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Ripening of Hard Cheese Produced from Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis

1
Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15A, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
2
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(5), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050165
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Technology of Dairy Products)
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Abstract

The application of reverse osmosis (RO) for preconcentration of milk (RO-milk) on farms can decrease the overall transportation costs of milk, increase the capacity of cheese production, and may be highly attractive from the cheese manufacturer’s viewpoint. In this study, an attempt was made to produce a hard cheese from RO-milk with a concentration factor of 1.9 (RO-cheese). Proteolysis, volatile profiles, and sensory properties were evaluated throughout six months of RO-cheese ripening. Moderate primary proteolysis took place during RO-cheese ripening: about 70% of αs1-casein and 45% of β-casein were hydrolyzed by the end of cheese maturation. The total content of free amino acids (FAA) increased from 4.3 to 149.9 mmol kg−1, with Lys, Pro, Glu, Leu, and γ-aminobutyric acid dominating in ripened cheese. In total, 42 volatile compounds were identified at different stages of maturation of RO-cheese; these compounds have previously been found in traditional Gouda-type and hard-type cheeses of prolonged maturation. Fresh RO-cheese was characterized by a milky and buttery flavor, whereas sweetness, saltiness, and umami flavor increased during ripening. Current results prove the feasibility of RO-milk for the production of hard cheese with acceptable sensory characteristics and may encourage further research and implementation of RO technology in cheese manufacture. View Full-Text
Keywords: reverse osmosis; concentrated milk; hard cheese; cheese ripening; volatile compounds reverse osmosis; concentrated milk; hard cheese; cheese ripening; volatile compounds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Taivosalo, A.; Kriščiunaite, T.; Stulova, I.; Part, N.; Rosend, J.; Sõrmus, A.; Vilu, R. Ripening of Hard Cheese Produced from Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis. Foods 2019, 8, 165.

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