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are known for a long time and hence widely [...] Read more.
Naturally produced by aromatic plants, essential oils (EO) contain a wide range of volatile molecules, including mostly secondary metabolites, which possess several biological activities. Essential oils properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are known for a long time and hence widely used in traditional medicines, cosmetics and food industries. However, despite their effects against many phytopathogenic fungi, oomycetes and bacteria as well as weeds, their use in agriculture remains surprisingly scarce. The purpose of the present review is to gather and discuss up-to-date biological activities of EO against weeds, plant pathogenic fungi, oomycetes and bacteria, reported in the scientific literature. Innovative methods, potentially valuable to improve the efficiency and reliability of EO, have been investigated. In particular, their use towards a more sustainable agriculture has been discussed, aiming at encouraging the use of alternative products to substitute synthetic pesticides to control weeds and plant diseases, without significantly affecting crop yields. An overview of the market and the recent advances on the regulation of these products as well as future challenges to promote their development and wider use in disease management programs is described. Because of several recent reviews on EO insecticidal properties, this topic is not covered in the present review. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Proton Dynamics and Physicochemical Attributes in Spanish Mackerel Assessed by Low-Field NMR
Foods 2020, 9(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030364 - 21 Mar 2020
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The states of protons within food items are highly related to their physical attributes. In this study, the effect of cooking methods including boiling, steaming, roasting and frying on proton dynamics, physicochemical parameters and microstructure of Spanish mackerel was assessed by low-field nuclear [...] Read more.
The states of protons within food items are highly related to their physical attributes. In this study, the effect of cooking methods including boiling, steaming, roasting and frying on proton dynamics, physicochemical parameters and microstructure of Spanish mackerel was assessed by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. The treatment of cooking resulted in a significant reduction of proton mobility and declined freedom of protons. The state changes of protons can be monitored easily in an intuitive and non-destructive manner during various cooking process. The treatments of boiling, steaming, roasting and frying resulted in different cooking loss and similar water-holding capability. A significant increase of total carbonyl content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was found, while a decrease of the values for free thiols and surface hydrophobicity was observed. The analysis of circular dichroism spectroscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy showed significant structural change. The correlation coefficients of Rcal2 and Rcv2 from partial least squares (PLS) regression models were more than 0.980, suggesting good correlation between LF-NMR data and hardness, resilience, springiness, chewiness, gumminess, and adhesiveness. Good recoveries and a relatively small coefficient of variation (CV) were obtained from the PLS regression models, indicating good reliability and accuracy in predicting texture parameters for mackerel samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle
Textural and Sensory Features Changes of Gluten Free Muffins Based on Rice Sourdough Fermented with Lactobacillus spicheri DSM 15429
Foods 2020, 9(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030363 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
Gluten free products available on the market have a low textural quality associated with high crumbly structure, low-flavor, aroma, poor mouthfeel, less appearance, in comparison with the conventional final baked products. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of rice [...] Read more.
Gluten free products available on the market have a low textural quality associated with high crumbly structure, low-flavor, aroma, poor mouthfeel, less appearance, in comparison with the conventional final baked products. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of rice sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus spicheri DSM 15429 strain on textural, volatile profile, and sensorial properties of gluten free muffins in order to obtain baked goods with improved quality characteristics. Lactobacillus spicheri is a novel strain isolated from industrial rice sourdough but unexploited for bakery products manufacturing. The results showed that Lactobacillus spicheri DSM 15429 was able to growth in the rice flour influencing the texture and the volatile profile of gluten free muffins as well as their sensory characteristics. Both, textural parameters and volatiles recorded significant differences comparing to muffins obtained with a spontaneously fermented rice sourdough. Hardness and cohesiveness decreased while springiness and resilience of gluten free muffins improved their values. The volatile profile of gluten free muffins was significantly improved by utilization of the rice sourdough fermented with Lactobacilus spicheri DSM 15429. 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, acetophenone and limonene were the main volatile derivatives responsible for aroma and odor scores of sensory analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Are Faba Bean and Pea Proteins Potential Whey Protein Substitutes in Infant Formulas? An In Vitro Dynamic Digestion Approach
Foods 2020, 9(3), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030362 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Infant formulas (IFs) are used as substitutes for human milk and are mostly based on cow milk proteins. For sustainability reasons, animal protein alternatives in food are increasingly being considered, as plant proteins offer interesting nutritional and functional benefits for the development of [...] Read more.
Infant formulas (IFs) are used as substitutes for human milk and are mostly based on cow milk proteins. For sustainability reasons, animal protein alternatives in food are increasingly being considered, as plant proteins offer interesting nutritional and functional benefits for the development of innovative IFs. This study aimed to assess how a partial substitution (50%) of dairy proteins with faba bean and pea proteins influenced the digestibility of IFs under simulated dynamic in vitro digestion, which were set up to mimic infant digestion. Pea- and faba bean-based IFs (PIF and FIF, respectively) have led to a faster aggregation than the reference milk-based IF (RIF) in the gastric compartment; that did not affect the digesta microstructure at the end of digestion. The extent of proteolysis was estimated via the hydrolysis degree, which was the highest for FIF (73%) and the lowest for RIF (50%). Finally, it was apparent that in vitro protein digestibility and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS)-like scores were similar for RIF and FIF (90% digestibility; 75% PDCAAS), but lower for PIF (75%; 67%). Therefore, this study confirms that faba bean proteins could be a good candidate for partial substitution of whey proteins in IFs from a nutritional point of view, provided that these in vitro results are confirmed in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges and Opportunities of Food Digestion)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical, Chemical, and Microbiological Characteristics of Pulque: Management of a Fermented Beverage in Michoacán, Mexico
Foods 2020, 9(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030361 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Pulque is a beverage that has been prepared in Mexico since pre-Hispanic times from the fermented sap of more than 30 species of wild and domesticated agaves. We conducted studies in two communities of the state of Michoacán, in central-western Mexico, where we [...] Read more.
Pulque is a beverage that has been prepared in Mexico since pre-Hispanic times from the fermented sap of more than 30 species of wild and domesticated agaves. We conducted studies in two communities of the state of Michoacán, in central-western Mexico, where we documented its traditional preparation and analyzed the relationship between preparation conditions and the composition and dynamics of microbiological communities, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the beverage. In one of the communities, Santiago Undameo (SU), people boil the sap before inoculating it with pulque inoculum; this action causes this local pulque to be sweeter, less acidic, and poorer in bacteria and yeast diversity than in the other community, Tarimbaro (T), where the agave sap is not boiled and where the pulque has more diversity of microorganisms than in SU. Fermentation management, particularly boiling of the agave sap, influences the dynamics and diversity of microbial communities in the beverage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of High-Pressure Process on Probiotics: Viability Kinetics and Evaluation of the Quality Characteristics of Probiotic Yoghurt
Foods 2020, 9(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030360 - 19 Mar 2020
Viewed by 804
Abstract
The impact of high-pressure (HP) processing on the viability of two probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus casei) at varying pressure (100−400 MPa), temperature (20−40 °C) and pH (6.5 vs. 4.8) conditions was investigated. Appropriate mathematical models were developed to describe [...] Read more.
The impact of high-pressure (HP) processing on the viability of two probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus casei) at varying pressure (100−400 MPa), temperature (20−40 °C) and pH (6.5 vs. 4.8) conditions was investigated. Appropriate mathematical models were developed to describe the kinetics of the probiotics viability loss under the implemented HP conditions, aiming to the development of a predictive tool used in the design of HP-processed yoghurt-like dairy products. The validation of these models was conducted in plain and sweet cherry-flavored probiotic dairy beverage products pressurized at 100−400M Pa at ambient temperature for 10 min. The microbiological, rheological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the HP-treated probiotic dairy beverages were determined in two-week time intervals and for an overall 28 days of storage. Results showed that the application of HP in the range of 200−300 MPa had minimal impact on the probiotic strains viability throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the aforementioned HP processing conditions enhanced the rheological and sensory properties without affecting post-acidification compared to the untreated product analogues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Amaranthus tricolor Crude Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Application in Cooked Meat
Foods 2020, 9(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030359 - 19 Mar 2020
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Amaranthus tricolor has been reported to contain some antimicrobial compounds, such as alkaloids, polyphenols, and terpenoids. However, its effect on Staphylococcus aureus has been less well researched. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and possible mechanism of action of [...] Read more.
Amaranthus tricolor has been reported to contain some antimicrobial compounds, such as alkaloids, polyphenols, and terpenoids. However, its effect on Staphylococcus aureus has been less well researched. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and possible mechanism of action of the Amaranthus tricolor crude extract (ATCE) against S. aureus and potential application in cooked meat. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus was assessed by disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations, and growth curve. The changes of bacterial membrane potential, intracellular pH (pHin), content of bacterial protein and DNA, and cell morphology were measured to indicate its antimicrobial mechanism of action. The effects of different concentrations of ATCE on bacterial counts, pH, and color of lean cooked pork during 6 d storage were assessed. The results showed that the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) and MIC of ATCE against S. aureus were 12.63 ± 0.34 to 12.94 ± 0.43 mm and 80 mg/mL, respectively. The mechanism of action of ATCE against S. aureus was associated with cell membrane depolarization, reduction of pHin, decrease of bacterial protein content, cleavage of cell DNA, and leakage of cytoplasm. Besides, ATCE resulted in a reduction of 1.02 log CFU/g from 3 log CFU/g in S. aureus-inoculated lean cooked pork. The pH values of lean cooked pork treated with ATCE did not show significant changes as the storage time increased, but there was a slight and significant decrease seen with the application of 1 and 2 MIC of ATCE. After treating with ATCE, the color of lean cooked pork showed less lightness (L*), more redness (a∗), similar yellowness (b*), stronger chroma (C*), and weaker hue angle (h*) during 6 days of storage. Therefore, these findings indicate that ATCE has antimicrobial activities against S. aureus and possesses latent energy to become a natural preservative to maintain the quality of lean cooked pork. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Flavonoid Compounds in Common Swedish Berry Species
Foods 2020, 9(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030358 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
Berries are considered an ideal source of polyphenols, especially from the flavonoid group. In this study, we examined the flavonoid content in 16 varieties of Swedish lingonberry, raspberry, blueberry, and strawberry. Nineteen flavonoids were simultaneously quantified using external standards. An additional 29 flavonoids [...] Read more.
Berries are considered an ideal source of polyphenols, especially from the flavonoid group. In this study, we examined the flavonoid content in 16 varieties of Swedish lingonberry, raspberry, blueberry, and strawberry. Nineteen flavonoids were simultaneously quantified using external standards. An additional 29 flavonoids were tentatively identified using MS as no standards were available. Quantification was done using HPLC-UV after optimization of chromatographic and extraction procedures. The method showed high linearity within the range of 2–100 μg/mL (correlation co-efficient >0.999), intra- and inter-day precision of 1.7–7.3% and average recovery above 84% for all compounds. Blueberries and lingonberries were found to contain higher contents of flavonoids (1100 mg/100 g dry weight) than raspberries and strawberries (500 mg/100 g dry weight). Anthocyanins were the dominant flavonoids in all berries. The tentatively characterized compounds contribute 18%, 29%, 61%, and 67% of the total flavonoid content in strawberries, lingonberries, raspberries, and blueberries, respectively. Overall, Swedish berries were shown to be good sources of polyphenols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Edible Films, Based on κ- and ι-Carrageenans with the Addition of Lapacho Tea Extract
Foods 2020, 9(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030357 - 19 Mar 2020
Viewed by 537
Abstract
The aim of the study was to characterize antioxidant and textural property differences of edible films prepared with the addition of lapacho extract (LE). The experimentally produced edible films also contained different carrageenans (ι- and κ-carrageenan). The κ- and ι-carrageenan, glycerol and the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to characterize antioxidant and textural property differences of edible films prepared with the addition of lapacho extract (LE). The experimentally produced edible films also contained different carrageenans (ι- and κ-carrageenan). The κ- and ι-carrageenan, glycerol and the different addition of LE (5%, 10%, 20%) were used as ingredients for forming films. The pH and viscosity were measured for film forming solutions (before drying). The following analyses were performed on films: the total polyphenol content (TPC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2-Diphenyl–1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Optical parameters were analyzed by the determination of UV-Vis spectra. The structure of films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The gained results indicated that the use of different gelling agents (ι- and κ-carrageenan) resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in textural properties (strength and breaking strain) of produced edible films. The highest antioxidant properties and TPC had a κ film with 20% LE (DPPH: 87.63 ± 0.03%; TPC: 233.75 ± 0.104 mg gallic acid/g). According to these results, it can be concluded that edible films with the highest concentrations of added lapacho extract can serve as a good source of antioxidant compounds. Certainly, these properties can be usefully incorporated into the wrapped food commodity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Novel Packaging Technology on Food Safety and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 62 A-L-Arabinofuranosidase from Trichoderma Reesei and Its Applicable Potential during Mashing
Foods 2020, 9(3), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030356 - 19 Mar 2020
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Arabinoxylan is the second most abundant component in the endosperm cell wall of barley and it has been shown to have negative effects on the viscosity and filtration rate of wort and beer. In this study, a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 62 α-L-arabinofuranosidase [...] Read more.
Arabinoxylan is the second most abundant component in the endosperm cell wall of barley and it has been shown to have negative effects on the viscosity and filtration rate of wort and beer. In this study, a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 62 α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AFase), termed as TrAbf62A, was purified from the culture filtrate of Trichoderma reesei CICC 41495 by a combined chromatographic method. The preferred substrates of the purified TrAbf62A were soluble, highly substituted arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and polymers, similar to the type found in barley grain. TrAbf62A exhibited activity towards oligomeric and polymeric arabinoxylans, as well as colorimetric arabinose-based substrates, thus meeting the criteria to be classified as a type B AFase. TrAbf62A released mainly arabinose and xylose from soluble wheat arabinoxylan, thus indicating a dual lytic enzyme activity. Supplementation of TrAbf62A during mashing, with a loading of 12 mU/g malt, resulted in a 36.3% decrease in arabinoxylan polymer content, a 5.6% reduction in viscosity, and finally, a 22.1% increase in filtration rate. These results revealed that TrAbf62A has a high potential value in improving lautering performance during mashing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Alignment and Proficiency of Virgin Olive Oil Sensory Panels: The OLEUM Approach
Foods 2020, 9(3), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030355 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
A set of 334 commercial virgin olive oil (VOO) samples were evaluated by six sensory panels during the H2020 OLEUM project. Sensory data were elaborated with two main objectives: (i) to classify and characterize samples in order to use them for possible correlations [...] Read more.
A set of 334 commercial virgin olive oil (VOO) samples were evaluated by six sensory panels during the H2020 OLEUM project. Sensory data were elaborated with two main objectives: (i) to classify and characterize samples in order to use them for possible correlations with physical–chemical data and (ii) to monitor and improve the performance of panels. After revision of the IOC guidelines in 2018, this work represents the first published attempt to verify some of the recommended quality control tools to increase harmonization among panels. Specifically, a new “decision tree” scheme was developed, and some IOC quality control procedures were applied. The adoption of these tools allowed for reliable classification of 289 of 334 VOOs; for the remaining 45, misalignments between panels of first (on the category, 21 cases) or second type (on the main perceived defect, 24 cases) occurred. In these cases, a “formative reassessment” was necessary. At the end, 329 of 334 VOOs (98.5%) were classified, thus confirming the effectiveness of this approach to achieve a better proficiency. The panels showed good performance, but the need to adopt new reference materials that are stable and reproducible to improve the panel’s skills and agreement also emerged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality, Safety, and Authenticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Grape Pomace Addition on the Technological, Sensory, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Pasta
Foods 2020, 9(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030354 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
In this study, fortified pasta was prepared by replacing semolina with 0, 5, and 10 g/100 g of grape pomace (GP), a food industry by-product, rich in fiber and phenols. GP inclusion in pasta significantly reduced its optimum cooking time and the swelling [...] Read more.
In this study, fortified pasta was prepared by replacing semolina with 0, 5, and 10 g/100 g of grape pomace (GP), a food industry by-product, rich in fiber and phenols. GP inclusion in pasta significantly reduced its optimum cooking time and the swelling index, while also increasing the cooking loss (p < 0.05). Furthermore, pasta firmness and adhesiveness were enhanced by the GP addition, as well as the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity, evaluated through ABTS and FRAP assays (p < 0.05). From a nutritional point of view, increasing amounts of GP resulted in a significative decrease in the rapidly digestible starch and an increase in the slowly digestible starch, while the predicted in vitro glycemic index was also reduced (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis showed that fortified spaghetti had good overall acceptability, and the results suggest that GP-fortified pasta could represent a healthy product with good technological and sensory properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Nitrogen Application in the Wheat Booting Stage on Glutenin Polymerization and Structural–Thermal Properties of Gluten with Variations in HMW-GS at the Glu-D1 Locus
Foods 2020, 9(3), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030353 - 18 Mar 2020
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Wheat gluten properties can be improved by the application of nitrogen. This study investigates the effects of nitrogen application in the booting stage on glutenin polymerization during grain-filling and structural–thermal properties of gluten based on the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) using near-isogenic lines [...] Read more.
Wheat gluten properties can be improved by the application of nitrogen. This study investigates the effects of nitrogen application in the booting stage on glutenin polymerization during grain-filling and structural–thermal properties of gluten based on the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) using near-isogenic lines (Glu-1Da and Glu-1Dd). The nitrogen rate experiment included rates of 0, 60, 90, and 120 kg N ha−1 applied with three replicates. Nitrogen significantly improved the grain quality traits (wet gluten contents, Zeleny sedimentation values, and maximum resistance) and dough strength (dough development time, dough stability time, and protein weakening), especially in wheat with the Glu-1Da allele. Nitrogen increased the protein composition contents, proportions of glutenins and HMW-GSs, and disulfide bond concentration in the flours of Glu-1Da and Glu-1Dd, and accelerated the polymerization of glutenins (appearing as glutenin macropolymer) during grain-filling, where nitrogen enhanced the accumulation and polymerization of glutenins more for line containing Glu-1Da than Glu-1Dd. The β-sheets, α-helix/β-sheet ratio, microstructures, and thermal stability were also improved to a greater degree by nitrogen for gluten with Glu-1Da compared to Glu-1Dd. Nitrogen treatment was highly effective at improving the gluten structural‒thermal properties of wheat in the booting stage, especially with inferior glutenin subunits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Potato Tuber Chemical Properties in Storage as Affected by Cultivar and Nitrogen Rate: Implications for Acrylamide Formation
Foods 2020, 9(3), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030352 - 18 Mar 2020
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Recently released potato cultivars Dakota Russet and Easton were bred for low reducing sugars, and low acrylamide-forming potential in French fries. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effects of nitrogen rate and storage time on tuber glucose concentrations in [...] Read more.
Recently released potato cultivars Dakota Russet and Easton were bred for low reducing sugars, and low acrylamide-forming potential in French fries. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effects of nitrogen rate and storage time on tuber glucose concentrations in different cultivars; (2) the relationships between acrylamide, glucose, and asparagine for the new cultivars and Russet Burbank. The study was conducted at Becker, Minnesota over a period of two years on a loamy sand soil under irrigated conditions. All cultivars were subjected to five N rates from 135 to 404 kg ha−1 in a randomized complete block design. Following harvest, tubers were stored at 7.8 °C and sampled at 0, 16, and 32 weeks. Dakota Russet and Easton had significantly lower concentrations of stem- and bud-end glucose, asparagine, and acrylamide than those of Russet Burbank in both years. The effect of storage time on glucose concentration was significant but differed with cultivar and year. N rate effects on stem- and bud-end glucose concentrations were cultivar and storage time dependent. After 16 weeks of storage, both asparagine and acrylamide concentrations linearly increased with increasing N rate. Glucose concentration was positively correlated with acrylamide concentration (r2 = 0.61). Asparagine concentration was also positively correlated with acrylamide concentration (r2 = 0.45) when the asparagine:glucose ratio was <1.306. The correlation between fry color and stem-end glucose concentration was significant over three cultivars in both years, but stronger in a growing season with minimal environmental stress. Taken together, these results suggest that while acrylamide formation during potato processing is a complex process affected by agronomic practices, environmental conditions during the growing season, and storage conditions, cultivar selection may be the most reliable method to minimize acrylamide in fried products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Purchase Intention for Low-Sodium and Low-Sugar Products
Foods 2020, 9(3), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030351 - 18 Mar 2020
Viewed by 609
Abstract
As sodium and sugar intake in South Korea exceed recommended levels, the government and food industry have been attempting to reduce the amount of sodium and sugar in the food products. In line with these efforts, this study sought to examine how the [...] Read more.
As sodium and sugar intake in South Korea exceed recommended levels, the government and food industry have been attempting to reduce the amount of sodium and sugar in the food products. In line with these efforts, this study sought to examine how the purchase intention for low-sodium/low-sugar products vary based on consumers’ previous choices of low-sodium/low-sugar products and other consumer-related factors. For this study, two online survey-based experiments were conducted: one using soy sauce to represent a sodium-based product and the other using yogurt to represent a sugar-based product. The significant variables that influenced the purchase intention for both were the consumers’ previous low-sodium/low-sugar product choices and their propensity for food neophobia. Consumers who had previously selected regular products showed a lower intention to purchase low-sodium soy sauce or low-sugar yogurt. In addition, those who had a strong tendency toward food neophobia also had a significantly lower purchase intention for these products. Moreover, the lower the consumer′s unhealthy = tasty intuition (UTI), the higher the purchase intention for the low-sodium soy sauce, but UTI did not act as a significant variable for the low-sugar yogurt. These results demonstrate that government interventions for low-sodium products and low-sugar products should be differentiated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Food Products)
Open AccessArticle
Arthrospira platensis as Natural Fermentation Booster for Milk and Soy Fermented Beverages
Foods 2020, 9(3), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030350 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
Arthrospira platensis, commercially known as Spirulina, is a fresh-water cyanobacterium that has been gaining increasing attention in recent years due to its high biological and nutritional value. For this reason, it has been employed in several food applications, to obtain or enhance functional [...] Read more.
Arthrospira platensis, commercially known as Spirulina, is a fresh-water cyanobacterium that has been gaining increasing attention in recent years due to its high biological and nutritional value. For this reason, it has been employed in several food applications, to obtain or enhance functional and technological properties of cheese, yogurt, bread, cookies or pasta. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential boosting effect of two different concentrations (0.25% and 0.50% w/v) of A. platensis on the fermentation capability of several starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, 1 probiotic and 4 commercial mix culture. These strains were used to ferment three different substrates and their fermentation behaviors were evaluated by impedance analyses together with rheological and color measurements. In tryptic soy broth (TSB), the A. platensis boosting effect was significantly higher if compared to yeast extract for all the starter LAB strains except for Lb. casei, which was equally stimulated. Different results were found when the same LAB strains were cultivated in SSM. The most evident boosting effect was found for S. thermophilus and Lb. casei. LAB growth was promoted by A. platensis, confirming that it could be a useful tool in the production of novel functional fermented dairy foods. The potential boosting effect was evaluated on four commercial mix cultures used to produce milk and soy fermented beverages. It was demonstrated that the booster effect took place, but it was variable and dependent not only on the mix culture used, but also on the substrate and A. platensis concentration. Also, rheological and color modifications were found to be dependent on these factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Food Additives: From Source to Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Improvement of a Pea Protein-Based Product Using Microbial Co-Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts
Foods 2020, 9(3), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030349 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Consumer demands for plant-based products have increased in recent years. However, their consumption is still limited due to the presence of off-flavor compounds, primarily beany and green notes, which are mainly associated with the presence of aldehydes, ketones, furans, and alcohols. To overcome [...] Read more.
Consumer demands for plant-based products have increased in recent years. However, their consumption is still limited due to the presence of off-flavor compounds, primarily beany and green notes, which are mainly associated with the presence of aldehydes, ketones, furans, and alcohols. To overcome this problem, fermentation is used as a lever to reduce off-flavors. A starter culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was tested in a 4% pea protein solution with one of the following yeasts: Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, or Torulaspora delbrueckii. The fermented samples were evaluated by a sensory panel. Non-fermented and fermented matrices were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to identify and quantify the volatile compounds. The sensory evaluation showed a significant reduction in the green/leguminous attributes of pea proteins and the generation of new descriptors in the presence of yeasts. Compared to the non-fermented matrix, fermentations with LAB or LAB and yeasts led to the degradation of many off-flavor compounds. Moreover, the presence of yeasts triggered the generation of esters. Thus, fermentation by a co-culture of LAB and yeasts can be used as a powerful tool for the improvement of the sensory perception of a pea protein-based product. Full article
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