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Open AccessArticle

Individual Differences in the Perception of Color Solutions

Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2018, 7(9), 154;
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
The color of food is important for flavor perception and food selection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the visual color perception of liquid samples among Finnish adult consumers by their background variables. Participants (n = 205) ranked six different colored solutions just by looking according to four attributes: from most to least pleasant, healthy, sweet and sour. The color sample rated most frequently as the most pleasant was red (37%), the most healthy white (57%), the most sweet red and orange (34% both) and the most sour yellow (54%). Ratings of certain colors differed between gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and education groups. Females regarded the red color as the sweetest more often than males (p = 0.013) while overweight subjects rated the orange as the sweetest more often than normal weight subjects (p = 0.029). Personal characteristics may be associated with some differences in color associations. View Full-Text
Keywords: color; visual; taste; perception; gender color; visual; taste; perception; gender
MDPI and ACS Style

Hoppu, U.; Puputti, S.; Aisala, H.; Laaksonen, O.; Sandell, M. Individual Differences in the Perception of Color Solutions. Foods 2018, 7, 154.

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