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Quali-Quantitative Profile of Native Carotenoids in Kumquat from Brazil by HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS

Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida P.H. Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa 36571-000, Brazil
Departamento de Educação, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, Km 02, Jardim Marco Zero, Macapá 68903-419, Brazil
Department, of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina (Italy), V.le Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(5), 166;
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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In this study the native carotenoids composition in kumquat (Fortunella margarita) (peel + pulp) from Brazil was determined for the first time by a HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry), methodology. Eleven carotenoids were successfully identified and quantified in kumquat: four carotenoids in the free form and seven carotenoids in the esterified form. β-citraurin-laurate was the carotenoid found in the highest content (607.33 µg/100 g fresh matter), followed by β-cryptoxanthin-laurate (552.59 µg/100 g). The different esterified forms of β-citraurin and β-cryptoxanthin represented 84.34% of the carotenoids found, which demonstrates the importance of esterification in natural fruits. β-carotene and free xanthophylls (β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) represented 5.50% and 14.96%, respectively, of total carotenoids in kumquat. The total carotenoid content of kumquat from Brazil was very high (2185.16 µg/100 g), suggesting that this fruit could contribute significantly to the intake of important bioactive compounds by the population. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fortunella margarita; citrus; carotenes; xanthophylls; β-citraurin-laurate; β-cryptoxanthin-laurate Fortunella margarita; citrus; carotenes; xanthophylls; β-citraurin-laurate; β-cryptoxanthin-laurate

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, H.M.; Anunciação, P.C.; Souza, C.S.; de Paula Filho, G.X.; Salvo, A.; Dugo, G.; Giuffrida, D. Quali-Quantitative Profile of Native Carotenoids in Kumquat from Brazil by HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS. Foods 2019, 8, 166.

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