Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2020) | Viewed by 39475

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Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: grains; peptides; phenolic compounds; nutritional characterization; protein quality and digestibility; bioavailability of food compounds; bioactivity; germination; fermentation; enzymatic treatments
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Guest Editor
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais 6, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: grains; germination; fermentation; nutritional value; bioactive compounds; food quality and safety; gluten-free grain-derived products; celiac disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sprouted grains, usually designated as a seed with a visible radicle, have been used as food ingredients for many years, based on the general belief they provide significant nutritional, flavor, and textural benefits over ungerminated seed counterparts. In recent years, sprouting has been explored as a promising green food engineering strategy to improve the nutritional value of grains as well as to synthesize secondary metabolites with potential application in the functional foods, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic markets. In this context, the industry has increasingly launched products containing or made of sprouted seeds.

During seed sprouting, a multitude of changes occur, moving from molecular to macroscopic structures. Sprouting reactivates seed metabolism leading to the catabolism and degradation of macronutrients and antinutritional compounds and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with potential health benefits. These changes impact the nutritional value and health-promoting potential of edible seeds. Many researchers around the world have proposed successful strategies such as elicitation to find the optimal environmental conditions during sprout growth able to promote desired outcomes.

At present, studies on seed germination are at the interface of multiple disciplines, including plant physiology, agronomy, and (bio)chemistry, and their several connections with food science and technology, pharmacology, and medicine. The Special Issue “Advances in Production, Properties, and Applications of Sprouted Seeds” has the potential to disseminate the recent cross-disciplinary approaches on seed germination with coverage from grains to products. Therefore, original research papers and review articles addressing recent advances in food science and technology with a deeper insight into strategies of seed sprouting, elicitation mechanisms, analysis of nutritional value, and phytochemical composition of sprouts in production or storage, evaluation of bioactive and technofunctional properties, and new applications of sprouted seeds or products derived thereof are particularly welcome.

Dr. Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
Dr. Elena Peñas Pozo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • seed germination
  • elicitation
  • nutritional value
  • phytochemicals
  • bioactivity
  • health
  • food safety
  • technological properties
  • food development
  • functional foods

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 180 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds
by Elena Peñas and Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
Foods 2020, 9(6), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060790 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3664
Abstract
Sprouted grains are widely appreciated food ingredients due to their improved, nutritional, functional, organoleptic and textural properties compared with non-germinated grains. In recent years, sprouting has been explored as a promising green food engineering strategy to improve the nutritional value of grains and [...] Read more.
Sprouted grains are widely appreciated food ingredients due to their improved, nutritional, functional, organoleptic and textural properties compared with non-germinated grains. In recent years, sprouting has been explored as a promising green food engineering strategy to improve the nutritional value of grains and the formation of secondary metabolites with potential application in the functional foods, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic markets. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of sprouting on the chemical composition, safety aspects, techno-functional and chemopreventive properties of sprouted seeds and their derived flours and by-products. The six articles included in this Special Issue provide insightful findings on the most recent advances regarding new applications of sprouted seeds or products derived thereof, evaluations of the nutritional value and phytochemical composition of sprouts during production or storage and explorations of their microbiological, bioactive and techno-functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)

Research

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11 pages, 840 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sprouting in Lentil (Lens culinaris) Nutritional and Microbiological Profile
by Carla S.Santos, Beatriz Silva, Luísa M.P.Valente, Sabine Gruber and Marta W.Vasconcelos
Foods 2020, 9(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040400 - 1 Apr 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6968
Abstract
Biological and vegetarian raw food products, in particular based on legume sprouts, are an increasing food trend, due to their improved nutritional value when compared to seeds. Herein, protein and mineral profiles were studied in 12 lentil varieties, with varieties Du Puy, Kleine [...] Read more.
Biological and vegetarian raw food products, in particular based on legume sprouts, are an increasing food trend, due to their improved nutritional value when compared to seeds. Herein, protein and mineral profiles were studied in 12 lentil varieties, with varieties Du Puy, Kleine Schwarze, Rosana, Flora, Große Rote and Kleine Späths II demonstrating the highest protein percentages. After sprouting, protein percentages increased significantly in 10 of the 12 varieties, with the highest increases ranging between 20–23% in Dunkelgrün Marmorierte, Du Puy, Große Rote and Kleine Späths II varieties. While Fe concentration was significantly decreased in three varieties (Samos, Große Rote and Kleine Späths II), Zn and Mn were positively impacted by sprouting (p ≤ 0.05). Magnesium concentration was not affected by sprouting, while Ca and K had percentage increases between 41% and 58%, and 28% and 30%, respectively, in the best performing varieties (Kleine Schwarze, Dunkelgrün Marmorierte, Samos and Rosana). Regardless of the associated nutritional benefits, issues pertaining to sprouts microbiological safety must be ensured. The best results for the disinfection protocols were obtained when combining the seed treatment with SDS reagent followed by an Amukine application on the sprouts, which did not affect germination rates or sprout length. The increasing levels of sprout consumption throughout the world require efficient implementation of safety measures, as well as a knowledge-based selection for the nutritional quality of the seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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19 pages, 1573 KiB  
Article
Bioavailability of Melatonin from Lentil Sprouts and Its Role in the Plasmatic Antioxidant Status in Rats
by Miguel Rebollo-Hernanz, Yolanda Aguilera, Teresa Herrera, L. Tábata Cayuelas, Montserrat Dueñas, Pilar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, David Ramiro-Cortijo, Silvia M. Arribas and María A. Martín-Cabrejas
Foods 2020, 9(3), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030330 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5168
Abstract
Melatonin is a multifunctional antioxidant neurohormone found in plant foods such as lentil sprouts. We aim to evaluate the effect of lentil sprout intake on the plasmatic levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (plasmatic serotonin and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds, and [...] Read more.
Melatonin is a multifunctional antioxidant neurohormone found in plant foods such as lentil sprouts. We aim to evaluate the effect of lentil sprout intake on the plasmatic levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (plasmatic serotonin and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds, and plasmatic antioxidant status, and compare it with synthetic melatonin. The germination of lentils increases the content of melatonin. However, the phenolic content diminished due to the loss of phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols. The flavonol content remained unaltered, being the main phenolic family in lentil sprouts, primarily composed of kaempferol glycosides. Sprague Dawley rats were used to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of melatonin after oral administration of a lentil sprout extract and to evaluate plasma and urine melatonin and related biomarkers and antioxidant capacity. Melatonin showed maximum concentration (45.4 pg/mL) 90 min after lentil sprout administration. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after lentil sprout intake (70%, p < 0.05) with respect to the control, 1.2-fold more than after synthetic melatonin ingestion. These increments correlated with urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content (p < 0.05), a key biomarker of plasmatic melatonin. Nonetheless, the phenolic compound content did not exhibit any significant variation. Plasmatic antioxidant status increased in the antioxidant capacity upon both lentil sprout and synthetic melatonin administration. For the first time, we investigated the bioavailability of melatonin from lentil sprouts and its role in plasmatic antioxidant status. We concluded that their intake could increase melatonin plasmatic concentration and attenuate plasmatic oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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19 pages, 3773 KiB  
Article
Sprouted Barley Flour as a Nutritious and Functional Ingredient
by Daniel Rico, Elena Peñas, María del Carmen García, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga, Dilip K. Rai, Rares I. Birsan, Juana Frias and Ana B. Martín-Diana
Foods 2020, 9(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030296 - 5 Mar 2020
Cited by 78 | Viewed by 9253
Abstract
The increasing demand for healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated seeds to produce functional flours. In this study, germination conditions were optimized in barley grains with the aim to produce flours with high nutritional and biofunctional potential using response surface [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated seeds to produce functional flours. In this study, germination conditions were optimized in barley grains with the aim to produce flours with high nutritional and biofunctional potential using response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of germination time (0.8–6 days) and temperature (12–20 °C) on barley quality was studied. Non-germinated barley was used as the control. The content of vitamins B1, B2 and C, and proteins increased notably after germination, especially at longer times, while levels of fat, carbohydrates, fibre, and β-glucan were reduced. Total phenolic compounds, γ-aminobutyric acid and antioxidant activity determined by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity increased between 2-fold and 4-fold during sprouting, depending on germination conditions and this increase was more pronounced at higher temperatures (16–20 °C) and longer times (5–6 days). Procyanidin B and ferulic acid were the main phenolics in the soluble and insoluble fraction, respectively. Procyanidin B levels decreased while bound ferulic acid content increased during germination. Germinated barley flours exhibited lower brightness and a higher glycemic index than the control ones. This study shows that germination at 16 °C for 3.5 days was the optimum process to obtain nutritious and functional barley flours. Under these conditions, sprouts retained 87% of the initial β-glucan content, and exhibited levels of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, phenolic compounds and GABA between 1.4-fold and 2.5-fold higher than the non-sprouted grain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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17 pages, 2501 KiB  
Article
Exploiting Milling By-Products in Bread-Making: The Case of Sprouted Wheat
by Gaetano Cardone, Paolo D’Incecco, Maria Cristina Casiraghi and Alessandra Marti
Foods 2020, 9(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030260 - 1 Mar 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
This research investigated the effect of sprouting on wheat bran. Bran from un-sprouted (BUW) and sprouted (BSW) wheat were characterized in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic activities, and hydration properties. In addition, the rheological properties (using GlutoPeak, Farinograph, Extensograph, and Rheofermentometer tests) and [...] Read more.
This research investigated the effect of sprouting on wheat bran. Bran from un-sprouted (BUW) and sprouted (BSW) wheat were characterized in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic activities, and hydration properties. In addition, the rheological properties (using GlutoPeak, Farinograph, Extensograph, and Rheofermentometer tests) and bread-making performance (color, texture, volume of bread) of wheat doughs enriched in bran at 20% replacement level were assessed. Sprouting process caused a significant decrease in phytic acid (~20%), insoluble dietary fiber (~11%), and water holding capacity (~8%), whereas simple sugars (~133%) and enzymatic activities significantly increased after processing. As regards the gluten aggregation kinetics, the BSW-blend profile was more similar to wheat than BUW-blend, indicating changes in the fiber and gluten interactions. BSW led to a worsening of the mixing and leavening properties, instead, no significant changes in extensibility were observed. Finally, BSW improved bread volume (~10%) and crumb softness (~52%). Exploiting bran from sprouted wheat might be useful to produce bread rich in fiber with enhanced characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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21 pages, 2980 KiB  
Article
Chemopreventive Effect of the Germinated Oat and Its Phenolic-AVA Extract in Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium (AOM/DSS) Model of Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice
by Margarita Damazo-Lima, Guadalupe Rosas-Pérez, Rosalía Reynoso-Camacho, Iza F. Pérez-Ramírez, Nuria Elizabeth Rocha-Guzmán, Ericka A. de los Ríos and Minerva Ramos-Gomez
Foods 2020, 9(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020169 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4468
Abstract
The consumption of fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and whole grains has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) due to the content of natural compounds with antioxidant and anticancer activities. The oat (Avena sativa L.) is a unique source [...] Read more.
The consumption of fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and whole grains has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) due to the content of natural compounds with antioxidant and anticancer activities. The oat (Avena sativa L.) is a unique source of avenanthramides (AVAs), among other compounds, with chemopreventive effects. In addition, oat germination has shown enhanced nutraceutical and phytochemical properties. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of the sprouted oat (SO) and its phenolic-AVA extract (AVA) in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced CRC mouse model. Turquesa oat seeds were germinated (five days at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity) and, after 16 weeks of administration, animals in the SO- and AVA-treated groups had a significantly lower inflammation grade and tumor (38–50%) and adenocarcinoma (38–63%) incidence compared to those of the AOM+DSS group (80%). Although both treatments normalized colonic GST and NQO1 activities as well as erythrocyte GSH levels, and significantly reduced cecal and colonic β-GA, thus indicating an improvement in the intestinal parameters, the inflammatory states, and the redox states of the animals, SO exerted a superior chemopreventive effect, probably due to the synergistic effects of multiple compounds. Our results indicate that oats retain their biological properties even after the germination process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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10 pages, 1284 KiB  
Article
Biochemical Properties of Polyphenol Oxidases from Ready-to-Eat Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Sprouts and Factors Affecting Their Activities: A Search for Potent Tools Limiting Enzymatic Browning
by Małgorzata Sikora, Michał Świeca, Monika Franczyk, Anna Jakubczyk, Justyna Bochnak and Urszula Złotek
Foods 2019, 8(5), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050154 - 7 May 2019
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 5508
Abstract
Enzymatic browning of sprouts during storage is a serious problem negatively influencing their consumer quality. Identifying and understanding the mechanism of inhibition of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) in lentil sprouts may offer inexpensive alternatives to prevent browning. This study focused on the biochemical characteristics [...] Read more.
Enzymatic browning of sprouts during storage is a serious problem negatively influencing their consumer quality. Identifying and understanding the mechanism of inhibition of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) in lentil sprouts may offer inexpensive alternatives to prevent browning. This study focused on the biochemical characteristics of PPOs from stored lentil sprouts, providing data that may be directly implemented in improving the consumer quality of sprouts. The purification resulted in approximately 25-fold enrichment of two PPO isoenzymes (PPO I and PPO II). The optimum pH for total PPOs, as well as for PPO I and PPO II isoenzymes, was 4.5–5.5, 4.5–5.0, and 5.5, respectively. The optimal temperature for PPOs was 35 °C. Total PPOs and the PPO I and PPO II isoenzymes had the greatest affinity for catechol (Km = 1.32, 1.76, and 0.94 mM, respectively). Ascorbic acid was the most effective in the inhibition of dark color formation by total PPOs, and showed ca. 62%, 43%, and 24% inhibition at 20-, 2-, and 0.2-mM concentrations. Ascorbic acid, l-cysteine, and sodium metabisulfite (20 mM) significantly inhibited color development in the reactions catalyzed by both isoenzymes of PPO. Ba2+, Fe3+, and Mn2+ (10 mM) completely inhibited PPO activity. This study of the effect of antibrowning compounds and cations on PPO activity provides data that can be used to protect lentil sprouts against enzymatic browning during storage and processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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