Next Article in Journal
Food Safety Analysis Using Electrochemical Biosensors
Previous Article in Journal
Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food: The Challenges Ahead
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Foods 2018, 7(9), 140;

1-Kestose, the Smallest Fructooligosaccharide Component, Which Efficiently Stimulates Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as Well as Bifidobacteria in Humans

Research and Development Center, B Food Science Co., Ltd., Aichi 478-0046, Japan
Department of Cardiology, Osaka Habikino Medical Center, Osaka 583-8588, Japan
Department of Gastroenterology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan
Japanese Society for Probiotic Science, Isehara 259-1143, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Synbiotics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1645 KB, uploaded 1 September 2018]   |  


The concept of prebiotics was established more than 30 years ago. While the prebiotic concept has now expanded thus includes non-carbohydrate substances and diverse categories other than foods, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have still predominantly been used as pebiotics, because the effects of FOS exclusively act through the enrichment of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp., which have been classified as beneficial intestinal commensals so far. Now the commercially available FOS products are synthetic mixture of several kinds of FOS components including 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and GF4. In our previous studies, superiority of 1-kestose to the longer-chain FOS components such as nystose with regard to bifidogenic activity was clearly demonstrated. Recently, a broader range of beneficial bacteria including butyrate-producing indigenous bacteria have been recognized and expected to be new probiotic strains. Among them, resident Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a butyrate producer with a significant anti-inflammatory effect thus expected to be useful as a next-generation probiotic. However, this bacterium is extremely oxygen-sensitive thus can be difficult to grow industrially. On the other hand, we have clearly demonstrated a significant prebiotic effect of 1-kestose, which is the smallest component of FOS, on F. prausnitzii in the gut of humans. These findings suggest that 1-kestose has impressive potential as a new prebiotic targeting F. prausnitzii, a next-generation probiotic strain, as well as bifidobacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: prebiotics; 1-kestose; fructooligosaccharides; Faecalibacterium prausnitzii; butyrate prebiotics; 1-kestose; fructooligosaccharides; Faecalibacterium prausnitzii; butyrate

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tochio, T.; Kadota, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Koga, Y. 1-Kestose, the Smallest Fructooligosaccharide Component, Which Efficiently Stimulates Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as Well as Bifidobacteria in Humans. Foods 2018, 7, 140.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top