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Optimization of Quality Properties of Gluten-Free Bread by a Mixture Design of Xanthan, Guar, and Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Gums

1
CIMO Mountain Research Center, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Santa Apolónia Campus, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Center of Biological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Minho, Gualtar Campus, 4704-553 Braga, Portugal
3
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Industries, National Agricultural University La Molina, Avenue La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Lima 15024, Peru
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(5), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050156
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate, by means of a D-optimal mixture design, the combined effects of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), xanthan (XG), and guar (GG) gums on physicochemical, rheological, and textural properties of gluten-free batter and bread. For each of the quality properties measured, a two-factor interaction model was fitted, and the significance of its terms was assessed by analysis of variance. Sticky batters were produced with a combination of high dose of GG (0.60%), high-intermediate dose of HPMC (3.36%), and low dose of XG (0.04%). Combinations of high XG dose (0.60%) and intermediate doses of HPMC (3.08%) and GG (0.32%) rendered GF breads of greater specific volume, while lower bread crust luminosity was obtained with combinations of high GG dose (0.60%), low XG dose (0.04%), and high-intermediate HPMC dose (3.36%). Combinations of high-intermediate HPMC dose (3.36%), high GG dose (0.60%), and low XG dose (0.04%) produced both softer crumbs and bread slices of more open visual texture. By using a desirability function that maximized specific volume while minimizing crust luminosity, crumb hardness, and mean cell density, the optimization of hydrocolloids mixture rendered a value of 0.54, for a combination of 0.24% XG, 0.60% GG, and 3.16% HPMC. View Full-Text
Keywords: quinoa; rice; maize; texture profile analysis; hydrocolloids; response surface; crumb image analysis quinoa; rice; maize; texture profile analysis; hydrocolloids; response surface; crumb image analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Encina-Zelada, C.R.; Cadavez, V.; Teixeira, J.A.; Gonzales-Barron, U. Optimization of Quality Properties of Gluten-Free Bread by a Mixture Design of Xanthan, Guar, and Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Gums. Foods 2019, 8, 156.

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