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Foods 2018, 7(9), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7090131

Determination of Egg Number Added to Special Pasta by Means of Cholesterol Contained in Extracted Fat Using GC-FID

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Medical Center, Piazzale Luigi Cadorna, 9, 20123 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Agriculture, University of Naples Federico II, Parco Gussone, Portici, 80055 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analysis)
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Abstract

Pasta with eggs added (generally termed “special pasta” for Italian legislation) is made by adding no less than 4 eggs without shells (or no less than 200 g of liquid or lyophilized egg product) per kilogram of semolina, as provided by law. In this work, to determine the final content of eggs added to dough, an analytical procedure was developed for the rapid analysis of the cholesterol content in the finished pastas. The proposed procedure was simpler, faster, and more accurate than that of official methods of analysis based on the gravimetric determination of sterols. Moreover, the determination of the quality of fat content in the special pasta (egg pasta in this case) allowed the evaluation of its origin, avoiding possible fraud resulting from the addition of foreign fat as an alternative to fat derived from eggs. In this new gas chromatographic procedure, the internal standard squalene for the quantification of cholesterol was used because a more polar GC capillary column was used (RTX 65 TG-HT) for the separation of sterols, rather than 5% phenyl methylsilicone. The ratio between cholesterol and squalene allowed for the determination of the number of eggs added, while from analysis of the same gas chromatogram, it was also possible to evaluate the composition of triglycerides in the fat contained in the pasta, allowing discrimination of foreign fats with respect to fats contained in eggs and therefore avoiding adulteration of pasta. The same analytical procedure was applied to the determination of cholesterol content in lyophilized yolk. View Full-Text
Keywords: special pasta; gas chromatography; fats; cholesterol; squalene; lyophilized yolk; egg number special pasta; gas chromatography; fats; cholesterol; squalene; lyophilized yolk; egg number
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Naviglio, D.; Langella, C.; Faralli, S.; Ciaravolo, M.; Salvatore, M.M.; Andolfi, A.; Varchetta, V.; Romano, R.; Gallo, M. Determination of Egg Number Added to Special Pasta by Means of Cholesterol Contained in Extracted Fat Using GC-FID. Foods 2018, 7, 131.

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