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Natural Red Pigment Production by Monascus Purpureus in Submerged Fermentation Systems Using a Food Industry Waste: Brewer’s Spent Grain

1
Engineering Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Iğdır University, Iğdır 76000, Turkey
2
Engineering Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir 35040, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(5), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050161
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract

This paper studies the production of natural red pigments by Monascus purpureus CMU001 in the submerged fermentation system using a brewery waste hydrolysate, brewer’s spent grain (BSG). The chemical, structural and elemental characterization of the BSG was performed with Van-Soest method, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The lignocellulosic structure of BSG was hydrolyzed with a dilute sulfuric acid solution (2% (w/v)) followed by detoxification with Ca(OH)2. Maximum red pigment production (22.25 UA500) was achieved with the following conditions: 350 rpm shake speed, 50 mL fermentation volume, initial pH of 6.5, inoculation ratio of 2% (v/v), and monosodium glutamate (MSG) as the most effective nitrogen source. Plackett–Burman design was used to assess the significance of the fermentation medium components, and MSG and ZnSO4·7H2O were found to be the significant medium variables. This study is the first study showing the compatibility of BSG hydrolysate to red pigment production by Monascus purpureus in a submerged fermentation system. View Full-Text
Keywords: Natural red pigment; Monascus purpureus; Brewer’s spent grain; Submerged fermentation; Plackett-Burman design; Chemical characterization; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Natural red pigment; Monascus purpureus; Brewer’s spent grain; Submerged fermentation; Plackett-Burman design; Chemical characterization; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Silbir, S.; Goksungur, Y. Natural Red Pigment Production by Monascus Purpureus in Submerged Fermentation Systems Using a Food Industry Waste: Brewer’s Spent Grain. Foods 2019, 8, 161.

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