Ripening of Hard Cheese Produced from Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis
AbstractThe application of reverse osmosis (RO) for preconcentration of milk (RO-milk) on farms can decrease the overall transportation costs of milk, increase the capacity of cheese production, and may be highly attractive from the cheese manufacturer’s viewpoint. In this study, an attempt was made to produce a hard cheese from RO-milk with a concentration factor of 1.9 (RO-cheese). Proteolysis, volatile profiles, and sensory properties were evaluated throughout six months of RO-cheese ripening. Moderate primary proteolysis took place during RO-cheese ripening: about 70% of αs1-casein and 45% of β-casein were hydrolyzed by the end of cheese maturation. The total content of free amino acids (FAA) increased from 4.3 to 149.9 mmol kg−1, with Lys, Pro, Glu, Leu, and γ-aminobutyric acid dominating in ripened cheese. In total, 42 volatile compounds were identified at different stages of maturation of RO-cheese; these compounds have previously been found in traditional Gouda-type and hard-type cheeses of prolonged maturation. Fresh RO-cheese was characterized by a milky and buttery flavor, whereas sweetness, saltiness, and umami flavor increased during ripening. Current results prove the feasibility of RO-milk for the production of hard cheese with acceptable sensory characteristics and may encourage further research and implementation of RO technology in cheese manufacture. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Taivosalo, A.; Kriščiunaite, T.; Stulova, I.; Part, N.; Rosend, J.; Sõrmus, A.; Vilu, R. Ripening of Hard Cheese Produced from Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis. Foods 2019, 8, 165.
Taivosalo A, Kriščiunaite T, Stulova I, Part N, Rosend J, Sõrmus A, Vilu R. Ripening of Hard Cheese Produced from Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis. Foods. 2019; 8(5):165.Chicago/Turabian Style
Taivosalo, Anastassia; Kriščiunaite, Tiina; Stulova, Irina; Part, Natalja; Rosend, Julia; Sõrmus, Aavo; Vilu, Raivo. 2019. "Ripening of Hard Cheese Produced from Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis." Foods 8, no. 5: 165.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.