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Open AccessArticle

Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Actinidia macrosperma (A Wild Kiwifruit) Inhibits Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme In Vitro

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, 23 Symonds Street, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2018, 7(9), 146;
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
Increasing interest in flavonoids in kiwifruit is due to the health-promoting properties of these bioactives. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the main therapeutic targets in controlling hypertension. The present study investigated the ACE inhibitory activity of flavonoid-rich extracts obtained from different kiwifruit genotypes. The flavonoid-rich extracts were prepared from fruits of Actinidia macrosperma, Actinidia deliciosa cv Hayward (Green kiwifruit), and Actinidia chinensis cv Hort 16A (Gold kiwifruit) by steeping the lyophilized fruit samples in 70% aqueous acetone, followed by partitioning the crude extracts with hexane. The composition of each extract was analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The ACE inhibitory activity of the fruit extracts was performed using a fluorescence-based biochemical assay. The subclass flavonol was the most abundant group of flavonoids detected in all the extracts tested from three different kiwifruit cultivars. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoglucoside, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic, ferulic, isoferulic, and caffeic acid were prominent phenolics found in A. macrosperma kiwifruit. Overall, the flavonoid-rich extract from A. macrosperma showed a significantly (p < 0.05) high percentage of inhibition (IC50 = 0.49 mg/mL), and enzyme kinetic studies suggested that it inhibits ACE activity in vitro. The kiwifruit extracts tested were found to be moderately effective as ACE inhibitors in vitro when compared to the other plant extracts reported in the literature. Further studies should be carried out to identify the active compounds from A. macrosperma and to validate the findings using experimental animal models of hypertension. View Full-Text
Keywords: ACE; Actinidia macrosperma; flavonoids; polyphenols; hypertension; kiwifruit ACE; Actinidia macrosperma; flavonoids; polyphenols; hypertension; kiwifruit
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Hettihewa, S.K.; Hemar, Y.; Rupasinghe, H.P.V. Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Actinidia macrosperma (A Wild Kiwifruit) Inhibits Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme In Vitro. Foods 2018, 7, 146.

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