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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 15 (August-1 2022) – 209 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The enhancement effects of saltiness perception by odorants in Chinese Douchi were investigated in this study. Odorants associated with saltiness in Yongchuan Douchi were selected by gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste. The enhancement effects of saltiness by selected odorants were further verified by sensory analyses of 2-alternative forced choice and odor-induced saltiness enhancement in a follow-up study. The compounds of 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanol and 3-(methylthio)propanal could significantly enhance saltiness perception in salt solution. Among them, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine was reported for the first time as being able to improve the salty taste. View this paper
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Article
Two Ascophyllum nodosum Fucoidans with Different Molecular Weights Inhibit Inflammation via Blocking of TLR/NF-κB Signaling Pathway Discriminately
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152381 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
The present study aimed to clarify the potential mechanism of fucoidans found in Ascophyllum nodosum on anti-inflammation and to further explore the relationship between their structures and anti-inflammation. Two novel fucoidans named ANP-6 and ANP-7 and found in A. nodosum, were separated [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to clarify the potential mechanism of fucoidans found in Ascophyllum nodosum on anti-inflammation and to further explore the relationship between their structures and anti-inflammation. Two novel fucoidans named ANP-6 and ANP-7 and found in A. nodosum, were separated and purified and their structures were elucidated by HPGPC, HPLC, GC-MS, FT-IR, NMR, and by the Congo red test. They both possessed a backbone constructed of →2)-α-L-Fucp4S-(1→, →3)-α-L-Fucp2S4S-(1→, →6)-β-D-Galp-(1→, and →3,6)-β-D-Galp4S-(1→ with branches of →2)-α-L-Fucp4S-(1→ and →3)-β-D-Galp-(1→. Moreover, ANP-6 and ANP-7 could prevent the inflammation of the LPS-stimulated macrophages by suppressing the NO production and by regulating the expressions of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. Their inhibitory effects on the TLR-2 and TLR-4 levels suggest that they inhibit the inflammation process via the blocking of the TLR/NF-κB signal transduction. In addition, ANP-6, with a molecular weight (63.2 kDa), exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory capabilities than ANP-7 (124.5 kDa), thereby indicating that the molecular weight has an influence on the anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidans. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Guava Pulp Microencapsulated in Mucilage of Aloe Vera and Opuntia ficus-indica as a Natural Dye for Yogurt: Functional Characterization and Color Stability
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152380 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
The substitution of artificial colorants for pigments extracted from fruits is a highly desirable strategy in the food industry for the manufacture of natural, functional, and safe products. In this work, a 100% natural spray-dried (SD) microencapsulated colorant of pink guava pulp, using [...] Read more.
The substitution of artificial colorants for pigments extracted from fruits is a highly desirable strategy in the food industry for the manufacture of natural, functional, and safe products. In this work, a 100% natural spray-dried (SD) microencapsulated colorant of pink guava pulp, using aloe vera (AV) or Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) mucilage as functional encapsulating material, was prepared and evaluated as an additive into a yogurt (Y) matrix. The characterization of yogurt samples supplemented with OFI (Y-SD-OFI) and AV (Y-SD-AV) mucilage-covered guava pulp microcapsules was carried out through carotenoid quantification using UV–vis and HPLC–MS techniques, dietary fiber content, antioxidant capacity, colorimetry, and textural analysis, as well as by an evaluation of color stability after 25 days of storage at 4 °C in the dark. These physicochemical characteristics and color stability on the Y-SD-OFI and Y-SD-AV samples were compared with those of a commercial yogurt (control sample, Y-C) containing sunset yellow FCF synthetic colorant (E110). Y-SD-OFI and Y-SD-AV samples exhibited a high content of lycopene, dietary fiber, and antioxidant activity, which were absent in the control sample. Microencapsulated lycopene imparted a highly stable color to yogurt, contrary to the effect provided by the E110 dye in the control sample. The texture profile analysis revealed an increase in firmness, consistency, and cohesion in the Y-SD-OFI sample, contrary to the Y-SD-AV and Y-C samples, which was attributed to the variation in fiber concentration in the microcapsules. The incorporation of OFI and AV mucilage microparticles containing pink guava pulp into yogurt demonstrated its potential application as a functional natural colorant for dairy products. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Heavy Metal Uptake in Potatoes Cultivated in a Typical Karst Landform, Weining County, China
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2379; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152379 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 388
Abstract
The average content of heavy metals in Weining soil of karst landforms is generally higher than that of other agricultural regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in potatoes from Weining county and to analyze the correlation [...] Read more.
The average content of heavy metals in Weining soil of karst landforms is generally higher than that of other agricultural regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in potatoes from Weining county and to analyze the correlation between the content of heavy metals in potatoes planted in the soil of karst landform and the soil’s environmental factors (soil heavy metals, soil pH, soil organic matter, altitude). Weining county (Guizhou province, China) is a typical karst landform, and has a potato production yield of 2.7 million tons. In this study, 56 soil and potato samples were collected from Weining county and the heavy metal content in the soils and potatoes was detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The content of Cr, Ni, and As in the soil was found to be higher, with almost half of the samples exceeding the maximum allowable levels. A total of 9 of the 56 samples tested had pollution load index values greater than 1.0, which indicates serious soil pollution. It was found that the ability of the potato to absorb heavy metals from the soil was very low, with the average bio-concentration factors of the metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, and As being 0.087, 0.088, 0.0028, 0.0034, 0.0066, and less than 0.001, respectively. The content of the six heavy metals in the potatoes were all lower than the maximum permissible limit. The results show that a high As content in the soil could increase the content of Pb in potatoes, that a lower pH was beneficial to the bioaccumulation of Cr and Ni in potatoes, and that a high altitude is detrimental to the bioaccumulation of zinc and copper in potatoes. The HRI ranged between 1.12 × 10−2 and 5.92 × 10−2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Toxicology and Food Preservation: Risk Evaluation)
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Article
Encapsulation of Mesona chinensis Benth Extract in Alginate Beads Enhances the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152378 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the stability and antioxidant activity of the polyphenols from Mesona chinensis Benth extract (MCE) and its alginate-based encapsulation by extrusion technique during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The encapsulation efficacy ranged from 41.1 ± 4.7 to 56.7 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the stability and antioxidant activity of the polyphenols from Mesona chinensis Benth extract (MCE) and its alginate-based encapsulation by extrusion technique during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The encapsulation efficacy ranged from 41.1 ± 4.7 to 56.7 ± 3.4% with different concentrations of MCE (50–75% v/v), sodium alginate (1.2–1.8% w/v), and CaCl2 solution (3–5% w/v). The optimal condition for MCE-loaded alginate beads (MCB) was composed of 75% MCE, 1.5% alginate, and 3% CaCl2 solution, which provided the highest encapsulation efficiency with a spherical structure and a mean particle diameter of 1516.67 ± 40.96 μm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reported no chemical interaction between alginate and MCE. The release of total phenolic content (TPC) was only 8.9% after placing MCB in water for 4 h. After simulated digestion, changes in TPC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of MCE significantly decreased by 25.0% and 29.7%, respectively. Interestingly, the incorporation of MCB significantly increased TPC and FRAP in the digesta compared to those of MCE during gastrointestinal tract conditions. The findings suggest that the encapsulation of MCE with alginate as a carrier helps to improve the bioaccessibility and biological activity of M. chinensis polyphenols. Full article
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Article
Integrative Physiological and Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Mechanism for the Repair of Sub-Lethally Injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2377; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152377 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 359
Abstract
The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology in the food industry has generated potential safety hazards due to sub-lethally injured (SI) pathogenic bacteria in food products. To address these problems, this study explored the repair mechanisms of HHP-induced SI Escherichia coli O157:H7. [...] Read more.
The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology in the food industry has generated potential safety hazards due to sub-lethally injured (SI) pathogenic bacteria in food products. To address these problems, this study explored the repair mechanisms of HHP-induced SI Escherichia coli O157:H7. First, the repair state of SI E. coli O157:H7 (400 MPa for 5 min) was identified, which was cultured for 2 h (37 °C) in a tryptose soya broth culture medium. We found that the intracellular protein content, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ATPase) increased, and the morphology was repaired. The transcriptome was analyzed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of SI repair. Using cluster analysis, we identified 437 genes enriched in profile 1 (first down-regulated and then tending to be stable) and 731 genes in profile 2 (up-regulated after an initial down-regulation). KEGG analysis revealed that genes involved in cell membrane biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis pathways were enriched in profile 2, whereas cell-wall biosynthesis was enriched in profile 1. These findings provide insights into the repair process of SI E. coli O157:H7 induced by HHP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Article
Detection and Quantitation of Adulterated Paprika Samples Using Second-Order HPLC-FLD Fingerprints and Chemometrics
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152376 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Paprika is a widely consumed spice in the world and its authentication has gained interest considering the increase in adulteration cases in recent years. In this study, second-order fingerprints acquired by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) were first used to detect and [...] Read more.
Paprika is a widely consumed spice in the world and its authentication has gained interest considering the increase in adulteration cases in recent years. In this study, second-order fingerprints acquired by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) were first used to detect and quantify adulteration levels of Chinese paprika samples. Six different adulteration cases, involving paprika production region, cultivar, or both, were investigated by pairs. Two strategies were employed to reduce the data matrices: (1) chromatographic fingerprints collected at specific wavelengths and (2) fusion of the mean data profiles in both spectral and time dimensions. Afterward, the fingerprint data with different data orders were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) and n-way partial least squares (N-PLS) regression models, respectively. For most adulteration cases, N-PLS based on second-order fingerprints provided the overall best quantitation results with cross-validation and prediction errors lower than 2.27% and 20.28%, respectively, for external validation sets with 15–85% adulteration levels. To conclude, second-order HPLC-FLD fingerprints coupled with chemometrics can be a promising screening technique to assess paprika quality and authenticity in the control and prevention of food frauds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Fraud and Food Authenticity across the Food Supply Chain)
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Article
A Combination of Novel Nucleic Acid Cross-Linking Dye and Recombinase-Aided Amplification for the Rapid Detection of Viable Salmonella in Milk
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152375 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Salmonella, as an important foodborne pathogen, can cause various diseases, such as severe enteritis. In recent years, various types of nucleicacid-intercalating dyes have been utilized to detect viable Salmonella. However, in principle, the performance of existing nucleic acid dyes is limited [...] Read more.
Salmonella, as an important foodborne pathogen, can cause various diseases, such as severe enteritis. In recent years, various types of nucleicacid-intercalating dyes have been utilized to detect viable Salmonella. However, in principle, the performance of existing nucleic acid dyes is limited because they depend on the integrity of cell membrane. Herein, based on the metabolic activity of bacteria, a novel DNA dye called thiazole orange monoazide (TOMA) was introduced to block the DNA from dead bacteria. Recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) was then performed to detect viable Salmonella in samples. In this study, the permeability of TOMA to the cell membrane of Salmonella was evaluated via confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence emission spectrometry. The limit of detection (LOD) of the TOMA–RAA method was 2.0 × 104 CFU/mL in pure culture. The feasibility of the TOMA–RAA method in detecting Salmonella was assessed in spiked milk. The LOD for Salmonella was 3.5 × 102 CFU/mL after 3 h of enrichment and 3.5 × 100 CFU/mL after 5 h of enrichment. The proposed TOMA–RAA assay has great potential to be applied to accurately detect and monitor foodborne pathogens in milk and its byproducts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches for Detecting Foodborne Pathogens)
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Article
Comparison of Maillard-Type Glycated Collagen with Alginate Oligosaccharide and Glucose: Its Characterization, Antioxidant Activity, and Cytoprotective Activity on H2O2-Induced Cell Oxidative Damage
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152374 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
To improve the antioxidant activity of collagen molecules using Maillard-type glycation, the relation between antioxidant activity and progress indexes for the Maillard reaction must be understood. In this study, lyophilized tilapia scale collagen was mixed with a half weight of alginate oligosaccharide (AO) [...] Read more.
To improve the antioxidant activity of collagen molecules using Maillard-type glycation, the relation between antioxidant activity and progress indexes for the Maillard reaction must be understood. In this study, lyophilized tilapia scale collagen was mixed with a half weight of alginate oligosaccharide (AO) or glucose and incubated at 60 °C and 35% relative humidity for up to 18 h to produce the Maillard-type glycated collagen (C-AO and C-Glu, respectively). As glycation progressed, the amount of conjugated sugar coupled with UV-vis absorbance at 294 nm and 420 nm increased more rapidly in C-Glu than in C-AO, and the available lysine decreased rapidly in C-Glu compared with C-AO. The early-to-middle- and late-stage products of the Maillard reaction were involved in enhanced antioxidant activity of digested C-AO and digested C-Glu, respectively. Additionally, C-AO acquired the antioxidant activity without marked available lysine loss. The cytoprotective effect of collagen in H2O2-induced damage was enhanced by glycation, achieved by reducing malondialdehyde content and increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results indicate that AO is an excellent reducing sugar that enhances the health benefits of collagen without excessive loss of lysine, which is a nutritional problem of the Maillard-type glycation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Article
The Mutual Influence of Predominant Microbes in Sourdough Fermentation: Focusing on Flavor Formation and Gene Transcription
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152373 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
The interplay between microorganisms generally plays a vital role in food fermentation. In this study, the mutual influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the two predominant microbes in the sourdough ecosystem, were investigated in situ during fermentation. Doughs fermented with S. cerevisiae [...] Read more.
The interplay between microorganisms generally plays a vital role in food fermentation. In this study, the mutual influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the two predominant microbes in the sourdough ecosystem, were investigated in situ during fermentation. Doughs fermented with S. cerevisiae, F. sanfranciscensis, or their combination were compared regarding acid production, microbial density, and volatiles. Furthermore, in situ gene expressions were investigated using RNA-sequencing. The results showed that the presence of S. cerevisiae had no visible influence on F. sanfranciscensis, whereas F. sanfranciscensis facilitated the growth of S. cerevisiae but affected its volatile production since metabolites such as 3-methyl-1-butanol decreased. The RNA-sequencing demonstrated that S. cerevisiae significantly changed the gene transcripts implicated in amino acid metabolism in F. sanfranciscensis and may stimulate its growth suggested by the enrichment of the KEGG pathway of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Probiotics in Fermented Food)
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Communication
A Novel Gas Sensor for Detecting Pork Freshness Based on PANI/AgNWs/Silk
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152372 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
A novel, operational, reliable, flexible gas sensor based on silk fibroin fibers (SFFs) as a substrate was proposed for detecting the freshness of pork. Silk is one of the earliest animal fibers utilized by humans, and SFFs exposed many biological micromolecules on the [...] Read more.
A novel, operational, reliable, flexible gas sensor based on silk fibroin fibers (SFFs) as a substrate was proposed for detecting the freshness of pork. Silk is one of the earliest animal fibers utilized by humans, and SFFs exposed many biological micromolecules on the surface. Thus, the gas sensor was fabricated through polyaniline (PANI) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) and deposited on SFFs by in-suit polymerization. With trimethylamine (TMA) as a model gas, the sensing properties of the PANI/AgNWs/silk composites were examined at room temperature, and the linear correlativity was very prominent between these sensing measures and the TMA measures in the range of 3.33 μg/L–1200 μg/L. When the pork sample is detected by the sensor, it can be classified into fresh or stale pork with the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) as an index. The result indicated that the gas sensor was effective and showed great potential for applications to detect the freshness of pork. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analytical Strategies in Food Safety and Quality Monitoring)
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Study Protocol
Effects of Flash Evaporation Conditions on the Quality of UHT Milk by Changing the Dissolved Oxygen Content in Milk
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152371 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
This study assessed the impact of reducing dissolved oxygen (DO) content on the quality of UHT milk using a flash deoxygenation treatment. Flash deoxygenation was designed based on preheated milk reaching boiling early under low-pressure conditions to remove DO from the milk. Two [...] Read more.
This study assessed the impact of reducing dissolved oxygen (DO) content on the quality of UHT milk using a flash deoxygenation treatment. Flash deoxygenation was designed based on preheated milk reaching boiling early under low-pressure conditions to remove DO from the milk. Two parameters were designed for flash deoxygenation: preheating temperature 65 °C, −0.08 Mpa, and 70 °C, −0.06 Mpa. The flash conditions were applied to two UHT sterilization conditions (135 °C for 10 s and 145 °C for 5 s). After deoxygenation, the total oxidation (TOTOX) value of UHT milk was reduced by 1.4~1.71, and the protein carbonyl (PC) value was reduced by 1.15~1.52 nmol/mg of protein. The maximum inhibition rates of furusine and 5-HMF were 33.23 ± 1.72% and 25.43 ± 3.14%, respectively. The particle size was reduced by 0.141~0.178 μm. The ketones and stale aldehydes causing oxidized taste in the UHT milk were significantly reduced. This study showed that the oxidation and Maillard reactions of UHT milk were significantly inhibited, stability was improved, and the content of undesirable volatile flavor substances was reduced after flash deoxygenation. Therefore, reducing DO content was beneficial to improving the quality of UHT milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Article
A Comparative Study on Microbiological and Chemical Characteristics of Small Ruminant Carcasses from Abattoirs in Greece
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2370; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152370 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Meat quality dictates consumer preferences with hygiene forming a key component, especially in meat types with declining popularity, such as sheep and goat meat. Aiming to increase the marketability of sheep and goat meat, we examined 370 sheep and goat carcasses from two [...] Read more.
Meat quality dictates consumer preferences with hygiene forming a key component, especially in meat types with declining popularity, such as sheep and goat meat. Aiming to increase the marketability of sheep and goat meat, we examined 370 sheep and goat carcasses from two abattoirs in Greece. Tests included enumeration of the total mesophilic viable count, total psychrophilic viable count and coliform count, and detection of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and presumptive ESBL Escherichia coli. Moreover, designated samples of meat were used to measure pH, moisture, total fat and protein content. Goat carcasses had significantly higher microbial counts compared to sheep carcasses. Lamb and kid carcasses had larger TMVC, TPVC and coliform counts compared to carcasses from adult animals. One strain of L. monocytogenes (0.8%), typed as serovar 1/2a (3a), was isolated from one adult sheep carcass. Twelve strains of ESBL Escherichia coli (25%) were isolated; there were not any strains of Salmonella spp. The average values of pH, moisture, total fat and total protein were 5.83%, 67.76%, 7.21% and 21.31%, respectively, for sheep carcasses and 5.70%, 68.2%, 5.69% and 24.10%, respectively, for goat carcasses. The results showed a small deviation in assessed parameters, implying the uniformity of the conditions concerning rearing and slaughtering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Microflora and the Quality of Meat Products)
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Article
Antimicrobial Nonwoven Fabrics Incorporated with Levulinic Acid and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate for Use in the Food Industry
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152369 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2831
Abstract
Safe and cost-effective antimicrobial fabrics (e.g., face masks and air filters) are conducive to preventing the spread and transmission of respiratory microorganisms in food processing plants and retail establishments. The objective of this study was to coat fabrics with two commonly used compounds [...] Read more.
Safe and cost-effective antimicrobial fabrics (e.g., face masks and air filters) are conducive to preventing the spread and transmission of respiratory microorganisms in food processing plants and retail establishments. The objective of this study was to coat fabrics with two commonly used compounds in the food industry: levulinic acid (LVA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the coated fabrics against bacterial solutions, aerosols, and influenza A virus subtype H1N1. In addition, air permeability and shelf-life of the LVA/SDS coated fabrics were also examined. Nonwoven fabrics were dip-coated with three concentrations (w/v, 0.5% LVA + 0.1% SDS, 1% LVA + 0.5% SDS, and 2% LVA + 1% SDS) of LVA and SDS and challenged with bacterial solutions (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, ca. 7.0 log CFU/coupon) for a contact time of 3, 5, and 10 min. The coated fabrics were also challenged with S. aureus aerosol and H1N1 virus following standard operations of ASTM F2101-19 and ISO 18184:2019, respectively. The 1% LVA + 0.5% SDS coated fabrics showed potent antibacterial efficacy against both bacterial solutions (>6.0-log reduction to under the detection limit of 1.0 log CFU/coupon for S. aureus; ca. 1.0-log reduction for E. coli) and aerosols (>3.6-log reduction to under the detection limit), with greater inactivation occurring at higher concentrations and longer exposure time. Moreover, the coated fabrics inactivated >99% of the H1N1 virus. The shelf-life of the coated fabrics was stable within 12 months and the air permeability was not adversely affected with the coating concentrations less than 1% LVA + 0.5% SDS. Results reveal these low-cost and safe materials have the potential to be used to coat fabrics in the food industry to combat the spread and transmission of pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Analysis Technology for Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Effects of Moderate Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Structure and Functional Properties of Pea Protein
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152368 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Pea protein (PP) was moderately hydrolyzed using four proteolytic enzymes including flavourzyme, neutrase, alcalase, and trypsin to investigate the influence of the degree of hydrolysis (DH) with 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% on the structural and functional properties of PP. Enzymatic [...] Read more.
Pea protein (PP) was moderately hydrolyzed using four proteolytic enzymes including flavourzyme, neutrase, alcalase, and trypsin to investigate the influence of the degree of hydrolysis (DH) with 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% on the structural and functional properties of PP. Enzymatic modification treatment distinctly boosted the solubility of PP. The solubility of PP treated by trypsin was increased from 10.23% to 58.14% at the 8% DH. The results of SDS-PAGE indicated the protease broke disulfide bonds, degraded protein into small molecular peptides, and transformed insoluble protein into soluble fractions with the increased DH. After enzymatic treatment, a bathochromic shift and increased intrinsic fluorescence were observed for PP. Furthermore, the total sulfhydryl group contents and surface hydrophobicity were reduced, suggesting that the unfolding of PP occurred. Meanwhile, the foaming and emulsification of PP were improved after enzymatic treatment, and the most remarkable effect was observed under 6% DH. Moreover, under the same DH, the influence on the structure and functional properties of PP from large to small are trypsin, alcalase, neutrase and flavourzyme. This result will facilitate the formulation and production of natural plant-protein-based products using PP. Full article
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Article
Effect of Silkworm Pupa Protein Hydrolysates on Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cells In Vitro
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152367 - 07 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
The proliferation inhibition effects of the hydrolysates from silkworm pupa proteins on MGC-803 gastric cancer cells were investigated in this study. The specific morphological changes (cell membrane, cell nucleus and cytoskeleton) of cells were measured. In vitro, the proliferation of MGC-803 cells was [...] Read more.
The proliferation inhibition effects of the hydrolysates from silkworm pupa proteins on MGC-803 gastric cancer cells were investigated in this study. The specific morphological changes (cell membrane, cell nucleus and cytoskeleton) of cells were measured. In vitro, the proliferation of MGC-803 cells was inhibited by silkworm pupa protein hydrolysates (SPPHs) in a dose-dependent manner. The flow cytometry analysis showed that the blocking effect of SPPHs on the MGC-803 cells was mainly in the G0/G1-phase. The morphological changes, disintegration of the cytoskeleton and retardant cell cycles were probably related to the activation of apoptosis. Thus, SPPHs could be promising as a chemopreventive agent due to their ability to promote apoptosis of tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intervention Effect of Natural Food Products on Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Acyclic Diterpene Phytol from Hemp Seed Oil (Cannabis sativa L.) Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity on Primary Human Monocytes-Macrophages
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152366 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Seeds from non-drug varieties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) have been used for traditional medicine, food, and fiber production. Our study shows that phytol obtained from hemp seed oil (HSO) exerts anti-inflammatory activity in human monocyte-macrophages. Fresh human monocytes and human macrophages [...] Read more.
Seeds from non-drug varieties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) have been used for traditional medicine, food, and fiber production. Our study shows that phytol obtained from hemp seed oil (HSO) exerts anti-inflammatory activity in human monocyte-macrophages. Fresh human monocytes and human macrophages derived from circulating monocytes were used to evaluate both plasticity and anti-inflammatory effects of phytol from HSO at 10–100 mM using FACS analysis, ELISA, and RT-qPCR methods. The quantitative study of the acyclic alcohol fraction isolated from HSO shows that phytol is the most abundant component (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/Kg of HSO). Phytol was able to skew monocyte-macrophage plasticity toward the anti-inflammatory non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocyte phenotype and toward macrophage M2 (CD200Rhigh and MRC-1high), as well as to reduce the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, diminishing the inflammatory competence of mature human macrophages after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. These findings point out for the first time the reprogramming and anti-inflammatory activity of phytol in human monocyte-macrophages. In addition, our study may help to understand the mechanisms by which phytol from HSO contributes to the constant and progressive plasticity of the human monocyte-macrophage linage. Full article
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Editorial
Physicochemical Properties and Structure Changes of Food Products during Processing
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152365 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
This Special Issue is dedicated toward the understanding of the physicochemical properties and structure changes of food products during processing [...] Full article
Article
Rheology and Tribology of Ethylcellulose-Based Oleogels and W/O Emulsions as Fat Substitutes: Role of Glycerol Monostearate
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152364 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Rheological and tribological properties of oleogels and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are important for application in fat substitutes. This study investigated the roles of glycerol monostearate (GMS) in tailoring the structural, rheological and tribological properties of ethylcellulose (EC)-based oleogels and W/O emulsions as potential [...] Read more.
Rheological and tribological properties of oleogels and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are important for application in fat substitutes. This study investigated the roles of glycerol monostearate (GMS) in tailoring the structural, rheological and tribological properties of ethylcellulose (EC)-based oleogels and W/O emulsions as potential fat substitutes. The addition of GMS contributed to more round and compact oil pores in oleogel networks. The oleogel with 5% GMS had higher crystallinity, leading to solid state (lower tanδ value), mechanical reversibility (higher thixotropic recovery), but a brittle (lower critical strain) structure in the samples. GMS gave the oleogels and emulsions higher oil binding capacity, storage modulus and yield stress. Under oral processing conditions, GMS addition contributed to higher textural attributes and viscosity. Friction coefficients in mixed and boundary regions of oleogels and emulsions were reduced with the increase in GMS content from 0~2%, but increased with 5% GMS. Rheological and tribological properties of lard, mayonnaise and cream cheese can be mimicked by EC oleogels with 5% GMS, or emulsions with 2% GMS and 2–5% GMS, respectively. The study showed the potentials of oleogel and W/O emulsions in designing low-fat products by tuning the structures for healthier and better sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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Communication
Advanced Coatings with Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity for Kumquat Preservation
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152363 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
An active coating is one of the best ways to maintain the good quality and sensory properties of fruits. A new active coating was prepared by incorporating curcumin and phloretin into the konjac glucomannan matrix (KGM-Cur-Phl). The fourier infrared spectroscopy, rheology and differential [...] Read more.
An active coating is one of the best ways to maintain the good quality and sensory properties of fruits. A new active coating was prepared by incorporating curcumin and phloretin into the konjac glucomannan matrix (KGM-Cur-Phl). The fourier infrared spectroscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed the successful fabrication of this coating. This coating showed excellent antioxidant activity revealed by the 95.03% of ABTS radicals scavenging ratio and 99.67% of DPPH radicals scavenging ratio. The result of bacteria growth curves showed that it could effectively inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The results of firmness, titratable acid and pH showed that it effectively prolonged the shelf life of kumquat. A novel konjac glucomannan-based active coating was provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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Article
Residues of Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Polish Varietal Honey
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152362 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
The levels of chemical pollutants were determined in 30 samples of varietal honey from southeastern Poland, including 223 pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, acaricides, plant growth regulators, and veterinary drugs) and 5 heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, and Zn). In 10% of the [...] Read more.
The levels of chemical pollutants were determined in 30 samples of varietal honey from southeastern Poland, including 223 pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, acaricides, plant growth regulators, and veterinary drugs) and 5 heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, and Zn). In 10% of the samples, no pesticide residues were found. The most frequently identified pesticides were thiacloprid (90% of the samples, max 0.337 mg/kg), acetamiprid (86.6%, max 0.061 mg/kg), carbendazim (60%, max 0.049 mg/kg), DMF (56.6%, max 0.038 mg/kg), total amitraz (53.3%, max 0.075 mg/kg), thiamethoxam (26.6%, max 0.004 mg/kg), thiacloprid-amide (13.3%, max 0.012 mg/kg), dimethoate (10%, max 0.003 mg/kg), azoxystrobin (10%, max 0.002 mg/kg), tebuconazole (6.66%, max 0.002 mg/kg), and boscalid (3.33%, max 0.001 mg/kg). The acceptable limits for the compounds were not exceeded in any sample. The Pb content ranged between 0.044 and 0.081 mg/kg. The concentration of Hg and Cd did not exceed 5.0 µg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. The honey variety significantly (p < 0.01) influenced the content of Cu, which ranged from 0.504 (rapeseed honey) to 1.201 mg/kg (buckwheat). A similar tendency (p > 0.05) was observed for the Zn content, which ranged from 0.657 mg/kg (linden) to 2.694 mg/kg (buckwheat). Honey produced in southeastern Poland was shown to be safe for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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Review
Anti-Inflammatory Function of Plant-Derived Bioactive Peptides: A Review
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152361 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Inflammation is considered to be a crucial factor in the development of chronic diseases, eight of which were listed among the top ten causes of death worldwide in the World Health Organization’s World Health Statistics 2019. Moreover, traditional drugs for inflammation are often [...] Read more.
Inflammation is considered to be a crucial factor in the development of chronic diseases, eight of which were listed among the top ten causes of death worldwide in the World Health Organization’s World Health Statistics 2019. Moreover, traditional drugs for inflammation are often linked to undesirable side effects. As gentler alternatives to traditional anti-inflammatory drugs, plant-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to be effective interventions against various chronic diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, an adequate and systematic review of the structures and anti-inflammatory activities of plant-derived bioactive peptides has been lacking. This paper reviews the latest research on plant-derived anti-inflammatory peptides (PAPs), mainly including the specific regulatory mechanisms of PAPs; the structure–activity relationships of PAPs; and their enzymatic processing based on the structure–activity relationships. Moreover, current research problems for PAPs are discussed, such as the shallow exploration of mechanisms, enzymatic solution determination difficulty, low yield and unknown in vivo absorption and metabolism and proposed future research directions. This work aims to provide a reference for functional activity research, nutritional food development and the clinical applications of PAPs. Full article
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Article
A Sulfated Polysaccharide from Red Algae (Gelidium crinale) to Suppress Cells Metastasis and MMP-9 Expression of HT1080 Cells
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152360 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Sulfated polysaccharides from red algae have a variety of biological activities, especially antitumor activities. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a proteolytic metalloenzyme that degrades the central part of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and promotes tumor metastasis. In this research, we have investigated the influence [...] Read more.
Sulfated polysaccharides from red algae have a variety of biological activities, especially antitumor activities. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a proteolytic metalloenzyme that degrades the central part of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and promotes tumor metastasis. In this research, we have investigated the influence and mechanism of GNP (sulfated polysaccharide from Gelidium crinale) on tumor metastasis and MMP-9 expression of human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. The results inflected that the concentration of GNP below 100 μg/mL has no toxicity to HT1080 cells, but showed excellent activity in inhibiting cells migration and invasion. In addition, GNP effectively inhibits the mRNA of MMP-9 and reduces its expression and activity by regulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and mTOR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. GNP has great potential as MMP-9 inhibitor and could be developed as a functional food or drug to prevent tumor metastasis. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Assessment of Agronomic and Baking Qualities of Modern/Old Varieties and Landraces of Wheat Grown in Calabria (Italy)
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152359 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 378
Abstract
The cultivation of wheat has been part of the evolution of human civilisation since ancient times. Wheat breeding has modified some of its characteristics to obtain improved varieties with high production potential that better meet the demands of the bread and pasta industry. [...] Read more.
The cultivation of wheat has been part of the evolution of human civilisation since ancient times. Wheat breeding has modified some of its characteristics to obtain improved varieties with high production potential that better meet the demands of the bread and pasta industry. Even today, there are still old varieties, landraces, adapted to particular environments. They are still cultivated in some areas because of the interest shown by the market in typical bakery products expressing the cultural heritage of local communities. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bio-agronomic and bakery characteristics of four modern genotypes, one old cultivar and two landraces of wheat typically grown in Calabria (Southern Italy). The experiment was carried out over two years in two different locations, during which the main bio-agronomic and quality traits related to bread making aptitude were detected. A marked difference was found between the landraces and the other genotypes in both agronomic and technological characteristics. Despite the higher protein and gluten content, landraces were found to have a significantly lower gluten index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Quality of the Food Supply Chain for Bakery Products)
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Article
Shelf-Life Prediction and Thermodynamic Properties of No Added Sugar Chocolate Spread Fortified with Multiple Micronutrients
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152358 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The development of fortified healthy pleasant foods, in which saturated fats are replaced with unsaturated ones, poses a challenge for the food industry due to their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf-life, causes the destruction of health-promoting molecules, and forms potentially [...] Read more.
The development of fortified healthy pleasant foods, in which saturated fats are replaced with unsaturated ones, poses a challenge for the food industry due to their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf-life, causes the destruction of health-promoting molecules, and forms potentially toxic compounds. A comparative study applying the Arrhenius model was carried out to investigate the oxidative stability and predict the shelf-life of a newly developed no added sugar chocolate spread formulated with sunflower oil, and fortified with vitamin D, Mg, and Ca checked against two commercially available spreads: No Palm and a well-known commercially available product (RB). The results obtained from the accelerated shelf-life testing for peroxide value (PV) showed relatively higher activation energy (Ea, 14.48 kJ/mol K) for RB, whereas lower Ea (11.31–12.78 kJ/mol K) was obtained for No Palm and all the experimental spread chocolates. Q10 values were comparable (1.202–1.154), indicating a similar catalytic effect of the temperature upon the oxidation rate across all the investigated samples. The positive Gibbs free energies ranged from 75.014 to 83.550 kJ/mol and pointed out that the lipid oxidation reaction in the chocolate spread was an endergonic process. The predicted shelf-life at 293.15 K was 8.57 months (RB), 7 months (No Palm), and 6.8 months for all the experimental spreadable chocolate. However, the higher production of hydroperoxides was observed in chocolate fortified with magnesium-calcium carbonate nanoparticles and stored at 313.15 and 323.15 K, suggesting these particles may enhance lipid oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Bioactive Compounds in Food Systems)
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Article
Exploring the Quality and Application Potential of the Remaining Tea Stems after the Postharvest Tea Leaves: The Example of Lu’an Guapian Tea (Camellia sinensis L.)
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152357 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Lu’an Guapian tea is produced through the processing of only leaves, with the stems and buds discarded, but stems constitute a large proportion of the tea harvest. To test the usability of tea stems, we compared the physicochemical properties of tea leaves and [...] Read more.
Lu’an Guapian tea is produced through the processing of only leaves, with the stems and buds discarded, but stems constitute a large proportion of the tea harvest. To test the usability of tea stems, we compared the physicochemical properties of tea leaves and stems from the same growth period as well as the taste of their infusions. The leaves contained higher concentrations of polyphenols and caffeine and had a stronger taste. The tea stems contained higher concentrations of free amino acids and soluble sugars and were richer in umami and sweet flavors. In addition, more tender tea stems had higher concentrations of polyphenols, caffeine, and free amino acids, and their infusions had more refreshing and sweeter tastes. Furthermore, crude fiber content increased as stem tenderness decreased. In summary, tea stems are rich in phytochemical components and flavor, and these properties increased with tenderness. This provides a theoretical basis for the high-value utilization of tea stems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Article
Application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Multispectral Imaging (MSI) and Electronic Nose (E-Nose) for the Rapid Evaluation of the Microbiological Quality of Gilthead Sea Bream Fillets
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152356 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI), and electronic nose (E-nose) was explored in order to determine the microbiological quality of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets. Fish fillets were maintained at four temperatures (0, 4, 8, [...] Read more.
The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI), and electronic nose (E-nose) was explored in order to determine the microbiological quality of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets. Fish fillets were maintained at four temperatures (0, 4, 8, and 12 °C) under aerobic conditions and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (33% CO2, 19% O2, 48% N2) for up to 330 and 773 h, respectively, for the determination of the population of total viable counts (TVC). In parallel, spectral data were acquired by means of FT-IR and MSI techniques, whereas the volatile profile of the samples was monitored using an E-nose. Thereafter, the collected data were correlated to microbiological counts to estimate the TVC during fish fillet storage. The obtained results demonstrated that the partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models developed on FT-IR data provided satisfactory performance in the estimation of TVC for both aerobic and MAP conditions, with coefficients of determination (R2) for calibration of 0.98 and 0.94, and root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) values of 0.43 and 0.87 log CFU/g, respectively. However, the performance of the PLS-R models developed on MSI data was less accurate with R2 values of 0.79 and 0.77, and RMSEC values of 0.78 and 0.72 for aerobic and MAP storage, respectively. Finally, the least satisfactory performance was observed for the E-nose with the lowest R2 (0.34 and 0.17) and the highest RMSEC (1.77 and 1.43 log CFU/g) values for aerobic and MAP conditions, respectively. The results of this work confirm the effectiveness of FT-IR spectroscopy for the rapid evaluation of the microbiological quality of gilthead sea bream fillets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood: Quality, Shelf Life and Sensory Attributes)
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Review
Hydroxytyrosol in Foods: Analysis, Food Sources, EU Dietary Intake, and Potential Uses
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152355 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic compound with proven biological properties present in a limited number of foods such as table olives, virgin olive oil (VOO) and wines. The present work aims to evaluate the dietary intake of HT in the European (EU) population [...] Read more.
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic compound with proven biological properties present in a limited number of foods such as table olives, virgin olive oil (VOO) and wines. The present work aims to evaluate the dietary intake of HT in the European (EU) population by compiling scattered literature data on its concentration in foods. The consumption of the involved foods was estimated based on the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. The updated average contents of HT are as follows: 629.1, 5.2 and 2.1 µg/g for olives, olive oil and wine, respectively. The HT estimated intake in the European Union (EU) adult population falls within 0.13–6.82 mg/day/person, with table olives and wine being the main contributors. The estimated mean dietary intake of HT in EU countries is 1.97 ± 2.62 mg/day. Greece showed the highest HT intake (6.82 mg/day), while Austria presented the lowest (0.13 mg/day). Moreover, HT is an authorized novel food ingredient in the EU that can be added to different foods. Since the estimated HT intake is substantially low, the use of HT as a food ingredient seems feasible. This opens new possibilities for revalorizing waste products from olive oil and olive production which are rich HT sources. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration of White Mushrooms by Response Surface Methodology for Shelf-Life Extension and Quality Improvement of Frozen End-Products
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152354 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), one of the most common edible mushroom species, are sensitive to damages because of the absence of a protective skin layer and have a limited shelf life. Osmotic dehydration (OD), mainly used as a pre-processing step of [...] Read more.
Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), one of the most common edible mushroom species, are sensitive to damages because of the absence of a protective skin layer and have a limited shelf life. Osmotic dehydration (OD), mainly used as a pre-processing step of conventional preservation methods, has been proposed as an efficient, mild treatment to preserve mushroom superior quality. In this study, response surface methodology, coupled with a Box–Behnken design, was used to investigate the effect of glycerol concentration (30–50%), temperature (30–50 °C), and duration of osmosis (0–180 min) in order to optimize the process prior to a subsequent freezing step. For each response, including mass transfer and selected quality indices, a second-order polynomial model was developed, and all process factors were found to have a significant impact. Based on the desirability approach and pre-set criteria, optimum operating conditions were estimated, namely osmosis at 50 °C, for 120 min, with a 42% glycerol solution, and the corresponding validation experiments were performed. Based on the error estimated between experimental and predicted values, polynomial equations were found to adequately predict parameter values. Based on a shelf-life test under frozen storage, OD-treated samples retained better quality attributes compared to their untreated counterparts. Full article
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Article
Functional Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria In Vitro Isolated from Spontaneously Fermented Sour Porridge with Broomcorn Millet in Northwestern Shanxi Province of China
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152353 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Eighteen strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spontaneously fermented sour porridge with broomcorn millet in Northwestern Shanxi Province of China, and their probiotic characteristics were investigated in vitro. Survival rates under gastrointestinal conditions, cholesterol reduction, antibacterial capabilities, antioxidant activities, and safety [...] Read more.
Eighteen strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spontaneously fermented sour porridge with broomcorn millet in Northwestern Shanxi Province of China, and their probiotic characteristics were investigated in vitro. Survival rates under gastrointestinal conditions, cholesterol reduction, antibacterial capabilities, antioxidant activities, and safety assessments were examined. Results showed that five strains were selected as probiotics and identified as Levilactobacillusbrevis. Strain L10 exhibited excellent probiotic characteristics, with an 86% survival rate under pH 2.0 for 2 h, 80% survival rate in 0.3% bile salt for 6 h, the highest survival rate (78%) in simulated gastrointestinal juice for 3 h, the highest hydrophobicity (42% to xylene and 39% to hexadecane), the highest aggregation (39% auto-aggregation and 10.4–18.13% co-aggregation), relative higher cholesterol reduction rate (80%), the highest antibacterial activities, the highest antioxidant activity, sensitive to most antibiotics tested, without hemolytic and hydrolyze gelatinase activity and could not produce biogenic amine. Therefore, strain L10 could be applied to functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Article
Antimicrobial Effect of Simira ecuadorensis Extracts and Their Impact on Improving Shelf Life in Chicken and Fish Products
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152352 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of Simira ecuadorensis, a characteristic plant of Ecuador, and to validate its potential as a food preservative. Four extracts referred to as ethanol, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v), spray-dried, [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of Simira ecuadorensis, a characteristic plant of Ecuador, and to validate its potential as a food preservative. Four extracts referred to as ethanol, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v), spray-dried, and freeze-dried were obtained under different processes. Initially, their antimicrobial activities were evaluated against a wide group of microorganisms consisting of 20 pathogenic and spoilage microbial strains found in foods through the agar diffusion method. Then, the extracts with the best yields and antimicrobial properties against microorganisms of greatest interest were selected to determine their effect on model foods preserved under normal commercial conditions through challenge tests. Spray-dried and ethanol-water extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit C. jejuni in chicken model products, where is a common pathogen and Shew. putrefaciens in fish model products as it is a spoilage microorganism frequently found in fish. One solid and one liquid were chosen as model foods: burger and broth, respectively. Campylobacter jejuni and Shewanella putrefaciens were effectively inhibited by the four extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 80 mg/mL. Bacillus cereus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Clostridium perfringens, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were also inhibited by ethanolic extract. The ethanol-water extract showed greater antimicrobial activity in fish products, whereas spray-dried extract had low growth inhibition of C. jejuni in chicken burgers; however, it was quite effective on C. jejuni in broth. The spray-dried extract significantly decreased the pH of the chicken burgers, while the ethanolic extract had a slight impact on the pH of the fish burgers. The presence of antibacterial effects revealed that the S. ecuadorensis extracts could be potentially used in food preservation and as a natural antimicrobial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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