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Occurrence of Furosine and Hydroxymethylfurfural in Breakfast Cereals. Evolution of the Spanish Market from 2006 to 2018

Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, ICTAN-CSIC, José Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Foods 2019, 8(5), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050158
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Browning Reactions in Foods. Impact on Nutrition, Safety and Health)
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Abstract

The demand for healthier products has led the breakfast cereal sector to develop new formulations to improve the nutritional profile of breakfast cereals; however, the increase in chemical risks should also be evaluated. Amadori compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are Maillard reaction products applied as heat damage indices in breakfast cereals. Furosine (a synthetic amino acid formed by acid hydrolysis of Amadori compounds) is linked to the loss of protein quality, while HMF has exhibited toxicological effects in cells and animals. Furosine and HMF content was evaluated in Spanish breakfast cereals whereas the effect of protein, fibre, and sugar content, the type of grain, the presence of honey, and the manufacturing process were discussed, as well as compared with a previous prospective study. The average furosine and HMF contents were 182 mg/kg and 21.7 mg/kg, respectively. Protein and fibre content were directly related to the furosine content, whereas sugar level, honey addition, and the manufacturing process affected the content of HMF. Occurrence of furosine and HMF decreased nearly 40% in a decade (2006–2018). These findings are relevant in terms of nutritional score, since lysine availability is preserved, but also from a toxicological point of view, due to the decreased daily exposure to both compounds, which dropped 30%. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast cereals; Maillard reaction; amadori compound; furosine; hidroxymethylfurfural; consumption; exposure breakfast cereals; Maillard reaction; amadori compound; furosine; hidroxymethylfurfural; consumption; exposure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mesías, M.; Sáez-Escudero, L.; Morales, F.J.; Delgado-Andrade, C. Occurrence of Furosine and Hydroxymethylfurfural in Breakfast Cereals. Evolution of the Spanish Market from 2006 to 2018. Foods 2019, 8, 158.

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