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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 109 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The high sensory and functional value of fruits, associated with their high content of bioactive [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Lactic Acid and Modified Atmosphere Packaging against Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken during Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2020, 9(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010109 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of lactic acid washing and modified atmospheres packaging on the counts of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs stored at 4 °C. In experiment 1, inoculated chicken legs were washed with either 1% or [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of lactic acid washing and modified atmospheres packaging on the counts of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs stored at 4 °C. In experiment 1, inoculated chicken legs were washed with either 1% or 2% lactic acid solution for 5 min or distilled water (control). The treatment with 2% lactic acid reduced C. jejuni counts 1.42 log units after treatment (day 0). In experiment 2, inoculated samples were packaged under different conditions: air, 100%N2, vacuum, 20%CO2/80%N2, or 40%CO2/60%N2. C. jejuni counts were higher in samples packaged under vacuum or atmospheres containing CO2 than in air. In experiment 3, inoculated chicken legs were washed with a 2% lactic acid solution for 5 min or distilled water (control). Samples were packaged under different conditions: air, vacuum, 20%CO2/80%N2, or 40%CO2/60%N2. C. jejuni counts were lower in samples treated with lactic acid than in samples non-treated. However, C. jejuni counts were higher in chicken legs treated with lactic acid and packaged in modified atmospheres than in those treated and packaged in air. Immersion of chicken legs in a solution containing 2% lactic acid can reduce C. jejuni counts on fresh chicken packaged in modified atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosecurity in Meat and Poultry Production)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Vacuum Impregnation with Apple-Pear Juice on Content of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Chokeberry Fruit
Foods 2020, 9(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010108 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Food technology seeks ways to preserve products while maintaining high bioactive properties. Therefore, an attempt was made to assess the effect of the process of impregnation with apple-pear juice and the drying process on the content of bioactive compounds in chokeberry fruit. Chokeberry [...] Read more.
Food technology seeks ways to preserve products while maintaining high bioactive properties. Therefore, an attempt was made to assess the effect of the process of impregnation with apple-pear juice and the drying process on the content of bioactive compounds in chokeberry fruit. Chokeberry fruits were subjected to impregnation with apple-pear juice at three levels of vacuum pressure, 4, 6, and 8 kPa; then, they were dried using microwave-vacuum technology. The water activity of the obtained products, the content of fructose, glucose, sorbitol, and polyphenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity were determined. A total of 20 polyphenolic compounds were identified in the fruits and the obtained products (seven anthocyanins, six flavonols, four phenolic acids, and three flavan-3-ols). Preliminary processing, which consisted of introducing the juice ingredients into tissue of the chokeberry fruit, resulted in increased content of bioactive compounds. Moreover, a positive effect of impregnation on the antioxidant stability of the fruit after drying was noted. Water activity in the obtained products showed their microbiological safety. Impregnation at 4 kPa vacuum pressure proved to be the most desirable; in such conditions, the best product in terms of the content of bioactive compounds was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Foods in 2019
Foods 2020, 9(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010107 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sensory, Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterisation of Functional Manuka Honey Yogurts Containing Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16
Foods 2020, 9(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010106 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Consumer acceptance of synbiotics, which are synergistic combinations of probiotics and their prebiotic substrates, continues to expand in the functional food category. This research aimed at evaluating the effect of antibacterial manuka honey on the probiotic growth and sensory characteristics of potentially synbiotic [...] Read more.
Consumer acceptance of synbiotics, which are synergistic combinations of probiotics and their prebiotic substrates, continues to expand in the functional food category. This research aimed at evaluating the effect of antibacterial manuka honey on the probiotic growth and sensory characteristics of potentially synbiotic yogurts manufactured with Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16. Probiotic viable count in yogurts with 5% w/v Manuka honey (Blend, UMFTM 18+, AMFTM 15+ and AMFTM 20+) was evaluated by the spread plate method over the refrigerated storage period of three weeks. A panel of 102 consumers preferred the yogurt made with invert syrup over the manuka honey variants, and the unsweetened control was least liked overall. Invert syrup yogurt was also the most effective in promoting the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli. However, the honey-sweetened yogurts had a more favourable fermentation metabolite profile, especially the lactic and propionic acids, as estimated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The probiotic counts in AMFTM 15+ manuka honey yogurt (7 log cfu/mL) were significantly higher than the other honey yogurt types (Manuka Blend and UMFTM 18+) and above the recommended threshold levels. The combination thus can be developed as a synbiotic functional food by further improving the sensory and physicochemical properties such as texture, apparent viscosity and water holding capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Off-Flavours and Unpleasantness Are Cues for the Recognition and Valorization of Organic Wines by Experienced Tasters
Foods 2020, 9(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010105 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The drivers of consumer acceptance concerning organic wines are not well understood. In particular, among wine professionals, there are anecdotal evidences claiming that consumers accept off-flavours that would not be tolerated if the wines were conventionally produced. Therefore, the aim of this study [...] Read more.
The drivers of consumer acceptance concerning organic wines are not well understood. In particular, among wine professionals, there are anecdotal evidences claiming that consumers accept off-flavours that would not be tolerated if the wines were conventionally produced. Therefore, the aim of this study was to shed further light on this issue by tasting blind wines of both types of production using a tasting panel comprised by experienced individuals of several nationalities. The tasted wines were both conventional and organic and were with and without off-flavours. The same wines were evaluated in three tasting sessions where the given information was: (1) all wines were conventional, (2) all wines were organic, and (3) tasters were asked to guess the mode of production. A group of untrained tasters also rated the same organic wines in an informed session. The results showed that wines were significantly better scored and were given a higher willingness to pay value in the “organic” session. In addition, the experienced tasting panel produced a list of the most frequent sensory descriptors. When tasters were asked to guess the mode of production, wines that were supposed to be organic received a higher citation of off-flavours, such as “oxidized”, “reductive”, and “animal/undergrowth”. Moreover, an overall emotional response of unpleasantness was associated with the recognition of organic wines in the “guess” session. Untrained tasters rated the same organic wines with lower liking scores and were willing to pay less. In conclusion, off-flavours and their unpleasantness worked as a cue to identify wines supposed to be organic by experienced tasters. Their corresponding higher valorization could be explained by the psychological halo effect induced by the organic label. Contrarily, consumers did not show this halo effect, depreciating wines with unpleasant flavours irrespective of their mode of production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverage)
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence of the Possible Interaction between Ultrasound and Thiol Precursors
Foods 2020, 9(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010104 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 421
Abstract
The effect of ultrasound (20 kHz, 153 μm) on the prefermentation extraction mechanisms in Sauvignon Blanc grapes was studied, focusing on 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-pentan-2-one (4MMP) precursors linked to glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys). The treatment determined a positive extraction trend between the [...] Read more.
The effect of ultrasound (20 kHz, 153 μm) on the prefermentation extraction mechanisms in Sauvignon Blanc grapes was studied, focusing on 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-pentan-2-one (4MMP) precursors linked to glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys). The treatment determined a positive extraction trend between the duration (untreated, 3 and 5 min) and the conductivity or the concentration of catechins and total phenols, significantly differentiated after 5 min. Nevertheless, the concentration of the thiol precursors in grape juice not only remained undifferentiated, but that of 3-S-glutathionyl mercaptohexan-1-ol showed a negative trend with the treatment time applied (168 ± 43, 156 ± 36, and 149 ± 32 μg/L, respectively, for control, 3 and 5 min). The divergence on the effect between families of compounds suggests an interaction between the sonication treatment and thiol precursor molecules. In order to evaluate the possible degradation properly, ultrasound was applied in a model solution spiked with 3MH and 4MMP precursors, reproducing the conditions of grapes. Except for Cys-3MH, the mean concentration (n = 5) for the rest of the precursors was significantly lower in treated samples, predominantly in those linked to glutathione (~−22% and ~18% for GSH-3MH and GSH-4MMP) rather than to cysteine (~−6%~−8% for Cys-3MH and Cys-4MMP). The degradation of precursors was associated with a significant increase of 3MH and 4MMP. The formation of volatile thiols following sonication is interesting from a technological point of view, as they are key aroma compounds of wine and potentially exploitable in the wine industry through specific vinification protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Winemaking Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Utilization of Grape Seed Extract as a Natural Antioxidant in the Technology of Meat Products Inoculated with a Probiotic Strain of LAB
Foods 2020, 9(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010103 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Grape seeds have been evaluated for use as food ingredients with stabilizing effects in meat technology. A pork neck, inoculated with probiotic monoculture (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK900), was used as the matrix. The study compared the antioxidant potential of grape seed extract to [...] Read more.
Grape seeds have been evaluated for use as food ingredients with stabilizing effects in meat technology. A pork neck, inoculated with probiotic monoculture (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK900), was used as the matrix. The study compared the antioxidant potential of grape seed extract to sodium ascorbate. Three experimental variants of the products were prepared: With grape seed extract, with sodium ascorbate, and without additives. The meat ripened for two months, and during this period of time biophysicochemical analyses (product color, pH, number of lactic acid bacteria, content of free fatty acids, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were carried out. It was found that the extract inhibited lipid hydrolysis occurring in the neck (1% of oleic acid) and limited oxidative processes (0.46 mg MDA kg−1), with efficacy similar to that of sodium ascorbate (0.9% of oleic acid and 0.53 mg MDA kg−1, respectively). No limitation of the desired lactic acid bacteria growth (approximately 7 log cfu g−1) was noticed in the meat samples with the extract. The results are optimistic because they indicate that not only is it possible to produce fermented pork neck inoculated with probiotic, but there are also no obstacles to utilizing grape seed extract as a natural antioxidant in this technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Pits on the Shelf Life of Beef Burgers
Foods 2020, 9(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010102 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 477
Abstract
A new ingredient from date palm coproducts (pits) was obtained and tested as a preservative in burgers. Different concentrations of date pit (0%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6%) were added to beef burgers, and its effect on the safety and quality was evaluated during [...] Read more.
A new ingredient from date palm coproducts (pits) was obtained and tested as a preservative in burgers. Different concentrations of date pit (0%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6%) were added to beef burgers, and its effect on the safety and quality was evaluated during 10 days of storage. The incorporation of date pit was able to improve the shelf life and the cooking properties of the burgers. The date pit stabilized the color, lipid oxidation, and microbial growth of the burgers during the storage time due to the antioxidant activity and the phytochemical content of the date pits. For the consumer panel, the color and the off-odors were improved, and the addition of 1.5% and 3% date pit in cooked burgers obtained similar scores. Based on the obtained results, the new ingredient from date pit may have potential preservative properties for enhancing stability during shelf life and could improve the composition of bioactive compounds (fiber and phenolic content) of beef burgers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety of Animal Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Different Hot Air Drying Temperatures on Drying Kinetics, Shrinkage, and Colour of Persimmon Slices
Foods 2020, 9(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010101 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Drying characteristics of persimmon, cv. “Rojo Brillante”, slabs were experimentally determined in a hot air convective drier at drying temperatures of 45, 50, 55, 60, and 65 °C at a fixed air velocity of 2.3 m/s. It was observed that the drying temperature [...] Read more.
Drying characteristics of persimmon, cv. “Rojo Brillante”, slabs were experimentally determined in a hot air convective drier at drying temperatures of 45, 50, 55, 60, and 65 °C at a fixed air velocity of 2.3 m/s. It was observed that the drying temperature affected the drying time, shrinkage, and colour. Four empirical mathematical models namely, Enderson and Pabis, Page, Logarithmic, and Two term, were evaluated in order to deeply understand the drying process (moisture ratio). The Page model described the best representation of the experimental drying data at all investigated temperatures (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 °C). According to the evaluation of the shrinkage models, the Quadratic model provided the best representation of the volumetric shrinkage of persimmons as a function of moisture content. Overall, higher drying temperature (65 °C) improved the colour retention of dried persimmon slabs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Technologies in Food Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Important Sensory, Association, and Postprandial Perception Attributes Influencing Young Taiwanese Consumers’ Acceptance for Taiwanese Specialty Teas
Foods 2020, 9(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010100 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 436
Abstract
For hundreds of years, Taiwan has been famous for its various specialty teas. The sensory features of these teas have been well specialized and standardized through sensory evaluations performed by tea experts in yearly competitions throughout history. However, the question arises of whether [...] Read more.
For hundreds of years, Taiwan has been famous for its various specialty teas. The sensory features of these teas have been well specialized and standardized through sensory evaluations performed by tea experts in yearly competitions throughout history. However, the question arises of whether young Taiwanese consumers, whose dietary behaviors have become Westernized, agree with the conventional sensory standards and association/postprandial concepts in the traditional tea market of Taiwan. To study young Taiwanese consumers’ ideas towards traditional specialty teas, this research recruited 109 respondents, younger than the age of 30, to taste seven Taiwanese specialty tea infusions of various degrees of fermentation, and their opinions were gathered by questionnaires composed of check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions and hedonic scales. Through statistical analyses, we found that several tea sensory attributes which were emphasized in experts’ descriptive sensory evaluations were not appreciated by the young Taiwanese people. Instead, tea aroma and late sweetness/palatable/smooth/refreshing mouthfeels were the most important sensory attributes contributing to their tea preference. Overall, there would generally be no problem in serving young Taiwanese consumers lightly-fermented oolong teas that generate the highest digestive and lowest heartburn postprandial perceptions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Malolactic Bacteria Associated with Wines from Albariño Variety as Potential Starters: Screening for Quality and Safety
Foods 2020, 9(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010099 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 501
Abstract
The biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in musts and wines of Albariño variety has been studied. The identification of species was addressed through a combination of biochemical and genetic methods (API® 50 CHL test, 16S rDNA and recA gene sequences, Amplified Ribosomal [...] Read more.
The biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in musts and wines of Albariño variety has been studied. The identification of species was addressed through a combination of biochemical and genetic methods (API® 50 CHL test, 16S rDNA and recA gene sequences, Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis -ARDRA- and 16S-26S intergenic region analysis). The results grouped the isolates into six species predominating those of the genus Lactobacillus and showing a typical biogeographical distribution. Among sixteen strains evaluated, eight of them showed malolactic activity. The study of the presence of genes hdc, odc, and tdc, along with the LC/MS-MS analysis of biogenic amines in wine, showed five strains lacking aminogenic ability. The absence of the pad gene in the above-mentioned strains discards its ability to produce volatile phenols that may adversely affect the aroma. Finally, all malolactic strains showed β-glucosidase activity so that they could contribute to enhance and differentiate the aromatic profile of Albariño wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Wine Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
FT-NIR Analysis of Intact Table Grape Berries to Understand Consumer Preference Driving Factors
Foods 2020, 9(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010098 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Fourier-transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) is a technique used in the compositional and sensory analysis of foodstuffs. In this work, we have measured the main maturity parameters for grape (sugars and acids) using hundreds of intact berry samples to build models for the [...] Read more.
Fourier-transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) is a technique used in the compositional and sensory analysis of foodstuffs. In this work, we have measured the main maturity parameters for grape (sugars and acids) using hundreds of intact berry samples to build models for the prediction of these parameters from berries of two very different varieties: “Victoria” and “Autumn Royal”. Together with the chemical composition in terms of sugar and acidic content, we have carried out a sensory analysis on single berries. Employing the models built for sugars and acids it was possible to learn the sweetness and acidity of each berry before the destructive sensory analysis. The direct correlation of sensory data with FT-NIR spectra is difficult; therefore, spectral data were exported from the spectrometer built-in software and analyzed with R software using a statistical analysis technique (Spearman correlation) which allowed the correlation of berry appreciation data with specific wavelengths that were then related to sugar and acidic content. In this article, we show how it is possible to carry out the analysis of single berries to obtain data on chemical composition parameters and consumer appreciation with a fast, simple, and non-destructive technique with a clear advantage for producers and consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Methods for Assessing Food Safety and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs in Traditionally and Industrially Smoked Pork Meat Products from Bosnia and Herzegovina
Foods 2020, 9(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010097 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 486
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs): (hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH, β-HCH, δ–HCH), lindane, aldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, endosulfane I, endosulfane II, endosulfane sulfate, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), methoxychlor [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs): (hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH, β-HCH, δ–HCH), lindane, aldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, endosulfane I, endosulfane II, endosulfane sulfate, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), methoxychlor and endrin ketone and 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 153, PCB 138 and PCB 180). The samples were taken from pancetta, dry pork neck (budiola), pork tenderloin and sausages produced in Rakitno (Bosnia and Herzegovina), smoked in both a traditional smokehouse and in an industrial chamber. Instrumental analysis was performed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The reliability of the results, i.e., quality control is ensured by standard laboratory practice, which involves participation in proficiency test, the use of blank samples, reference materials and implementation of recommendations given by the relevant international organizations. The concentrations of α-HCH, lindane, PCB 28, PCB 52 and PCB 153 were detected and quantified. The concentrations of OCPs and PCBs did not significantly vary depending on product type and the conditions of production. All the examined samples were for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Residual Pesticide in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Chemical Profiling of Strawberry as a Traceability Tool to Investigate the Effect of Cultivar and Cultivation Conditions
Foods 2020, 9(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010096 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 414
Abstract
The chemical composition of foods is tightly regulated by multiple genotypic and agronomic factors, which can thus serve as potential descriptors for traceability and authentication purposes. In the present work, we performed a multi-chemical characterization of strawberry fruits from five varieties (Aromas, Camarosa, [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of foods is tightly regulated by multiple genotypic and agronomic factors, which can thus serve as potential descriptors for traceability and authentication purposes. In the present work, we performed a multi-chemical characterization of strawberry fruits from five varieties (Aromas, Camarosa, Diamante, Medina, and Ventana) grown in two cultivation systems (open/closed soilless systems) during two consecutive campaigns with different climatic conditions (rainfall and temperature). For this purpose, we analyzed multiple components closely related to the sensory and health characteristics of strawberry, including sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and essential and non-essential mineral elements, and various complementary statistical approaches were applied for selecting chemical descriptors of cultivar and agronomic conditions. Anthocyanins, phenolic acids, sucrose, and malic acid were found to be the most discriminant variables among cultivars, while climatic conditions and the cultivation system were behind changes in polyphenol contents. These results thus demonstrate the utility of combining multi-chemical profiling approaches with advanced chemometric tools in food traceability research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Antioxidant Systems and Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Feijoa Edible Flowers at Different Flowering Stages
Foods 2020, 9(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010095 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Background: Feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg)) was initially introduced as an ornamental plant, but nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the numerous beneficial properties of its edible fruits. Feijoa flowers have been included in the list of edible flowers, but despite this, [...] Read more.
Background: Feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg)) was initially introduced as an ornamental plant, but nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the numerous beneficial properties of its edible fruits. Feijoa flowers have been included in the list of edible flowers, but despite this, they are still considered niche products due to consumer skepticism and lack of publicity. Methods: This study evaluated the physicochemical traits, antioxidant system, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle in feijoa flowers at five flowering stages based on the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. Results: The results showed that the optimal stage to harvest feijoa flower is the F2 stage characterized by high bioactive compounds content. Furthermore, the enzymes involved in oxidative stress and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle showed different trends during the flowering stages. Conclusions: This study provides new evidence to understand the possible role of bioactive compounds and ascorbate-glutathione cycle in the regulation of flower development, defining the optimal stage to harvest flowers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Screen of the Color and Water Content of Fresh-Cut Potato Tuber Slices Using Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Multivariate Analysis
Foods 2020, 9(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010094 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Color index and water content are important indicators for evaluating the quality of fresh-cut potato tuber slices. In this study, hyperspectral imaging combined with multivariate analysis was used to detect the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, Browning index (BI), [...] Read more.
Color index and water content are important indicators for evaluating the quality of fresh-cut potato tuber slices. In this study, hyperspectral imaging combined with multivariate analysis was used to detect the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, Browning index (BI), L*/b*) and water content of fresh-cut potato tuber slices. The successive projections algorithm (SPA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) were used to extract characteristic wavelengths, partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) were utilized to establish regression models. For color prediction, R2c, R2p and RPD of all the LSSVM models established for the five color indicators L*, a*, b*, BI, L*/b* were exceeding 0.90, 0.84 and 2.1, respectively. For water content prediction, R2c, R2p, and RPD of the LSSVM models were over 0.80, 0.77 and 1.9, respectively. LS-SVM model based on full spectra was used to reappear the spatial distribution of color and water content in fresh-cut potato tuber slices by pseudo-color imaging since it performed best in most cases. The results illustrated that hyperspectral imaging could be an effective method for color and water content prediction, which could provide solid theoretical basis for subsequent grading and processing of fresh-cut potato tuber slices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Occurrence and Dietary Exposure Assessment of Mycotoxins, Biogenic Amines, and Heavy Metals in Mould-Ripened Blue Cheeses
Foods 2020, 9(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010093 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The occurrence and dietary exposure assessment of 16 mycotoxins, 6 biogenic amines (BAs), and 13 metallic elements in blue-veined cheeses (n = 46) is reported. Co-occurrence of mycophenolic acid (≤599 µg·kg−1) with roquefortine C (≤5454 µg·kg−1) was observed [...] Read more.
The occurrence and dietary exposure assessment of 16 mycotoxins, 6 biogenic amines (BAs), and 13 metallic elements in blue-veined cheeses (n = 46) is reported. Co-occurrence of mycophenolic acid (≤599 µg·kg−1) with roquefortine C (≤5454 µg·kg−1) was observed in 63% of the tested cheeses, while BAs were frequently present at concentrations between 0.2 and 717 mg kg−1. The concentrations of heavy metals in cheeses were very low. Chronic/acute exposure assessment based on consumption data from different European populations indicated that the levels of mycotoxins and heavy metals are safe to consumers, whereas, rather high hazard indexes (HI up to 0.77) were determined for BAs according to the worst-case scenario based on high consumption and 95th percentile occurrence. A more detailed acute dietary intake study indicated that histamine and tyramine were predominant among these BAs, reaching 27 and 41% of the acute oral intake reference doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Commercial Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for the Rapid Detection of Anisakis spp. DNA in Processed Fish Products
Foods 2020, 9(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010092 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Parasites belonging to the Anisakis genera are organisms of interest for human health because they are responsible for the Anisakiasis zoonosis, caused by the ingestion of raw or undercooked fish. Furthermore, several authors have reported this parasite to be a relevant inducer of [...] Read more.
Parasites belonging to the Anisakis genera are organisms of interest for human health because they are responsible for the Anisakiasis zoonosis, caused by the ingestion of raw or undercooked fish. Furthermore, several authors have reported this parasite to be a relevant inducer of acute or chronic allergic diseases. In this work, a rapid commercial system based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) was optimised and validated for the sensitive and rapid detection of Anisakis spp. DNA in processed fish products. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay for processed fish samples experimentally infected with Anisakis spp. larvae and DNA were determined. The LAMP system proposed in this study was able to give positive amplification for all the processed fish samples artificially contaminated with Anisakis spp., giving sensitivity values equal to 100%. Specificity tests provided no amplification for the Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova, or Hysterothylacium genera and uninfected samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of the LAMP assay proposed was 102 times lower than the real-time PCR method compared. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the application of the LAMP assay for the detection of Anisakis spp. in processed fish products. The results obtained indicate that the LAMP assay validated in this work could be a reliable, easy-to-use, and convenient tool for the rapid detection of Anisakis DNA in fish product inspection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Methods for Assessing Food Safety and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Dry-Cured Meat Products According to the Smoking Regime: Process Optimization to Control Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Foods 2020, 9(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010091 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 467
Abstract
The manufacturing of dry-cured meat products usually includes a smoking step. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic chemical compounds that may result from smoking. The aim of the present study was to optimize the smoking regime of traditional dry-cured meat products in [...] Read more.
The manufacturing of dry-cured meat products usually includes a smoking step. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic chemical compounds that may result from smoking. The aim of the present study was to optimize the smoking regime of traditional dry-cured meat products in order to minimize the presence of PAHs. Dry-cured sausages were submitted to different smoking regimes: (A) no smoking; (B) 20 h effective smoking; (C) 60 h effective smoking; (D) effective smoking until reaching 38%–40% weight losses. Three independent batches were produced per smoking regime, and three samples per batch were analyzed. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory analyses were performed. The total PAHs content was generally low and did not differ significantly in meat products submitted to the four different smoking regimes. The PAH4 and benzo(α)pyrene levels were below the established legal limits in all analyzed dry-cured sausages. Nevertheless, non-smoked sausages always showed lower PAHs values for all PAHs groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle
Fats are Glossy but Does Glossiness Imply Fatness? The Influence of Packaging Glossiness on Food Perceptions
Foods 2020, 9(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010090 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 529
Abstract
This research brings together two research streams, one focusing on the influence of a diverse set of packaging attributes (e.g., shape, size, color, etc.) on perceptions of packaged food and the second one on the up- and downsides of using glossy materials, which [...] Read more.
This research brings together two research streams, one focusing on the influence of a diverse set of packaging attributes (e.g., shape, size, color, etc.) on perceptions of packaged food and the second one on the up- and downsides of using glossy materials, which are often studied in a non-food context. The current research deals with the influence of glossy (versus matte) food packages on consumers’ perceptions of the food inside the package. With one online survey and one quasi-experiment, we show that consumers draw inferences on the food’s fat level from the package surface, in that glossy packages are seen as a signal of fatness. This association is specific; consumers do not associate glossiness with every unhealthy product aspect. Sugar levels are unaffected by the package surface. However, due to the higher inferred fat level, a product in a glossy package is perceived to be less healthy, less tasty, and low in quality and product expensiveness. Thus, these findings suggest that glossy (versus matte) food packages mainly serve as a signal of negative product qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Visuals Affect Food Choice?)
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Open AccessArticle
Zymomonas mobilis in Bread Dough: Characterization of Dough Leavening Performance in Presence of Sucrose
Foods 2020, 9(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010089 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Zymomonas mobilis, because of its fermentative metabolism, has potential food applications in the development of leavened baked goods consumable by people with adverse responses to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since Z. mobilis is not able to utilize maltose present in flour, the effect [...] Read more.
Zymomonas mobilis, because of its fermentative metabolism, has potential food applications in the development of leavened baked goods consumable by people with adverse responses to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since Z. mobilis is not able to utilize maltose present in flour, the effect of sucrose addition (2.5 g/100 g flour) on bread dough leavening properties was studied. For comparison purposes, leavening performances of S. cerevisiae with and without sucrose were also investigated. Doughs leavened by Z. mobilis without sucrose addition showed the lowest height development (14.95 ± 0.21 mm) and CO2 production (855 ± 136 mL). When sucrose was added, fermentative performances of Z. mobilis significantly (p < 0.05) improved (+80% and +85% of gas production and retention, respectively), with a dough maximum height 2.6 times higher, results indicating that Z. mobilis with sucrose can be leavened in shorter time with respect to the sample without addition. S. cerevisiae did not benefit the sucrose addition in terms of CO2 production and retention, even if lag leavening time was significantly (p < 0.05) shorter (about the half) and time of porosity appearance significantly (p < 0.05) longer (about 26%) with respect to S. cerevisiae alone. Results demonstrate that in the presence of sucrose, Z. mobilis can efficiently leaven a bread dough, thus providing innovation possibilities in the area of yeast-free leavened products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Screening and Spontaneous Mutation of Pickle-Derived Lactobacillus plantarum with Overproduction of Riboflavin, Related Mechanism, and Food Application
Foods 2020, 9(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010088 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays an important role in human cell metabolism and participates in various redox reactions and in energy utilization. In this study, 90 riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened out from pickle juices. The yields of riboflavin [...] Read more.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays an important role in human cell metabolism and participates in various redox reactions and in energy utilization. In this study, 90 riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened out from pickle juices. The yields of riboflavin in these LAB were about 0.096–0.700 mg/L, and one strain, Lactobacillus plantarum RYG-YYG-9049, was found to produce the highest riboflavin content. Next, roseoflavin was used to induce the spontaneous mutation of RYG-YYG-9049, and selected roseoflavin-resistant colonies generally produced higher riboflavin contents, ranging from 1.013 to 2.332 mg/L. The No. 10 mutant, L. plantarum RYG-YYG-9049-M10, had the highest riboflavin content. Next, the molecular mechanism of enhancing riboflavin production in RYG-YYG-9049-M10 was explored, leading to the finding that roseoflavin treatment did not change the rib operons including the ribA, ribB, ribC, ribH, and ribG genes. Unexpectedly, however, this mechanism did induce an insertion of a 1059-bp DNA fragment in the upstream regulatory region of the rib operon, as compared to the wild-type RYG-YYG-9049. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that roseoflavin could induce an insertion of DNA fragment in LAB to increase riboflavin content, representing a new mutation type that is induced by roseoflavin. Finally, in order to fortify riboflavin content in soymilk, RYG-YYG-9049 and RYG-YYG-9049-M10 were used to ferment soymilk, and several fermentation parameters were optimized to obtain the fermented soymilk with riboflavin contents of up to 2.920 mg/L. In general, roseoflavin induction is an economical and feasible biotechnological strategy to induce riboflavin-overproducing LAB, and this strategy can be used to develop LAB-fermented functional foods that are rich in riboflavin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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Open AccessReview
Freeze-Drying of Plant-Based Foods
Foods 2020, 9(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010087 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Vacuum freeze-drying of biological materials is one of the best methods of water removal, with final products of highest quality. The solid state of water during freeze-drying protects the primary structure and the shape of the products with minimal volume reduction. In addition, [...] Read more.
Vacuum freeze-drying of biological materials is one of the best methods of water removal, with final products of highest quality. The solid state of water during freeze-drying protects the primary structure and the shape of the products with minimal volume reduction. In addition, the lower temperatures in the process allow maximal nutrient and bioactive compound retention. This technique has been successfully applied to diverse biological materials, such as meats, coffee, juices, dairy products, cells, and bacteria, and is standard practice for penicillin, hormones, blood plasma, vitamin preparations, etc. Despite its many advantages, having four to ten times more energy requirements than regular hot air drying, freeze-drying has always been recognized as the most expensive process for manufacturing a dehydrated product. The application of the freeze-drying process to plant-based foods has been traditionally dedicated to the production of space shuttle goods, military or extreme-sport foodstuffs, and specialty foods such as coffee or spices. Recently, the market for ‘natural’ and ‘organic’ products is, however, strongly growing as well as the consumer’s demand for foods with minimal processing and high quality. From this perspective, the market for freeze-dried plant-based foods is not only increasing but also diversifying. Freeze-dried fruits and vegetables chunks, pieces, or slices are nowadays majorly used in a wide range of food products such as confectionaries, morning cereals, soups, bakeries, meal boxes, etc. Instant drinks are prepared out of freeze-dried tea, coffee, or even from maple syrup enriched with polyphenol concentrated extracts from trees. The possibilities are endless. In this review, the application of freeze-drying to transform plant-based foods was analyzed, based on the recent research publications on the subject and personal unpublished data. The review is structured around the following related topics: latest applications of freeze-drying to plant-based foods, specific technological problems that could be found when freeze-drying such products (i.e., presence of cuticle; high sugar or lipid concentration), pretreatments and intensification technologies employed in freeze-drying of plant-based foods, and quality issues of these freeze-dried products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freeze-Drying Technology in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Parboiled Paddy Drying with Different Dryers: Thermodynamic and Quality Properties, Mathematical Modeling Using ANNs Assessment
Foods 2020, 9(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010086 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 598
Abstract
The effect of hybrid infrared-convective (IRC), microwave (MIC) and infrared-convective-microwave (IRCM) drying methods on thermodynamic (drying kinetics, effective moisture diffusivity coefficient (Deff), specific energy consumption (SEC)) and quality (head rice yield (HRY), color value and lightness) characteristics of parboiled rice [...] Read more.
The effect of hybrid infrared-convective (IRC), microwave (MIC) and infrared-convective-microwave (IRCM) drying methods on thermodynamic (drying kinetics, effective moisture diffusivity coefficient (Deff), specific energy consumption (SEC)) and quality (head rice yield (HRY), color value and lightness) characteristics of parboiled rice samples were investigated in this study. Experimental data were fitted into empirical drying models to explain moisture ratio (MR) variations during drying. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method was applied to predict MR. The IRCM method provided shorter drying time (reduce percentage = 71%) than IRC (41%) and microwave (69%) methods. The Deff of MIC drying (6.85 × 10−11–4.32 × 10−10 m2/s) was found to be more than the observed in IRC (1.32 × 10−10–1.87 × 10−10 m2/s) and IRCM methods (1.58 × 10−11–2.31 × 10−11 m2/s). SEC decreased during drying. Microwave drying had the lowest SEC (0.457 MJ/kg) compared to other drying methods (with mean 28 MJ/kg). Aghbashlo’s model was found to be the best for MR prediction. According to the ANN results, the highest determination coefficient (R2) values for MR prediction in IRC, IRCM and MIC drying methods were 0.9993, 0.9995 and 0.9990, respectively. The HRY (from 60.2 to 74.07%) and the color value (from 18.08 to 19.63) increased with the drying process severity, thereby decreasing the lightness (from 57.74 to 62.17). The results of this research can be recommended for the selection of the best dryer for parboiled paddy. Best drying conditions in the study is related to the lowest dryer SEC and sample color value and the highest HRY and sample lightness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Postharvest Technology: Rice Drying)
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Open AccessArticle
Textural Effects on Perceived Satiation and Ad Libitum Intake of Potato Chips in Males and Females
Foods 2020, 9(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010085 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Food texture plays a critical role in influencing an individual’s perceived satiation and ad libitum intake. It remains unclear, however, whether such textural changes can also affect snack consumption. This study aimed to address this question by testing for changes in perceived satiation [...] Read more.
Food texture plays a critical role in influencing an individual’s perceived satiation and ad libitum intake. It remains unclear, however, whether such textural changes can also affect snack consumption. This study aimed to address this question by testing for changes in perceived satiation and ad libitum intake of two types of potato chips with varying hardness. In addition, the observed effect was compared across gender groups. With a crossover design, 74 participants (31 females and 43 males) performed a food consumption task for two types of chips produced from potatoes that were either untreated or treated with pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology. Sensory analyses indicated that these two types of chips had comparable hedonic value, despite a clear textural difference. Across sexes, the results revealed a significant difference in perceived satiation for the two types of chips (p = 0.009), but not in intake. By contrast, analyses of males alone revealed that male participants rated PEF-treated chips to be more satiating than the control chips and correspondingly consumed less (p < 0.05). Overall, findings from the study suggest that modifications of food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing energy intake from snack consumption. The contrasting results from different gender groups highlight the importance of considering gender effects in studies of eating behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Powder and Reconstituted Properties of Commercial Infant and Follow-On Formulas
Foods 2020, 9(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010084 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 542
Abstract
The physical properties of 15 commercially available infant formulas (IF) and follow-on (FO) formulas were analysed. Powders made with intact milk proteins were classified into two groups; Type I—homogenous mixtures of milk powder particles (n = 6); and Type II—heterogeneous mixtures of [...] Read more.
The physical properties of 15 commercially available infant formulas (IF) and follow-on (FO) formulas were analysed. Powders made with intact milk proteins were classified into two groups; Type I—homogenous mixtures of milk powder particles (n = 6); and Type II—heterogeneous mixtures of milk powder particles and tomahawk-shaped α-lactose monohydrate crystals (n = 6). Powders made using hydrolysed proteins were classified as Type III powders (n = 3). Type II powders exhibited similar flow characteristics to Type I powders despite having significantly (p < 0.05) smaller particle size, lower circularity, and greater elongation. Type III powders exhibited lowest particles size, highest surface free fat, and poorest flow properties (p < 0.05 for all). Upon reconstitution of powders (12.5% w/w), no significant difference (p < 0.05) in apparent viscosity was observed between Type I and II powders. Reconstituted Type III powders had relatively poor stability to separation compared to Type I and II powders, caused by large starch granules and/or poor emulsification by hydrolysed proteins. Overall, this study illustrated the range of physical behaviour and structures present in commercial IF powders. In particular, the effect of dry addition of lactose and the hydrolysis of protein were found to have major effects on physical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Three Methods to Determine the Degree of Substitution of Quinoa and Rice Starch Acetates, Propionates, and Butyrates: Direct Stoichiometry, FTIR, and 1H-NMR
Foods 2020, 9(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010083 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Rice and quinoa starch esters were prepared by acylation using short-chain fatty acid anhydrides with different chain lengths (acetic, propionic, and butyric anhydride). A direct stoichiometric method based on the acylation reaction was used to determine the degree of substitution (DS) and acyl [...] Read more.
Rice and quinoa starch esters were prepared by acylation using short-chain fatty acid anhydrides with different chain lengths (acetic, propionic, and butyric anhydride). A direct stoichiometric method based on the acylation reaction was used to determine the degree of substitution (DS) and acyl content (AC). In addition, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to validate the conformational changes of acylated starch and 1H-NMR was used as a DS reference method. DS by stoichiometric calculation was shown to be in agreement with FTIR and was comparable with DS obtained from Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Based on this study, stoichiometric calculation allows rapid and direct determination of substitution levels and acyl content without the loss of samples, which provides efficiency and optimization of manufacturing procedures in producing the desired level of esterified starches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch: Properties, Processing, and Functionality in Food Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Differentiation between Ripening Stages of Iberian Dry-Cured Ham According to the Free Amino Acids Content
Foods 2020, 9(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010082 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 535
Abstract
In this paper, the differentiation of three ripening stages, postsalting, drying, and cellar, of Iberian dry-cured ham has been carried out according to their free amino acids contents. Eighteen L-amino acids, alanine, 2-aminobutanoic acid, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, leucine, [...] Read more.
In this paper, the differentiation of three ripening stages, postsalting, drying, and cellar, of Iberian dry-cured ham has been carried out according to their free amino acids contents. Eighteen L-amino acids, alanine, 2-aminobutanoic acid, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine have been determined by gas chromatography with derivatization with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of the eighteen amino acids in the ham samples, and gas chromatography using a DB-17HT column and flame ionization detector was used for quantitative determination. Extraction with a mixture methanol-acetonitrile has been carried out, achieving recoveries in the range 52–164%. Methimazole was used as internal standard. Limits of detection ranged between 7.0 and 611.7 mg·kg−1. Free amino acids have been used as chemical descriptors to differentiate between the ripening stages. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis have been used as chemometric techniques, achieving complete differentiation between the ripening stages. Alanine, tyrosine, glutamine, proline, 2-aminobutanoic acid, cysteine, and valine were the most differentiating amino acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessCommunication
Effects of Dried Olive Pulp Dietary Supplementation on Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity of Pig Meat
Foods 2020, 9(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010081 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Olive pulp belongs to agro-industrial by-products, and its addition into livestock diets generally result in neutral or positive effects on performance. However, the data concerning the effects of olive by-products on pork meat characteristics are scarce. The aim of this preliminary study was [...] Read more.
Olive pulp belongs to agro-industrial by-products, and its addition into livestock diets generally result in neutral or positive effects on performance. However, the data concerning the effects of olive by-products on pork meat characteristics are scarce. The aim of this preliminary study was therefore to examine the effects of dried olive pulp (DOP) dietary supplementation on quality parameters and oxidative stability of pig meat. Twenty finishing pigs were allocated to two groups: C that was provided with a control diet, and DOP that was fed with an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diet supplemented with dried olive pulp at the level of 50 g/kg or 5%. As indicated, cold carcass weight, pH, lightness, redness, cooking loss, and tenderness were not influenced by DOP inclusion. Only meat yellowness (a*) was significantly decreased in DOP meat samples. Moreover, meat oxidation values tended to decrease in the DOP group after one day, but no further differences were observed after four, six, and eight days of refrigerated storage. It can be concluded that DOP dietary supplementation could be recommended as a feasible approach, especially in the Mediterranean region to reduce diet formulation costs, while no significant side effects on pork meat quality are observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds: Applications in Foods of Animal Origin)
Open AccessArticle
Peel of Traditional Apple Varieties as a Great Source of Bioactive Compounds: Extraction by Micro-Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion
Foods 2020, 9(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010080 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 810
Abstract
Micro matrix solid phase dispersion (micro-MSPD) was optimized by response surface methodology for the extraction of polyphenols from the peel of twelve traditional and eight commercial apple varieties grown in Croatia. The optimized micro-MSPD procedure includes the use of 0.2 g of sample, [...] Read more.
Micro matrix solid phase dispersion (micro-MSPD) was optimized by response surface methodology for the extraction of polyphenols from the peel of twelve traditional and eight commercial apple varieties grown in Croatia. The optimized micro-MSPD procedure includes the use of 0.2 g of sample, 0.8 g of dispersant, a 57% solution of methanol in water as the solvent and 5 mL of extract volume. The total polyphenolic index (TPI) and antioxidant activity (AA) were measured by spectrophotometric assays. Eighteen polyphenolic compounds were identified in all investigated apples by HPLC-DAD and LC-(ESI)-MS. The peel of traditional apple varieties had higher contents of all investigated polyphenols. Calculated relative contribution of polyphenol groups indicated non-flavonoids (28.6%) and flavanols (46.2%) as the major contributors to the total polyphenolic content in traditional and commercial apple varieties, respectively. The most abundant polyphenol in traditional apple peel was chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin (1143 ± 755 µg/g dw, 954 ± 343 µg/g dw and 560 ± 362 µg/g dw, respectively). The peel of varieties ‘Apistar’, ‘Bobovac’ and ‘Božićnica’ could be highlighted as an important source of polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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