New Frontiers in Acrylamide Study in Foods: Formation, Analysis and Exposure Assessment

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020) | Viewed by 54374

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Characterization, Quality and Safety Department, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, ICTAN-CSIC, José Antonio Novais 6, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: food science; Maillard reaction; food safety; thermal food processing; chemical contaminants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain
Interests: maillard reaction; glycation; chemical process contaminants; acrylamide; bioaccesibility; in vivo effects
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain
Interests: food quality; food safety; thermal processing; Maillard reaction; glycation; process contaminants; acrylamide; advanced glycation end-products; melanoidins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Acrylamide is a chemical contaminant that naturally originates during the thermal processing of many foods. Since 2002, worldwide institutions with competencies in food safety have promoted activities aimed at updating knowledge for a revaluation of the risk assessment of this process contaminant. EFSA ruled in 2015 that the presence of acrylamide in foods increases the risk of developing cancer in any age group of the population. Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 establishes mandatory mitigation measures for the food industry and reference levels to reduce the presence of acrylamide in foods and, consequently, its harmful effects on the population.

This Special Issue is open to contributions aimed at exploring recent advances on the acrylamide issue in foods that includes novel insight on its chemistry of formation and elimination, effective mitigation strategies, rapid monitoring techniques, the risk/benefit approach, exposure assessment, in order to enhance our understanding for this process contaminant and its dietary exposure.

Dr. Marta Mesías
Dr. Cristina Delgado-Andrade
Dr. Francisco J. Morales
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Acrylamide
  • Chemical process contaminants
  • Maillard reaction
  • Food safety
  • Risk/benefit
  • Mitigation
  • Exposure

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 184 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue: New Frontiers in Acrylamide Study in Foods—Formation, Analysis and Exposure Assessment
by Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Marta Mesías and Francisco J. Morales
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101506 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Acrylamide is a chemical contaminant that naturally originates during the thermal processing of many foods. Since 2002, worldwide institutions with competencies in food safety have promoted activities aimed at updating knowledge for a revaluation of the risk assessment of this process contaminant. The [...] Read more.
Acrylamide is a chemical contaminant that naturally originates during the thermal processing of many foods. Since 2002, worldwide institutions with competencies in food safety have promoted activities aimed at updating knowledge for a revaluation of the risk assessment of this process contaminant. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ruled in 2015 that the presence of acrylamide in foods increases the risk of developing cancer in any age group of the population. Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 establishes recommended mitigation measures for the food industry and reference levels to reduce the presence of acrylamide in foods and, consequently, its harmful effects on the population. This Special Issue explores recent advances on acrylamide in foods, including a novel insight on its chemistry of formation and elimination, effective mitigation strategies, conventional and innovative monitoring techniques, risk/benefit approaches and exposure assessment, in order to enhance our understanding for this process contaminant and its dietary exposure. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Industrial Strategies to Reduce Acrylamide Formation in Californian-Style Green Ripe Olives
by Daniel Martín-Vertedor, Antonio Fernández, Marta Mesías, Manuel Martínez, María Díaz and Elisabet Martín-Tornero
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091202 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3319
Abstract
Acrylamide, a compound identified as a probable carcinogen, is generated during the sterilization phase employed during the processing of Californian-style green ripe olives. It is possible to reduce the content of this toxic compound by applying different strategies during the processing of green [...] Read more.
Acrylamide, a compound identified as a probable carcinogen, is generated during the sterilization phase employed during the processing of Californian-style green ripe olives. It is possible to reduce the content of this toxic compound by applying different strategies during the processing of green ripe olives. The influence of different processing conditions on acrylamide content was studied in three olives varieties (“Manzanilla de Sevilla”, “Hojiblanca”, and “Manzanilla Cacereña”). Olives harvested during the yellow–green stage presented higher acrylamide concentrations than green olives. A significant reduction in acrylamide content was observed when olives were washed with water at 25 °C for 45 min (25% reduction) and for 2 h (45% reduction) prior to lye treatment. Stone olives had 21–26% higher acrylamide levels than pitted olives and 42–50% higher levels than sliced olives in the three studied varieties. When calcium chloride (CaCl2) was added to the brine and brine sodium chloride (NaCl) increased from 2% to 4%, olives presented higher concentrations of this contaminant. The addition of additives did not affect acrylamide levels when olives were canned without brine. Results from this study are very useful for the table olive industry to identify critical points in the production of Californian-style green ripe olives, thus, helping to control acrylamide formation in this foodstuff. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 3902 KiB  
Article
Are Household Potato Frying Habits Suitable for Preventing Acrylamide Exposure?
by Marta Mesias, Cristina Delgado-Andrade and Francisco J. Morales
Foods 2020, 9(6), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060799 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3810
Abstract
A survey was conducted of 730 Spanish households to identify culinary practices which might influence acrylamide formation during the domestic preparation of french fries and their compliance with the acrylamide mitigation strategies described in the 2017/2158 Regulation. Spanish household practices conformed with the [...] Read more.
A survey was conducted of 730 Spanish households to identify culinary practices which might influence acrylamide formation during the domestic preparation of french fries and their compliance with the acrylamide mitigation strategies described in the 2017/2158 Regulation. Spanish household practices conformed with the majority of recommendations for the selection, storing and handling of potatoes, with the exception of soaking potato strips. Olive oil was the preferred frying oil (78.7%) and frying pans were the most common kitchen utensils used for frying (79.0%), leading to a higher oil replacement rate than with a deep-fryer. Although frying temperature was usually controlled (81.0%), participants were unaware of the maximum temperature recommended for preventing acrylamide formation. For french fries, color was the main criteria when deciding the end-point of frying (85.3%). Although a golden color was preferred by respondents (87.3%), color guidelines are recommended in order to unify the definition of “golden.” The results conclude that habits of the Spanish population are in line with recommendations to mitigate acrylamide during french fry preparation. Furthermore, these habits do not include practices that risk increasing acrylamide formation. Nevertheless, educational initiatives tailored towards consumers would reduce the formation of this contaminant and, consequently, exposure to it in a domestic setting. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Healthy and Harmful Maillard Reaction Products in a Novel Coffee Cascara Beverage: Melanoidins and Acrylamide
by Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Ana Sofía Elizondo, Maite Iriondo-DeHond, Maria Belén Ríos, Romina Mufari, Jose A. Mendiola, Elena Ibañez and Maria Dolores del Castillo
Foods 2020, 9(5), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050620 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 7688
Abstract
Our research aimed to evaluate the formation of Maillard reaction products in sun-dried coffee cascara and their impact on the safety and health promoting properties of a novel beverage called “Instant Cascara” (IC) derived from this coffee by-product. Maillard reaction products in sun-dried [...] Read more.
Our research aimed to evaluate the formation of Maillard reaction products in sun-dried coffee cascara and their impact on the safety and health promoting properties of a novel beverage called “Instant Cascara” (IC) derived from this coffee by-product. Maillard reaction products in sun-dried coffee cascara have never been reported. “Instant Cascara” (IC) extract was obtained by aqueous extraction and freeze-drying. Proteins, amino acids, lipids, fatty acid profile, sugars, fiber, minerals, and vitamins were analyzed for its nutritional characterization. Acrylamide and caffeine were used as chemical indicators of safety. Colored compounds, also called melanoidins, their stability under 40 °C and in light, and their in vitro antioxidant capacity were also studied. A safe instant beverage with antioxidant properties was obtained to which the following nutritional claims can be assigned: “low fat”, “low sugar” “high fiber” and “source of potassium, magnesium and vitamin C”. For the first time, cascara beverage color was attributed to the presence of antioxidant melanoidins (>10 kDa). IC is a potential sustainable alternative for instant coffee, with low caffeine and acrylamide levels and a healthy composition of nutrients and antioxidants. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 1694 KiB  
Article
Effects of Thawing and Frying Methods on the Formation of Acrylamide and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Chicken Meat
by Jong-Sun Lee, Ji-Won Han, Munyhung Jung, Kwang-Won Lee and Myung-Sub Chung
Foods 2020, 9(5), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050573 - 4 May 2020
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 10564
Abstract
Air frying is commonly used as a substitute for deep-fat frying. However, few studies have examined the effect of air frying on the formation of potential carcinogens in foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate the formation of acrylamide and four types of polycyclic [...] Read more.
Air frying is commonly used as a substitute for deep-fat frying. However, few studies have examined the effect of air frying on the formation of potential carcinogens in foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate the formation of acrylamide and four types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air-fried and deep-fat-fried chicken breasts, thighs, and wings thawed using different methods, i.e., by using a microwave or a refrigerator, or by water immersion. The acrylamide and PAHs were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Deep-fat-fried chicken meat had higher acrylamide (n.d.–6.19 μg/kg) and total PAH (2.64–3.17 μg/kg) air-fried chicken meat (n.d.–3.49 μg/kg and 1.96–2.71 μg/kg). However, the thawing method did not significantly affect the formation of either acrylamide or PAHs. No significant differences in the acrylamide contents were observed among the chicken meat parts, however, the highest PAH contents were found in chicken wings. Thus, the results demonstrated that air frying could reduce the formation of acrylamide and PAHs in chicken meat in comparison with deep-fat frying. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
Formation of Acrylamide and other Heat-Induced Compounds during Panela Production
by Marta Mesias, Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Faver Gómez-Narváez, José Contreras-Calderón and Francisco J. Morales
Foods 2020, 9(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040531 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4659
Abstract
Non-centrifugal cane sugar (panela) is an unrefined sugar obtained through intense dehydration of sugarcane juice. Browning, antioxidant capacity (measured by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay and total phenolic content) and the formation of acrylamide and other heat-induced compounds such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and [...] Read more.
Non-centrifugal cane sugar (panela) is an unrefined sugar obtained through intense dehydration of sugarcane juice. Browning, antioxidant capacity (measured by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay and total phenolic content) and the formation of acrylamide and other heat-induced compounds such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural, were evaluated at different stages during the production of block panela. Values ranged between below the limit of quantitation (LOQ)–890 µg/kg, < LOQ–2.37 mg/kg, < LOQ–4.5 mg/kg, 0.51–3.6 Abs 420 nm/g, 0.89–4.18 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g and 5.08–29.70 µmol TE/g, for acrylamide, HMF, furfural, browning, total phenolic content and ABTS (all data in fresh weight), respectively. Acrylamide significantly increased as soluble solid content increased throughout the process. The critical stages for the formation of acrylamide, HMF and furfural were the concentration of the clarified juice in the concentration stage to get the panela honey and the final stage. Similar trends were observed for the other parameters. This research concludes that acrylamide, HMF and furfural form at a high rate during panela processing at the stage of juice concentration by intense evaporation. Therefore, the juice concentration stage is revealed as the critical step in the process to settle mitigation strategies. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 4568 KiB  
Article
Potato Tuber Chemical Properties in Storage as Affected by Cultivar and Nitrogen Rate: Implications for Acrylamide Formation
by Na Sun, Yi Wang, Sanjay K. Gupta and Carl J. Rosen
Foods 2020, 9(3), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030352 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3923
Abstract
Recently released potato cultivars Dakota Russet and Easton were bred for low reducing sugars, and low acrylamide-forming potential in French fries. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effects of nitrogen rate and storage time on tuber glucose concentrations in [...] Read more.
Recently released potato cultivars Dakota Russet and Easton were bred for low reducing sugars, and low acrylamide-forming potential in French fries. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effects of nitrogen rate and storage time on tuber glucose concentrations in different cultivars; (2) the relationships between acrylamide, glucose, and asparagine for the new cultivars and Russet Burbank. The study was conducted at Becker, Minnesota over a period of two years on a loamy sand soil under irrigated conditions. All cultivars were subjected to five N rates from 135 to 404 kg ha−1 in a randomized complete block design. Following harvest, tubers were stored at 7.8 °C and sampled at 0, 16, and 32 weeks. Dakota Russet and Easton had significantly lower concentrations of stem- and bud-end glucose, asparagine, and acrylamide than those of Russet Burbank in both years. The effect of storage time on glucose concentration was significant but differed with cultivar and year. N rate effects on stem- and bud-end glucose concentrations were cultivar and storage time dependent. After 16 weeks of storage, both asparagine and acrylamide concentrations linearly increased with increasing N rate. Glucose concentration was positively correlated with acrylamide concentration (r2 = 0.61). Asparagine concentration was also positively correlated with acrylamide concentration (r2 = 0.45) when the asparagine:glucose ratio was <1.306. The correlation between fry color and stem-end glucose concentration was significant over three cultivars in both years, but stronger in a growing season with minimal environmental stress. Taken together, these results suggest that while acrylamide formation during potato processing is a complex process affected by agronomic practices, environmental conditions during the growing season, and storage conditions, cultivar selection may be the most reliable method to minimize acrylamide in fried products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1259 KiB  
Article
How Far is the Spanish Snack Sector from Meeting the Acrylamide Regulation 2017/2158?
by Marta Mesias, Aouatif Nouali, Cristina Delgado-Andrade and Francisco J Morales
Foods 2020, 9(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020247 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3887
Abstract
In 2017, the European Commission published Regulation 2017/2158 establishing mitigation measures and benchmark levels to reduce acrylamide in foods. Acrylamide was determined in seventy potato crisp samples commercialized in Spain. The aim was to update knowledge about the global situation in the snack [...] Read more.
In 2017, the European Commission published Regulation 2017/2158 establishing mitigation measures and benchmark levels to reduce acrylamide in foods. Acrylamide was determined in seventy potato crisp samples commercialized in Spain. The aim was to update knowledge about the global situation in the snack sector and evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies applied, especially since the publication of the Regulation. Results were compared with data previously published in 2004, 2008, and 2014, assessing the evolution over recent years. Average acrylamide content in 2019 (664 µg/kg, range 89–1930 μg/kg) was 55.3% lower compared to 2004, 10.3% lower compared to 2008 and practically similar to results from 2014. Results support the effectiveness of mitigation measures implemented by Spanish potato crisp manufacturers. However, 27% of samples exhibited concentrations above the benchmark level established in the Regulation (750 μg/kg), which suggests that efforts to reduce acrylamide formation in this sector must be continued. Besides the variability seen between samples, acrylamide significantly correlated with the color parameter a*, which enables discrimination of whether potato crisps contain above or below benchmark content. The calculated margin of exposure for carcinogenicity was below the safety limit, which should be considered from a public health point of view. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 1059 KiB  
Article
Determination of Acrylamide in Biscuits by High-Resolution Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry: A Novel Application
by Cristiana L. Fernandes, Daniel O. Carvalho and Luis F. Guido
Foods 2019, 8(12), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120597 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4192
Abstract
Acrylamide (AA), a molecule which potentially increases the risk of developing cancer, is easily formed in food rich in carbohydrates, such as biscuits, wafers, and breakfast cereals, at temperatures above 120 °C. Thus, the need to detect and quantify the AA content in [...] Read more.
Acrylamide (AA), a molecule which potentially increases the risk of developing cancer, is easily formed in food rich in carbohydrates, such as biscuits, wafers, and breakfast cereals, at temperatures above 120 °C. Thus, the need to detect and quantify the AA content in processed foodstuffs is eminent, in order to delineate the limits and mitigation strategies. This work reports the development and validation of a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based methodology for identification and quantification of AA in specific food matrices of biscuits, by using LC-MS with electrospray ionization and Orbitrap as the mass analyser. The developed analytical method showed good repeatability (RSDr 11.1%) and 3.55 and 11.8 μg kg−1 as limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), respectively. The choice of multiplexed targeted-SIM mode (t-SIM) for AA and AA-d3 isolated ions provided enhanced detection sensitivity, as demonstrated in this work. Statistical processing of data was performed in order to compare the AA levels with several production parameters, such as time/cooking temperature, placement on the cooking conveyor belt, color, and moisture for different biscuits. The composition of the raw materials was statistically the most correlated factor with the AA content when all samples are considered. The statistical treatment presented herein enables an important prediction of factors influencing AA formation in biscuits contributing to putting in place effective mitigation strategies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

20 pages, 3237 KiB  
Review
Review of Research into the Determination of Acrylamide in Foods
by Mingfei Pan, Kaixin Liu, Jingying Yang, Liping Hong, Xiaoqian Xie and Shuo Wang
Foods 2020, 9(4), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040524 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 8464
Abstract
Acrylamide (AA) is produced by high-temperature processing of high carbohydrate foods, such as frying and baking, and has been proved to be carcinogenic. Because of its potential carcinogenicity, it is very important to detect the content of AA in foods. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Acrylamide (AA) is produced by high-temperature processing of high carbohydrate foods, such as frying and baking, and has been proved to be carcinogenic. Because of its potential carcinogenicity, it is very important to detect the content of AA in foods. In this paper, the conventional instrumental analysis methods of AA in food and the new rapid immunoassay and sensor detection are reviewed, and the advantages and disadvantages of various analysis technologies are compared, in order to provide new ideas for the development of more efficient and practical analysis methods and detection equipment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop