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Article

The Influence of Millet Flour on Antioxidant, Anti-ACE, and Anti-Microbial Activities of Wheat Wafers

1
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Environmental Microbiology, Laboratory of Mycology, The University of Life Sciences, Leszczyńskiego Street 7, 20-069 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020220
Received: 13 January 2020 / Revised: 13 February 2020 / Accepted: 17 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant in Food Safety and Sustainability)
The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, and anti-microbial activities of wheat wafers enriched with 1%, 2%, or 3% (w/w) of millet flour (M1, M2, or M3, respectively). All samples were characterized by a richer composition of protein, polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and reducing sugar in comparison with the control sample. The highest content of the components, i.e., 1.03 mg mL−1, 0.021 mg mL−1, 2.26 mg mL−1, 0.17 µg mL−1, and 0.63 mg mL−1, respectively, was detected in sample M3. The same sample was characterized by 803.91 and 42.79% of water and oil absorption capacity, respectively. The additive did not change the rheological features of the wafers. The 3% addition of millet flour to the wafer formulation induced the highest antioxidant activity against DPPH, Fe2+ chelation, and ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysates (IC50 = 191.04, 0.46, and 157.73 µg mL−1, respectively). The highest activities were determined in the M3 fraction <3.0 kDa (IC50 = 3.46, 0.26, and 16.27 µg mL, respectively). In turn, the M2 fraction was characterized by the highest antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 75 µg mL−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: millet flour; wafers; antioxidant; rheological properties; biological compounds millet flour; wafers; antioxidant; rheological properties; biological compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jakubczyk, A.; Ćwiek, P.; Rybczyńska-Tkaczyk, K.; Gawlik-Dziki, U.; Złotek, U. The Influence of Millet Flour on Antioxidant, Anti-ACE, and Anti-Microbial Activities of Wheat Wafers. Foods 2020, 9, 220. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020220

AMA Style

Jakubczyk A, Ćwiek P, Rybczyńska-Tkaczyk K, Gawlik-Dziki U, Złotek U. The Influence of Millet Flour on Antioxidant, Anti-ACE, and Anti-Microbial Activities of Wheat Wafers. Foods. 2020; 9(2):220. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020220

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jakubczyk, Anna, Paula Ćwiek, Kamila Rybczyńska-Tkaczyk, Urszula Gawlik-Dziki, and Urszula Złotek. 2020. "The Influence of Millet Flour on Antioxidant, Anti-ACE, and Anti-Microbial Activities of Wheat Wafers" Foods 9, no. 2: 220. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020220

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