Next Article in Journal
What We Know and What We Need to Know about Aromatic and Cationic Biogenic Amines in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Next Article in Special Issue
Fractionation of Glycomacropeptide from Whey Using Positively Charged Ultrafiltration Membranes
Previous Article in Journal
Antioxidant and Phytochemical Studies of 31 Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.)) Genotypes from Burkina Faso
Previous Article in Special Issue
Milk Protein Concentration Using Negatively Charged Ultrafiltration Membranes
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Foods 2018, 7(9), 144;

Effect of Ultrafiltration of Milk Prior to Fermentation on Mass Balance and Process Efficiency in Greek-Style Yogurt Manufacture

Department of Food Sciences, STELA Dairy Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
CIRAIG, Département de Mathématiques et de Génie Industriel, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processing Technology in the Food Industry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [703 KB, uploaded 18 September 2018]   |  


Ultrafiltration (UF) can be used to concentrate yogurt to produce Greek-style yogurt (GSY) (UF-YOG), but this generates acid whey permeate, which is an environmental issue. However, when UF is applied before fermentation (UF-MILK), a nonacidified whey permeate is generated. For this study, two model GSYs (UF-YOG and UF-MILK) were produced to compare the composition, UF performance, and energy consumption of the two processes. For UF-MILK, skim milk was ultrafiltered with a 30 kDa spiral-wound UF membrane to achieve a 3× volume reduction factor (VRF). The retentate was fermented to a pH of 4.5. The UF-YOG process was the same except that regular yogurt was ultrafiltered. Both GSYs had similar protein (~10%) and solid content (~17%). As expected, lactic acid/lactate was not detected in UF-MILK permeate, while 7.3 g/kg was recovered from the UF-YOG permeate. Permeation flux values (11.6 to 13.3 L m−2 h−1) and total flux decline (47% to 50%) were constant during UF-MILK, whereas drastic decreases in these two membrane performance indicators (average flux: 38.5 to 10.9 L m−2 h−1; total flux decline: 2% to 38%) were calculated for UF-YOG. Moreover, for UF-YOG, UF membrane performance never recovered, even when drastic and repeated cleaning steps were applied. Energy consumption was 1.6 kWh/kg GSY and remained constant for UF-MILK, whereas it increased from 0.6 to 1.5 kWh/kg GSY for UF-YOG. Our results show that, although the composition of GSYs was similar for both processes, the UF step of yogurt concentration affected process efficiency due to drastic and permanent membrane fouling. View Full-Text
Keywords: Greek-style yogurt; ultrafiltration; acid whey membrane fouling; energy consumption Greek-style yogurt; ultrafiltration; acid whey membrane fouling; energy consumption

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Paredes Valencia, A.; Doyen, A.; Benoit, S.; Margni, M.; Pouliot, Y. Effect of Ultrafiltration of Milk Prior to Fermentation on Mass Balance and Process Efficiency in Greek-Style Yogurt Manufacture. Foods 2018, 7, 144.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top