Next Article in Journal
Religion, Food Choices, and Demand Seasonality: Evidence from the Ethiopian Milk Market
Next Article in Special Issue
Anti-Obesity Effect of Extract from Nelumbo Nucifera L., Morus Alba L., and Raphanus Sativus Mixture in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C57BL/6J Obese Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Ripening of Hard Cheese Produced from Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of a Milk-Based Fruit Beverage Enriched with Plant Sterols and/or Galactooligosaccharides in a Murine Chronic Colitis Model
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Quali-Quantitative Profile of Native Carotenoids in Kumquat from Brazil by HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS

1
Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida P.H. Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa 36571-000, Brazil
2
Departamento de Educação, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, Km 02, Jardim Marco Zero, Macapá 68903-419, Brazil
3
Department, of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina (Italy), V.le Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(5), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050166
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
  |  
PDF [1595 KB, uploaded 16 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

In this study the native carotenoids composition in kumquat (Fortunella margarita) (peel + pulp) from Brazil was determined for the first time by a HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry), methodology. Eleven carotenoids were successfully identified and quantified in kumquat: four carotenoids in the free form and seven carotenoids in the esterified form. β-citraurin-laurate was the carotenoid found in the highest content (607.33 µg/100 g fresh matter), followed by β-cryptoxanthin-laurate (552.59 µg/100 g). The different esterified forms of β-citraurin and β-cryptoxanthin represented 84.34% of the carotenoids found, which demonstrates the importance of esterification in natural fruits. β-carotene and free xanthophylls (β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) represented 5.50% and 14.96%, respectively, of total carotenoids in kumquat. The total carotenoid content of kumquat from Brazil was very high (2185.16 µg/100 g), suggesting that this fruit could contribute significantly to the intake of important bioactive compounds by the population. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fortunella margarita; citrus; carotenes; xanthophylls; β-citraurin-laurate; β-cryptoxanthin-laurate Fortunella margarita; citrus; carotenes; xanthophylls; β-citraurin-laurate; β-cryptoxanthin-laurate
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, H.M.; Anunciação, P.C.; Souza, C.S.; de Paula Filho, G.X.; Salvo, A.; Dugo, G.; Giuffrida, D. Quali-Quantitative Profile of Native Carotenoids in Kumquat from Brazil by HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS. Foods 2019, 8, 166.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top