Special Issue "Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analytical Methods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ángel Calín-Sánchez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department Agro-food Technology, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante, Spain
Interests: evaluation of volatile compounds and sensory quality of fruits; vegetables; and derived products; evolution of functional and sensory properties of different fruits and vegetables as affected by different agricultural practices and processing; dehydration of fruits; vegetables; aromatic herbs
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Angel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department Agro-food Technology, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante, Spain
Interests: sensory analysis of foods; food quality; food safety; evaluation of volatile compounds of fruits; vegetables and derived products; functionality of fruits and vegetables as affected by different agricultural practices and processing; dehydration of fruits; vegetables; aromatic herbs
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aroma composition of foods has been the subject of considerable research in recent years. It is well known that the presence of volatile compounds and their composition determine the specific aroma of foods and the flavor of the resulting products. The main chemical families present in foods are monoterpenes, monoterpenoids, and phenylpropanoids. In lower amounts, alcohols, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenoids, aldehydes, and esters are also found. The composition and concentrations of volatile compounds depend on many factors, including climatic and soil conditions, seasonal variation, agronomical practices, processing, etc. On the other hand, sensory analysis is used to quantitatively determine the intensities of the main sensory properties and attributes of food as well as determine the preference of foods. Such analysis requires the use of a trained panel and regular consumers. As a result of this, the present Special Issue is aimed at gathering outstanding cross-disciplinary approaches (reviews and original research) applying the combination of instrumental analysis (volatile compounds) and sensory analysis as a tool for quality control of foods as affected by both agronomical factors and processing conditions in order to provide very valuable information to farmers and manufacturers.

Dr. Ángel Calín-Sánchez
Prof. Angel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aroma
  • Volatile compounds
  • Gas-chromatography
  • Sensory analysis
  • Flavor
  • Quality
  • Food control
  • Trained panel
  • Consumers

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods
Foods 2021, 10(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020224 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
The aroma composition of foods has been the subject of considerable research in recent years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
How a Spanish Group of Millennial Generation Perceives the Commercial Novel Smoothies?
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091213 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) constantly emphasize the importance of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption; these natural products help in the prevention of major diseases. Smoothies are a simple and convenient way [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) constantly emphasize the importance of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption; these natural products help in the prevention of major diseases. Smoothies are a simple and convenient way of doing so; thus, their demand is constantly growing and their market is becoming important for the food industry. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine Millennial consumer opinion towards novel fruit- and vegetable-smoothies available on the retail market. Napping®, descriptive sensory analysis, and consumer studies were conducted. Napping® results group samples into four clusters of smoothies; the main grouping factor was the type of fruit and the percentage of vegetables. Penalty analysis showed that smoothies need improvement mainly dealing with sweetness, bitterness, and vegetable flavors. Millennial consumers formed a homogeneous sensory group in which the overall liking was negatively correlated with the level of sweetness, and earthy, carrot, beetroot, and pear flavors. The key liking drivers were sourness and notes of mango, banana, and peach flavors. This research is a new insight into the perception of smoothies, provides comprehensive knowledge for the food industry, and can guide the design of new healthy smoothies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Volatile Composition and Sensory Properties as Quality Attributes of Fresh and Dried Hemp Flowers (Cannabis sativa L.)
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081118 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Flowers of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are widely used in cosmetics, food, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The drying process plays a key role in retention of aroma and also in the quality of products. Seven variants of hemp flower drying, including [...] Read more.
Flowers of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are widely used in cosmetics, food, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The drying process plays a key role in retention of aroma and also in the quality of products. Seven variants of hemp flower drying, including convection drying (CD), vacuum–microwave drying (VMD), and combined drying consisting of convective pre-drying followed by vacuum–microwave finishing drying (CPD-VMFD) were checked in this study. For each process, we applied the two-term model. Dried material was submitted to color and chromatographical assessments. Analyses of obtained essential oil showed the presence of 93 volatile compounds, predominantly β-myrcene, limonene, and β-(E)-caryophyllene, as well as α-humulene. Application of 240 W during VMD and 50 °C during CD gave the highest retention of aroma compounds, amounting to 85 and 76%, respectively, but with huge color changes. Additionally, sensory analysis proved that drying with a microwave power of 240 W provides a product most similar to fresh material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Volatile Composition and Sensory Attributes of Smoothies Based on Pomegranate Juice and Mediterranean Fruit Purées (Fig, Jujube and Quince)
Foods 2020, 9(7), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070926 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
To increase the intake of fruits and vegetables—especially among young people—the food industry is trying to develop new, easy-to-eat and long-shelf-life products, such as smoothies. Nowadays, consumers are choosing their foods based not only on nutritional/functional properties (content of polyphenols, vitamins, minerals, among [...] Read more.
To increase the intake of fruits and vegetables—especially among young people—the food industry is trying to develop new, easy-to-eat and long-shelf-life products, such as smoothies. Nowadays, consumers are choosing their foods based not only on nutritional/functional properties (content of polyphenols, vitamins, minerals, among others), but also on sensory attributes. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile composition by HS-SPME and the sensory profile by descriptive sensory analysis of novel smoothies prepared by blending fig, jujube or quince purée with pomegranate juices (cv. Mollar de Elche or Wonderful) at two ratios purée:juice (40:60 or 60:40). Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS and classified as alcohols, aldehydes, esters, furans, ketones, terpenes and terpenoids. Among volatile compounds, the five predominant ones in the studied smoothies were: (i) 5-HMF (30.6%); (ii) 3-hexen-1-ol (9.87%); (iii) hexanal (9.43%); (iv) 1-hexanol (8.54%); and (v) 3-octanone (7.67%). Fig smoothies were sweet and had flavor and volatiles related to fig, pomegranate, and grape. While jujube products were bitter and had jujube and pear notes. Finally, quince smoothies were consistent, sour and had quince, apple and floral notes. Thus, the type of fruit purée used clearly determined the flavor of the final product. The smoothies prepared with Mollar de Elche pomegranate juice were characterized by having high intensity of pear odor/aroma and consistency, and the Wonderful smoothies were characterized by lower consistency and more intense pomegranate aroma and sourness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Renewing Traditions: A Sensory and Chemical Characterisation of Mexican Pigmented Corn Beers
Foods 2020, 9(7), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070886 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
This study was undertaken to explore how the use of pigmented corn as brewing ingredient influences the sensory profile of craft beers, by using both sensory and chemical analyses. Six pigmented corn and barley beers were brewed and then analysed to obtain their [...] Read more.
This study was undertaken to explore how the use of pigmented corn as brewing ingredient influences the sensory profile of craft beers, by using both sensory and chemical analyses. Six pigmented corn and barley beers were brewed and then analysed to obtain their sensory characteristics, volatile composition and non-volatile (alcohol, bitterness, anthocyanins and polyphenol content) composition. ANOVAs, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) were used to visualise these data for exploring the differences between beers based on the type of malt and to characterise corn beers considering the relationships between their sensory characteristics and their chemical parameters. The sensory attributes such as fermented fruits, cooked vegetables, tortillas, bread, dried fruits and dried chili characterised beers made 100% with pigmented corn. Over 100 volatiles were identified by head space-solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Among them, phenols and terpenes were the groups of volatiles that better characterised beers containing corn. The content of anthocyanins in corn beers provide the ‘amber-red-cooper’ colours in beers and may prevent the development of off-aromas and tastes. The use of pigmented corn seems to be a good option to renew the traditional ‘Sendechó’ while preserving some of its sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Volatiles and Polyphenol Content, Physicochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity in Beers with Dotted Hawthorn (Crataegus punctata)
Foods 2020, 9(6), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060775 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Beer with the addition of dotted hawthorn (Crataegus punctata) fruit and juice was prepared and analysed. The content of carbohydrates, glycerol and ethanol in beers was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis of the total content of polyphenols was also performed [...] Read more.
Beer with the addition of dotted hawthorn (Crataegus punctata) fruit and juice was prepared and analysed. The content of carbohydrates, glycerol and ethanol in beers was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis of the total content of polyphenols was also performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, as well as determining antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ABTS+• assay, and the ability to reduce iron ions by FRAP assay. Content of volatile compounds was analysed by means of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. Beers with addition of hawthorn, both juice and fruit, had higher antioxidative potential and higher polyphenols concentration compared to control beer. The content of polyphenols in beers was in the range 200.5–410.0 mg GAE/L, and the antioxidant activity was in the range of 0.936–2.04 mmol TE/L (ABTS+• assay), 0.352–2.175 mmol TE/L (DPPH assay) and 0.512–1.35 mmol TE/L (FRAP assay). A sensory evaluation of beers was also carried out. Beer with hawthorn fruit addition obtained the best scores in sensory analysis for criteria such as aroma, taste and overall quality. This beer had the highest content of volatile compounds (287.9 µg/100 mL of beer), while the control beer had lowest concentrations (35.9 µg/100 mL of beer). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Markers to Distinguish the Homo- and Heterozygous Bitter Genotype in Sweet Almond Kernels
Foods 2020, 9(6), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060747 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
Bitterness in almonds is controlled by a single gene (Sk dominant for sweet kernel, sk recessive for bitter kernel) and the proportions of the offspring genotypes (SkSk, Sksk, sksk) depend on the progenitors’ genotype. Currently, the latter is [...] Read more.
Bitterness in almonds is controlled by a single gene (Sk dominant for sweet kernel, sk recessive for bitter kernel) and the proportions of the offspring genotypes (SkSk, Sksk, sksk) depend on the progenitors’ genotype. Currently, the latter is deduced after crossing by recording the phenotype of their descendants through kernel tasting. Chemical markers to early identify parental genotypes related to bitter traits can significantly enhance the efficiency of almond breeding programs. On this basis, volatile metabolites related to almond bitterness were investigated by Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry coupled to univariate and multivariate statistics on 244 homo- and heterozygous samples from 42 different cultivars. This study evidenced the association between sweet almonds’ genotype and some volatile metabolites, in particular benzaldehyde, and provided for the first time chemical markers to discriminate between homo- and heterozygous sweet almond genotypes. Furthermore, a multivariate approach based on independent variables was developed to increase the reliability of almond classification. The Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis classification model built with selected volatile metabolites that showed discrimination capacity allowed a 98.0% correct classification. The metabolites identified, in particular benzaldehyde, become suitable markers for the early genotype identification in almonds, while a DNA molecular marker is not yet available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
An HS-GC-IMS Method for the Quality Classification of Virgin Olive Oils as Screening Support for the Panel Test
Foods 2020, 9(5), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050657 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Sensory evaluation, carried out by panel tests, is essential for quality classification of virgin olive oils (VOOs), but is time consuming and costly when many samples need to be assessed; sensory evaluation could be assisted by the application of screening methods. Rapid instrumental [...] Read more.
Sensory evaluation, carried out by panel tests, is essential for quality classification of virgin olive oils (VOOs), but is time consuming and costly when many samples need to be assessed; sensory evaluation could be assisted by the application of screening methods. Rapid instrumental methods based on the analysis of volatile molecules might be considered interesting to assist the panel test through fast pre-classification of samples with a known level of probability, thus increasing the efficiency of quality control. With this objective, a headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometer (HS-GC-IMS) was used to analyze 198 commercial VOOs (extra virgin, virgin and lampante) by a semi-targeted approach. Different partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) chemometric models were then built by data matrices composed of 15 volatile compounds, which were previously selected as markers: a first approach was proposed to classify samples according to their quality grade and a second based on the presence of sensory defects. The performance (intra-day and inter-day repeatability, linearity) of the method was evaluated. The average percentages of correctly classified samples obtained from the two models were satisfactory, namely 77% (prediction of the quality grades) and 64% (prediction of the presence of three defects) in external validation, thus demonstrating that this easy-to-use screening instrumental approach is promising to support the work carried out by panel tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Parameters and Consumer Acceptance of Jelly Candies Based on Pomegranate Juice “Mollar de Elche
Foods 2020, 9(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040516 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
There is an upward trend towards reducing or suppressing additives in foods, as well as reducing the use of E-numbers in labels providing clean label foods. Therefore, the development of confectionary products based exclusively on natural ingredients with antioxidant properties may offer valuable [...] Read more.
There is an upward trend towards reducing or suppressing additives in foods, as well as reducing the use of E-numbers in labels providing clean label foods. Therefore, the development of confectionary products based exclusively on natural ingredients with antioxidant properties may offer valuable solutions to the confectionery industry. Fruit juices and purées may provide functional and organoleptic properties in jelly candies in a natural way. The consumption of pomegranate fruit and derivative products has increased due to their association with health benefits. The aim of this study was to determine consumer insights about pomegranate-based jellies, cultivar “Mollar de Elche”, as affected by formulation (100% pomegranate juice or 50%–50% pomegranate juice–apple purée) and type of sweetener (sugar or honey), and to link affective and descriptive data from sensory studies. The most valued quality parameter of pomegranate products, red color (measured by the green–red coordinate, a*), was not negatively affected by jelly preparation. It was determined that the main liking drivers for pomegranate jellies were intense red color and high brightness. The results might be used by pomegranate processing companies to improve their manufacturing protocols and to develop successful products meeting consumer demands and needs. The formulation containing 20% gelatin, pure “Mollar de Elche” pomegranate juice, 1% citric acid, and sucrose as sweetener provided the best quality of jellies in terms of color, texture, antioxidant capacity, and sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Volatile Profiles and Marker Substances by HS-SPME/GC-MS during the Concentration of Coconut Jam
Foods 2020, 9(3), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030347 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1138
Abstract
Characteristic aromas are usually key labels for food products. In this study, the volatile profiles and marker substances of coconut jam during concentration were characterized via sensory evaluation combined with headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HSPME/GC-MS). A total of 33 aroma [...] Read more.
Characteristic aromas are usually key labels for food products. In this study, the volatile profiles and marker substances of coconut jam during concentration were characterized via sensory evaluation combined with headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HSPME/GC-MS). A total of 33 aroma compounds were detected by HSPME/GC-MS. Principal component analysis revealed the concentration process of coconut jam can be divided into three stages. In the first stage, esters and alcohols were the two main contributors to the aroma of the coconut jam. Next, a caramel smell was gradually formed during the second stage, which was mainly derived from aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. The concentration of aldehydes increased gradually at this stage, which may be the result of a combination of the Maillard reaction and the caramelization reaction. In the final sterilization stage, the ‘odor intensity’ of caramel reached the maximum level and a variety of aroma compounds were produced, thereby forming a unique flavor for the coconut jam. Finally, furfural fit a logistic model with a regression coefficient (r2) of 0.97034. Therefore, furfural can be used as a marker substance for monitoring the concentration of coconut jam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Volatile Profile of Lemon Peel Oils as Affected by Rootstock
Foods 2020, 9(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020241 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Citrus limon (L.) Burm is an important crop that grows between latitudes 30° North and 30° South, the main producers being China, the USA, Mexico, India, Brazil, and Spain. In Spain, lemon grows mainly in Mediterranean areas such as Murcia, Valencia, and Andalucía. [...] Read more.
Citrus limon (L.) Burm is an important crop that grows between latitudes 30° North and 30° South, the main producers being China, the USA, Mexico, India, Brazil, and Spain. In Spain, lemon grows mainly in Mediterranean areas such as Murcia, Valencia, and Andalucía. The most cultivated varieties are “Fino” and “Verna”. In this study, five varieties of lemon, “Verna”, “Bétera”, “Eureka”, “Fino 49”, and “Fino 95” were evaluated on different rootstocks: three new Forner-Alcaide (“FA13”, “FA5”, “FA517”), Citrus macrophylla, Wester, and Citrus aurantium L. Hydrodistillation was used to obtain essential oil from fresh peels and then the volatile profile was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 26 volatile compounds were identified, limonene being the main one followed by β-pinene, γ-terpinene, sabinene, and α-pinene. The results revealed that Forner-Alcaide rootstocks (“FA5” > “FA517” > “FA13”) proved to be the best rootstocks for the aroma quality as they led to high volatile contents, followed by C. aurantium and C. macrophylla. Among the other varieties, the most aromatic one was “Eureka”. The whole trend was as follows (in decreasing order): “Eureka” > “Bétera” > “Fino 95” > “Verna” > “Fino 49”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Volatile, Sensory and Functional Properties of HydroSOS Pistachios
Foods 2020, 9(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020158 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Climate change, the increase in world population, and the intensification of urban and industrial activities, will cause a shortage of water for agriculture. This situation requires conscientious studies to manage water deficits without affecting the quality of the crops. In this study, regulated [...] Read more.
Climate change, the increase in world population, and the intensification of urban and industrial activities, will cause a shortage of water for agriculture. This situation requires conscientious studies to manage water deficits without affecting the quality of the crops. In this study, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies and three rootstocks (P. atlantica, P. integerrima, and P. terebinthus) were applied to pistachio cultivation to study the quality of fruits obtained based on the morphological, functional, aroma, and their sensory properties. The results obtained demonstrated that RDI T1 (during phenological phase II of cultivation the stem water potential was maintained around −1.5 MPa) led to pistachios with same morphological properties, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, volatile composition, sensory properties, better profile of fatty acids, and being the favorite ones for international consumers, as compared to pistachios obtained under full irrigation treatments. On the other hand, when P. integerrima was used, pistachios obtained had the highest weight, the lowest content of sucrose and the best functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Comparison of Traditional and Novel Drying Techniques and Its Effect on Quality of Fruits, Vegetables and Aromatic Herbs
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091261 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Drying is known as the best method to preserve fruits, vegetables, and herbs, decreasing not only the raw material volume but also its weight. This results in cheaper transportation and increments the product shelf life, limiting the food waste. Drying involves the application [...] Read more.
Drying is known as the best method to preserve fruits, vegetables, and herbs, decreasing not only the raw material volume but also its weight. This results in cheaper transportation and increments the product shelf life, limiting the food waste. Drying involves the application of energy in order to vaporize and mobilize the moisture content within the porous products. During this process, the heat and mass transfer occurs simultaneously. The quality of dehydrated fruits, vegetables, and aromatic herbs is a key problem closely related to the development and optimization of novel drying techniques. This review reports the weaknesses of common drying methods applied for fruits, vegetables, and aromatic herbs and the possible options to improve the quality of dried products using different drying techniques or their combination. The quality parameters under study include color, bulk density, porosity, shrinkage, phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity, sugars, proteins, volatile compounds, and sensory attributes. In general, drying leads to reduction in all studied parameters. However, the behavior of each plant material is different. On the whole, the optimal drying technique is different for each of the materials studied and specific conditions must be recommended after a proper evaluation of the drying protocols. However, a novel or combined technique must assure a high quality of dried products. Furthermore, the term quality must englobe the energy efficiency and the environmental impact leading to production of sustainable dried products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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