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Foods, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We herein provide an overview of the most recent multidisciplinary process advances that have [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Individual Differences in the Perception of Color Solutions
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The color of food is important for flavor perception and food selection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the visual color perception of liquid samples among Finnish adult consumers by their background variables. Participants (n = 205) ranked six
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The color of food is important for flavor perception and food selection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the visual color perception of liquid samples among Finnish adult consumers by their background variables. Participants (n = 205) ranked six different colored solutions just by looking according to four attributes: from most to least pleasant, healthy, sweet and sour. The color sample rated most frequently as the most pleasant was red (37%), the most healthy white (57%), the most sweet red and orange (34% both) and the most sour yellow (54%). Ratings of certain colors differed between gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and education groups. Females regarded the red color as the sweetest more often than males (p = 0.013) while overweight subjects rated the orange as the sweetest more often than normal weight subjects (p = 0.029). Personal characteristics may be associated with some differences in color associations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Microbiological Changes during Ripening of Chihuahua Cheese Manufactured with Raw Milk and Its Seasonal Variations
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Chihuahua cheese is a traditional cheese produced in Northwest Mexico that is consumed shortly after production. Cheeses prepared during autumn, winter and summer were collected from five dairies, and analyzed to determine seasonal influence on proximate analysis, texture profile and the microbiological dynamic
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Chihuahua cheese is a traditional cheese produced in Northwest Mexico that is consumed shortly after production. Cheeses prepared during autumn, winter and summer were collected from five dairies, and analyzed to determine seasonal influence on proximate analysis, texture profile and the microbiological dynamic during a ripening period of 270 days. Coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, molds, yeast, as well as presumptive mesophilic lactobacilli, thermophilic lactobacilli, lactococci, thermophilic cocci and enterococci, were enumerated by plate count on selective agar. Manufacturing dairy had an effect on Chihuahua cheese composition and texture profile. Seasonality influence on the microbial dynamic was observed, since the highest initial counts of coliforms (5.14 log CFU/g), coagulase-positive staphylococci (4.13 log CFU/g) and mesophilic lactobacilli (7.86 log CFU/g) were detected on summer samples. Also, ripening time affected the survival of coliforms and presumptive lactococci after 270 days (1.24 and 5.89 log CFU/g respectively) while from day 90th, coagulase-positive staphylococci were absent. Microbial changes and seasonal influence provide information on the microbiota that can influence the sensorial characteristics of Chihuahua cheese. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quality Assessment of Pork and Turkey Hams Using FT-IR Spectroscopy, Colorimetric, and Image Analysis
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
The implementation of fast and nondestructive methods in meat products and colds cuts have become increasingly important to evaluate their quality in relation to different factors such as origin, type of processing, freshness, adulteration, and authenticity. In this study, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
[...] Read more.
The implementation of fast and nondestructive methods in meat products and colds cuts have become increasingly important to evaluate their quality in relation to different factors such as origin, type of processing, freshness, adulteration, and authenticity. In this study, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), colorimetric, and image-analysis methods were implemented to characterize and classify ham cold cuts in terms of meat type, processing, and shelf life during refrigerated storage. Two types of commercial hams (made from pork and turkey) and three types of processing (boiled, smoked, and roasted) were selected. By using the most appropriate color parameters, a*, h, and C*, as well as the textural features’ angular second moment, long-running emphasis, and standard deviation of image intensity from the hams’ images, high-classification values for the different ham samples were achieved. The FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of absorbance bands of proteins, triglycerides, fatty acids, and carbohydrates with different intensities according to meat type and processing. Refrigeration storage caused significant alterations of color parameters and a partial degradation of triglycerides and proteins. Moreover, the image-analysis findings indicated that storage period caused significant degradation of ham images relating to local linearity, and structural and textural continuum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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Open AccessArticle “Seeing What’s Left”: The Effect of Position of Transparent Windows on Product Evaluation
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
The position of design elements on product packaging has been shown to exert a measurable impact on consumer perception across a number of different studies and product categories. Design elements previously found to influence the consumer through their positioning on the front of
[...] Read more.
The position of design elements on product packaging has been shown to exert a measurable impact on consumer perception across a number of different studies and product categories. Design elements previously found to influence the consumer through their positioning on the front of pack include product imagery, brand logos, text-based claims, and basic shapes. However, as yet, no empirical research has focused specifically on the relative position of transparent windows; despite the latter being an increasingly prevalent element of many modern packaging designs. This exploratory online study details an experimental investigation of how manipulating the position of a transparent window on a range of visually-presented, novel packaging designs influences consumer evaluations and judgements of the product seen within. Specifically, 110 participants rated 24 different packaging designs (across four product categories: granola, boxed chocolates, pasta, and lemon mousse; each with six window positions: in one of the four quadrants, the top half, or the bottom half) in a within-participants experimental design. Analyses were conducted using Friedman’s tests and Hochberg procedure-adjusted Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Tests. Window position was found to be a non-trivial element of design, with a general preference for windows on the right-hand side being evidenced. Significantly higher scores for expected product tastiness and design attractiveness were consistently identified across all product categories when windows were positioned on the right- vs. left-hand side of the packaging. Effects on the perception of powerfulness, overall liking, quality, and willingness to purchase were identified, but were inconsistent across the different product categories. Very few effects of window verticality were identified, with expected weight of the product not being significantly influenced by window position. The implications of these findings for academics, designers, and brand managers are discussed, with future research directions highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Health Consciousness and Its Effect on Perceived Knowledge, and Belief in the Purchase Intent of Liquid Milk: Consumer Insights from an Emerging Market
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
This study is based on the influence of consumers’ health consciousness (HC), perceived knowledge (PK) and beliefs affecting the attitude and purchase intent (PI) of the consumers. The outcome of this study is obtained through an exclusive survey conducted on a randomly selected
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This study is based on the influence of consumers’ health consciousness (HC), perceived knowledge (PK) and beliefs affecting the attitude and purchase intent (PI) of the consumers. The outcome of this study is obtained through an exclusive survey conducted on a randomly selected sample of 712 households who purchase liquid milk (LM) in the cities of Dhaka and Chittagong in Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire is used to interview these participants to obtain data which are analysed employing descriptive statistics, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Modelling. The results of the analyses corroborate that consumers’ health consciousness has a positive impact on perceived knowledge, belief, and attitude, but not on purchase intent. In addition, belief affects both the attitude and PI positively. Although consumers’ perceived knowledge is too low to constitute their attitude towards LM, it has a positive, significant impact on the PI. The results also reveal that more than a third of the respondents consume LM several times per month, followed by more than a quarter of the sampled respondents who consume LM several times per week, and these consumption patterns have a positive and significant influence on the PI. Moreover, the monthly income of the family, age, and labelling preference are significantly correlated with PI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Major Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves (Olea europaea L.) Using Response Surface Methodology
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of oleuropein (OLE), verbascoside (VER), and luteolin-4′-O-glucoside (L4OG), as the major phenolics from olive leaves, was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to monitor the effect of different modes of ultrasound
[...] Read more.
The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of oleuropein (OLE), verbascoside (VER), and luteolin-4′-O-glucoside (L4OG), as the major phenolics from olive leaves, was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to monitor the effect of different modes of ultrasound operation (pulsed and continuous), liquid–solid (L–S) ratio, and sonication time on each phenolic yield. The yield of UAE and conventional solid extraction (CSE) was determined after performing ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (UHPLC-DAD) analysis on the extracts. The results suggested that, under optimal conditions, the concentrations of OLE, VER, and L4OG were 13.386, 0.363, and 0.527 mg/g of dry powdered olive leaves (DPOL), respectively. Verification of experiments was carried out under the modified optimal conditions and the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values were dependent on the examined phenolic compound (OLE 8.63%, VER 11.3%, and L4OG 22.48%). In comparison with CSE, UAE improved the yields of OLE, VER, and L4OG (32.6%, 41.8%, and 47.5%, respectively, after 1 min) at a temperature of 60 °C, an L–S ratio of 15 (v/w), and in the continuous mode of UAE. We demonstrated that the UAE technique is an efficient method for enhancing yields of OLE, VER, and L4OG in olive-leaf extracts, while the chosen model was adequate to optimize the extraction of major phenolic compounds from olive leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Food Processing and Extraction Technologies)
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Open AccessReview Affinity Sensing Strategies for the Detection of Pesticides in Food
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
This is a review of recent affinity-based approaches that detect pesticides in food. The importance of the quantification and monitoring of pesticides is firstly discussed, followed by a description of the different approaches reported in the literature. The different sensing approaches are reported
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This is a review of recent affinity-based approaches that detect pesticides in food. The importance of the quantification and monitoring of pesticides is firstly discussed, followed by a description of the different approaches reported in the literature. The different sensing approaches are reported according to the different recognition element used: antibodies, aptamers, or molecularly imprinted polymers. Schemes of detection and the main features of the assays are reported and commented upon. The large number of affinity sensors recently developed and tested on real samples demonstrate that this approach is ready to be validated to monitor the amount of pesticides used in food commodities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Application in Food Analysis and Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Pure and Mixed Autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Fermentation and Volatile Compounds of Narince Wines
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
The cultivar of Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera, grown in Tokat city, the Mid-Black Sea Region of Anatolia. In this study, the effects of pure and mixed autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii-214 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-1088 cultures on
[...] Read more.
The cultivar of Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera, grown in Tokat city, the Mid-Black Sea Region of Anatolia. In this study, the effects of pure and mixed autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii-214 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-1088 cultures on the fermentation behavior and aroma compounds of Narince wines were investigated. Volatile compounds formed in wines were extracted using a liquid–liquid extraction method and determined by GC-MS-FID. Narince grape must was fermented in duplicate, under the following three conditions. Two pure cultures of T. delbrueckii-214 and S. cerevisiae-1088 and a mixture of T. delbrueckii-214 and S. cerevisiae-1088 (1:1). The presence of the non-Saccharomyces T. delbrueckii-214 yeast slowed down the fermentation and produced a lower level of ethanol and a higher levels of glycerol and volatile acid. Only the pure culture of T. delbrueckii-214 was unable to finish fermentation. On the other hand, mixed culture fermentation improved the aroma intensity and complexity of wine due to increased levels of higher alcohols and esters. According to sensory analysis, wine fermented with mixed culture was the most preferred wine followed by wine inoculated with pure S. cerevisiae-1088. This study confirms the role of T. delbrueckii in wine aroma and the potential of non-Saccharomyces use in winemaking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Actinidia macrosperma (A Wild Kiwifruit) Inhibits Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme In Vitro
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
Increasing interest in flavonoids in kiwifruit is due to the health-promoting properties of these bioactives. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the main therapeutic targets in controlling hypertension. The present study investigated the ACE inhibitory activity of flavonoid-rich extracts obtained
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Increasing interest in flavonoids in kiwifruit is due to the health-promoting properties of these bioactives. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the main therapeutic targets in controlling hypertension. The present study investigated the ACE inhibitory activity of flavonoid-rich extracts obtained from different kiwifruit genotypes. The flavonoid-rich extracts were prepared from fruits of Actinidia macrosperma, Actinidia deliciosa cv Hayward (Green kiwifruit), and Actinidia chinensis cv Hort 16A (Gold kiwifruit) by steeping the lyophilized fruit samples in 70% aqueous acetone, followed by partitioning the crude extracts with hexane. The composition of each extract was analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The ACE inhibitory activity of the fruit extracts was performed using a fluorescence-based biochemical assay. The subclass flavonol was the most abundant group of flavonoids detected in all the extracts tested from three different kiwifruit cultivars. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoglucoside, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic, ferulic, isoferulic, and caffeic acid were prominent phenolics found in A. macrosperma kiwifruit. Overall, the flavonoid-rich extract from A. macrosperma showed a significantly (p < 0.05) high percentage of inhibition (IC50 = 0.49 mg/mL), and enzyme kinetic studies suggested that it inhibits ACE activity in vitro. The kiwifruit extracts tested were found to be moderately effective as ACE inhibitors in vitro when compared to the other plant extracts reported in the literature. Further studies should be carried out to identify the active compounds from A. macrosperma and to validate the findings using experimental animal models of hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessReview What We Know and What We Need to Know about Aromatic and Cationic Biogenic Amines in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Biogenic amines derived from basic and aromatic amino acids (B/A-BAs), polyamines, histamine, serotonin, and catecholamines are a group of molecules playing essential roles in many relevant physiological processes, including cell proliferation, immune response, nutrition and reproduction. All these physiological effects involve a variety
[...] Read more.
Biogenic amines derived from basic and aromatic amino acids (B/A-BAs), polyamines, histamine, serotonin, and catecholamines are a group of molecules playing essential roles in many relevant physiological processes, including cell proliferation, immune response, nutrition and reproduction. All these physiological effects involve a variety of tissue-specific cellular receptors and signalling pathways, which conforms to a very complex network that is not yet well-characterized. Strong evidence has proved the importance of this group of molecules in the gastrointestinal context, also playing roles in several pathologies. This work is based on the hypothesis that integration of biomedical information helps to reach new translational actions. Thus, the major aim of this work is to combine scientific knowledge on biomolecules, metabolism and physiology of the main B/A-BAs involved in the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract, in order to point out important gaps in information and other facts deserving further research efforts in order to connect molecular information with pathophysiological observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Ultrafiltration of Milk Prior to Fermentation on Mass Balance and Process Efficiency in Greek-Style Yogurt Manufacture
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Ultrafiltration (UF) can be used to concentrate yogurt to produce Greek-style yogurt (GSY) (UF-YOG), but this generates acid whey permeate, which is an environmental issue. However, when UF is applied before fermentation (UF-MILK), a nonacidified whey permeate is generated. For this study, two
[...] Read more.
Ultrafiltration (UF) can be used to concentrate yogurt to produce Greek-style yogurt (GSY) (UF-YOG), but this generates acid whey permeate, which is an environmental issue. However, when UF is applied before fermentation (UF-MILK), a nonacidified whey permeate is generated. For this study, two model GSYs (UF-YOG and UF-MILK) were produced to compare the composition, UF performance, and energy consumption of the two processes. For UF-MILK, skim milk was ultrafiltered with a 30 kDa spiral-wound UF membrane to achieve a 3× volume reduction factor (VRF). The retentate was fermented to a pH of 4.5. The UF-YOG process was the same except that regular yogurt was ultrafiltered. Both GSYs had similar protein (~10%) and solid content (~17%). As expected, lactic acid/lactate was not detected in UF-MILK permeate, while 7.3 g/kg was recovered from the UF-YOG permeate. Permeation flux values (11.6 to 13.3 L m−2 h−1) and total flux decline (47% to 50%) were constant during UF-MILK, whereas drastic decreases in these two membrane performance indicators (average flux: 38.5 to 10.9 L m−2 h−1; total flux decline: 2% to 38%) were calculated for UF-YOG. Moreover, for UF-YOG, UF membrane performance never recovered, even when drastic and repeated cleaning steps were applied. Energy consumption was 1.6 kWh/kg GSY and remained constant for UF-MILK, whereas it increased from 0.6 to 1.5 kWh/kg GSY for UF-YOG. Our results show that, although the composition of GSYs was similar for both processes, the UF step of yogurt concentration affected process efficiency due to drastic and permanent membrane fouling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processing Technology in the Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Phytochemical Studies of 31 Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.)) Genotypes from Burkina Faso
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
Antioxidant compounds of dietary plants have been widely studied because of their bioactive properties. The objective of this research study was to analyse the health enhancing attributes of 31 cowpeas varieties from Burkina Faso. Significant variations were observed in the phenolic content as
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Antioxidant compounds of dietary plants have been widely studied because of their bioactive properties. The objective of this research study was to analyse the health enhancing attributes of 31 cowpeas varieties from Burkina Faso. Significant variations were observed in the phenolic content as well as the antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities amongst the cowpea varieties. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed that the ferric reducing ability (r = 0.954) and anti-lipid peroxidation (r = 0.616) were positively correlated with the total phenolic content. A significant relationship between cowpea ferric reducing ability and anti-lipid peroxidation (r = 0.64) was also revealed. However, nitric oxide scavenging potential was found not to be related to its total phenolic and total flavonoid content. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals scavenging potentials were not correlated with the total flavonoid content. The pigmented seeds of cowpea varieties possess higher total phenolic, total flavonoid content, ferric reduction ability, and anti-lipid peroxidation activities than the colourless ones. The results obtained from this study suggest that Burkina Faso cowpea cultivars are rich in phenolic compounds and have significant antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. Consumption of the cowpea, particularly of coloured cowpea seed varieties, should be beneficial for chronic human diseases prevention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Potential of Grass Pea Seeds from European Countries
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Phenolic compounds were extracted from seeds of 30 varieties of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) into 80% (v/v) methanol. The total phenolics compounds content of the extracts and their antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and
[...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds were extracted from seeds of 30 varieties of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) into 80% (v/v) methanol. The total phenolics compounds content of the extracts and their antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods, respectively. Total phenolic contents ranged from 1.88 to 7.12 mg/g extract and 20.3 to 70.3 mg/100 g seeds. The extracts and seeds were characterized using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values of 0.015–0.037 mmol Trolox/g extract and 0.158–0.372 mmol Trolox/100 g seeds, and FRAP values of 0.045–0.120 mmol Fe2+/g extract and 0.487–1.189 Fe2+/100 g seeds. The total phenolics content of grass pea extract was correlated with the results of the ABTS (r = 0.881) and FRAP (r = 0.781) assays. The same correlation was observed between the results of both assays (r = 0.842). Two derivatives of p-coumaric acid were the dominant phenolic compounds of the Derek cultivar of grass pea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
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Open AccessReview Food Safety Analysis Using Electrochemical Biosensors
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Rapid and precise analytical tools are essential for monitoring food safety and screening of any undesirable contaminants, allergens, or pathogens, which may cause significant health risks upon consumption. Substantial developments in analytical techniques have empowered the analyses and quantitation of these contaminants. However,
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Rapid and precise analytical tools are essential for monitoring food safety and screening of any undesirable contaminants, allergens, or pathogens, which may cause significant health risks upon consumption. Substantial developments in analytical techniques have empowered the analyses and quantitation of these contaminants. However, conventional techniques are limited by delayed analysis times, expensive and laborious sample preparation, and the necessity for highly-trained workers. Therefore, prompt advances in electrochemical biosensors have supported significant gains in quantitative detection and screening of food contaminants and showed incredible potential as a means of defying such limitations. Apart from indicating high specificity towards the target analytes, these biosensors have also addressed the challenge of food industry by providing high analytical accuracy within complex food matrices. Here, we discuss some of the recent advances in this area and analyze the role and contributions made by electrochemical biosensors in the food industry. This article also reviews the key challenges we believe biosensors need to overcome to become the industry standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Application in Food Analysis and Detection)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview 1-Kestose, the Smallest Fructooligosaccharide Component, Which Efficiently Stimulates Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as Well as Bifidobacteria in Humans
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
The concept of prebiotics was established more than 30 years ago. While the prebiotic concept has now expanded thus includes non-carbohydrate substances and diverse categories other than foods, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have still predominantly been used as pebiotics, because the effects of FOS exclusively
[...] Read more.
The concept of prebiotics was established more than 30 years ago. While the prebiotic concept has now expanded thus includes non-carbohydrate substances and diverse categories other than foods, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have still predominantly been used as pebiotics, because the effects of FOS exclusively act through the enrichment of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp., which have been classified as beneficial intestinal commensals so far. Now the commercially available FOS products are synthetic mixture of several kinds of FOS components including 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and GF4. In our previous studies, superiority of 1-kestose to the longer-chain FOS components such as nystose with regard to bifidogenic activity was clearly demonstrated. Recently, a broader range of beneficial bacteria including butyrate-producing indigenous bacteria have been recognized and expected to be new probiotic strains. Among them, resident Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a butyrate producer with a significant anti-inflammatory effect thus expected to be useful as a next-generation probiotic. However, this bacterium is extremely oxygen-sensitive thus can be difficult to grow industrially. On the other hand, we have clearly demonstrated a significant prebiotic effect of 1-kestose, which is the smallest component of FOS, on F. prausnitzii in the gut of humans. These findings suggest that 1-kestose has impressive potential as a new prebiotic targeting F. prausnitzii, a next-generation probiotic strain, as well as bifidobacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Synbiotics)
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Open AccessEditorial Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food: The Challenges Ahead
Received: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Measuring Thiols in Single Cultivar South African Red Wines Using 4,4-Dithiodipyridine (DTDP) Derivatization and Ultraperformance Convergence Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
Wine varietal thiols are important contributors to wine aroma. The chemical nature of thiols makes them difficult to measure due to low concentrations, high sensitivity to oxidation, and low ionization. Methods for the measurement of thiols usually consist of multiple steps of sample
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Wine varietal thiols are important contributors to wine aroma. The chemical nature of thiols makes them difficult to measure due to low concentrations, high sensitivity to oxidation, and low ionization. Methods for the measurement of thiols usually consist of multiple steps of sample preparation followed by instrumental measurement. Studies have collected large datasets of thiols in white wine but not in red wine, due to the lack of availability of suitable methods. In this study, for the first time, convergence chromatography was used to measure thiols in red wine at ultratrace levels with improved sensitivity compared to previous methods. Performance parameters (selectivity, linearity, limits of detection, precision, accuracy) were tested to demonstrate the suitability of the method for the proposed application. Red wine thiols were measured in South African Pinotage, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon wines (n = 16 each). Cultivar differentiation using the thiol profile was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle High Hydrostatic Pressure as a Tool to Reduce Formation of Biogenic Amines in Artisanal Spanish Cheeses
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
Two artisanal varieties of cheese made in Spain, one made of ewes’ raw milk and the other of goats’ raw milk were selected to evaluate the effect of a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment at 400 MPa during 10 min at 2 °C
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Two artisanal varieties of cheese made in Spain, one made of ewes’ raw milk and the other of goats’ raw milk were selected to evaluate the effect of a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment at 400 MPa during 10 min at 2 °C on the formation of biogenic amines (BA). These conditions were applied at the beginning of the ripening (before the 5th day; HHP1) and in the case of ewes’ milk cheeses also after 15th days (HHP15). BA formation was greatly influenced by HHP treatments in both types of cheese. HHP1 treatments significantly reduced the amounts of BA after ripening, being tyramine and putrescine the most affected BA in goats’ milk cheeses and tyramine and cadaverine in ewes’ milk cheeses. The BA reduction in the HHP1 samples could be explained by the significant decrease in microbiological counts, especially in the LAB, enteroccocci and enterobacteria groups at the beginning of ripening. The proteolysis in these samples was also affected reducing the amount of free amino acids. Although proteolysis in ewes’ milk cheeses HHP15 was similar than in control samples a reduction of BA was observed probably because the decrease caused on microbial counts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
Open AccessArticle Production, Quality, and Acceptance of Tempeh and White Bean Tempeh Burgers
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 25 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
The food industry has been challenged to develop new healthy food products. Tempeh, originating in Indonesia and produced by fungal fermentation, would be an alternative healthy food for the Brazilian population. This study was designed to produce white bean (cv BRS Ártico)
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The food industry has been challenged to develop new healthy food products. Tempeh, originating in Indonesia and produced by fungal fermentation, would be an alternative healthy food for the Brazilian population. This study was designed to produce white bean (cv BRS Ártico) tempeh burger, to determine and compare its nutritional and sensory properties with conventional soybean-based tempeh burger. The production and the analyses of proximal composition and microbiological contamination were determined in the tempeh, following reference methods. For the sensory analysis, a nine-point hedonic scale test was performed with 82 untrained evaluators, and at the end, a question of purchase intent was answered. The results indicated significant differences in the nutritional value of the tempehs, which is justified by the difference in the composition of the raw materials used. The samples did not present a risk of microbiological contamination for consumption. The white bean tempeh burgers showed similar appearance and crispy consistency, but received lower scores for flavor, compared to the soybean burgers, probably due to their residual beany flavor. The beany flavor could be minimized by increasing the cooking time of the beans. White bean tempeh can be a good alternative for healthy eating, and its manufacture could promote the production of new products made from beans, giving a new focus to the Brazilians’ traditional food. It is still necessary to improve the techniques of production and test new ingredients for the preparation of tempeh burgers to obtain higher acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Nutritional and Technological Attributes of Whole Wheat Based Bread Fortified with Chia Flour
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of wheat bread fortification with varied levels (2%, 4%, and 6%) of chia seed powder (full fat) and cakes (defatted, residue after oil extraction). Chia flour was added to whole wheat
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The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of wheat bread fortification with varied levels (2%, 4%, and 6%) of chia seed powder (full fat) and cakes (defatted, residue after oil extraction). Chia flour was added to whole wheat bread rich in vital wheat gluten for the first time. The breadcrumbs were assessed for their antioxidant activity, nutritional content, textural properties, color, and sensory profiles. The addition of chia seed powder, particularly in high levels, was more effective in improving antioxidant activity compared to bread fortified with chia cakes. Bread supplementation with chia flour improves its nutritional value, especially in the case of chia cakes. A higher moisture content and lower hardness were observed after bread fortification, the influence was more evident with the defatted cake than with seed powder. Fortification with chia flour led to darker breads without significantly affecting their global acceptability. However, the fortified bread showed better values than control in terms of sensory profile. These results suggest that the addition of chia seed powder and defatted cake can enhance the overall whole wheat bread quality. Our results also highlight that bread making could be an unconventional alternative for the exploitation of defatted chia seed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle Milk Protein Concentration Using Negatively Charged Ultrafiltration Membranes
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
In this work, milk protein concentrate (MPC) was made using wide-pore negatively charged ultrafiltration membranes. The charged membranes were used for a six-fold volume concentration of skim milk and subsequent diafiltration to mimic the industrial MPC process. The charged 100 kDa membranes had
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In this work, milk protein concentrate (MPC) was made using wide-pore negatively charged ultrafiltration membranes. The charged membranes were used for a six-fold volume concentration of skim milk and subsequent diafiltration to mimic the industrial MPC process. The charged 100 kDa membranes had at least a four-fold higher permeate flux at the same protein recovery as unmodified 30 kDa membranes, which are currently used in the dairy industry to make MPC. By placing a negative charge on the surface of an ultrafiltration membrane, the negatively charged proteins were rejected by electrostatic repulsion and not simply size-based sieving. Mass balance models of concentration and diafiltration were developed and the calculations matched the experimental observations. This is the first study to use wide-pore charged tangential-flow membranes for MPC manufacturing. Additionally, a unique mass balance model was applied, which accurately predicted experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processing Technology in the Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Dual Modification with Succinylation and Annealing on Physicochemical, Thermal and Morphological Properties of Corn Starch
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of annealing, succinylation, and a dual modification process (succinylation–annealing) on the physicochemical, thermal, and morphological properties of corn starch. Specifically, the properties of interest were the water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling power, paste clarity,
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of annealing, succinylation, and a dual modification process (succinylation–annealing) on the physicochemical, thermal, and morphological properties of corn starch. Specifically, the properties of interest were the water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling power, paste clarity, solubility, pasting properties, stability ratio, and thermal and morphological characteristics. The dual modification process increased the physicochemical properties (WBC, swelling power, peak viscosity, and paste clarity) and increased the gelatinization temperature and gelatinization enthalpy (∆H), but had no effect on the morphological properties and X-ray diffraction patterns. A comparison of samples, made using each of the processes, showed that dual modification increased the stability ratio (more stable viscosity under thermal and shear stress), which was 0.69 for dual modified starch, compared with 0.64, 0.58 and 0.44 for native, succinylated, and annealed starches, respectively. The findings of the present study are of potential use in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Processing and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Quality Assessment of Fresh Meat from Several Species Based on Free Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Contents during Chilled Storage
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper studies the changes that occur in free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of raw meats (beef, pork, lamb, chicken and turkey) during storage (2 °C, 10 days). The meat cuts samples were harvested from a retail outlet (without getting information
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This paper studies the changes that occur in free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of raw meats (beef, pork, lamb, chicken and turkey) during storage (2 °C, 10 days). The meat cuts samples were harvested from a retail outlet (without getting information on the animals involved) as the following: Beef leg (four muscles), pork leg (five muscles), lamb leg (seven muscles), turkey leg (four muscles), and chicken breast (one muscle). Meat composition varied according to meat types. In general, pH, microbiology counts, biogenic amine (BA), and free amino acid (FAA) contents were also affected by meat types and storage time (p < 0.05). Chicken and turkey presented the highest levels (p < 0.05) of FAAs. Total free amino acids (TFAA) were higher (p < 0.05) in white meats than in red ones. The behavior pattern, of the total free amino acids precursors (TFAAP) of Bas, was saw-toothed, mainly in chicken and turkey meat during storage, which limits their use as quality indexes. Spermidine and spermine contents were initially different among the meats. Putrescine was the most prevalent BA (p < 0.05) irrespective of species. In general, chicken and turkey contained the highest (p < 0.05) levels of BAs, and TFAAP of BAs. In terms of the biogenic amine index (BAI), the quality of chicken was the worst while beef meat was the only sample whose quality remained acceptable through the study. This BAI seems to be more suitable as a quality index for white meat freshness than for red meat, especially for beef. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Egg Number Added to Special Pasta by Means of Cholesterol Contained in Extracted Fat Using GC-FID
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Pasta with eggs added (generally termed “special pasta” for Italian legislation) is made by adding no less than 4 eggs without shells (or no less than 200 g of liquid or lyophilized egg product) per kilogram of semolina, as provided by law. In
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Pasta with eggs added (generally termed “special pasta” for Italian legislation) is made by adding no less than 4 eggs without shells (or no less than 200 g of liquid or lyophilized egg product) per kilogram of semolina, as provided by law. In this work, to determine the final content of eggs added to dough, an analytical procedure was developed for the rapid analysis of the cholesterol content in the finished pastas. The proposed procedure was simpler, faster, and more accurate than that of official methods of analysis based on the gravimetric determination of sterols. Moreover, the determination of the quality of fat content in the special pasta (egg pasta in this case) allowed the evaluation of its origin, avoiding possible fraud resulting from the addition of foreign fat as an alternative to fat derived from eggs. In this new gas chromatographic procedure, the internal standard squalene for the quantification of cholesterol was used because a more polar GC capillary column was used (RTX 65 TG-HT) for the separation of sterols, rather than 5% phenyl methylsilicone. The ratio between cholesterol and squalene allowed for the determination of the number of eggs added, while from analysis of the same gas chromatogram, it was also possible to evaluate the composition of triglycerides in the fat contained in the pasta, allowing discrimination of foreign fats with respect to fats contained in eggs and therefore avoiding adulteration of pasta. The same analytical procedure was applied to the determination of cholesterol content in lyophilized yolk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Pilot Scale Cavitational Reactors and Other Enabling Technologies to Design the Industrial Recovery of Polyphenols from Agro-Food By-Products, a Technical and Economical Overview
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
We herein provide an overview of the most recent multidisciplinary process advances that have occurred in the food industry as a result of changes in consumer lifestyle and expectations. The demand for fresher and more natural foods is driving the development of new
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We herein provide an overview of the most recent multidisciplinary process advances that have occurred in the food industry as a result of changes in consumer lifestyle and expectations. The demand for fresher and more natural foods is driving the development of new technologies that may efficiently operate at room temperature. Moreover, the huge amount of material discarded by the agro-food production chain lays down a significant challenge for emerging technologies that can provide new opportunities by recovering valuable by-products and creating new applications. Aiming to design industrial processes, there is a need for pilot scale plants such as the ‘green technologies development platform’, which was established by the authors. The platform is made up of a series of multifunctional laboratories that are equipped with non-conventional pilot reactors, developed in direct collaboration with partner companies, in order to bridge the enormous gap between academia and industry via the large-scale exploitation of relevant research achievements. Selected key, enabling technologies for process intensification make this scale-up feasible. We make use of two selected examples, the grape and olive production chains, to show how cavitational reactors, which are based on high-intensity ultrasound and rotational hydrodynamic units, can assist food processing and the sustainable recovery of waste, to produce valuable nutraceuticals as well as colouring and food–beverage additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Emerging Technologies on Food Products Composition)
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