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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2021) – 282 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The use of digital technologies in the agro-food sector is growing worldwide, and applications in urban and regional food systems represent a relevant segment of such growth. This review explores which and how digital technologies support urban and regional agro-food purchasing and consumption. Consumers and farmers are the main targets of ICT tools, whose principal aims are to provide information on agro-food products and enhance networking along the food supply chain. Analyzing digital technologies allows a better understanding of their most popular features to support their spread within the agro-food system and among citizens. Digital technologies, and particularly apps, can be a valuable instrument to strengthen agro-food chain actor relations and to promote urban and regional food systems. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Parasite Transmission Stages from Berries Using Washing Procedures Suitable for Consumers
Foods 2021, 10(2), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020481 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Due to the delicate nature of berries and the reduced shelf-life once washed, producers usually do not wash berries. Therefore, consumers are expected to wash the berries prior to consumption, and this might be a more effective way of infection prevention. However, the [...] Read more.
Due to the delicate nature of berries and the reduced shelf-life once washed, producers usually do not wash berries. Therefore, consumers are expected to wash the berries prior to consumption, and this might be a more effective way of infection prevention. However, the efficacy of consumer berry-washing procedures in removing the parasite contaminants from the berries surface has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to compare the efficacy of three different washing techniques in removing parasite contaminants. Three alternatives to washing berries before consumption were compared on berries artificially contaminated with oo/cysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis. The results show that simple washing of berries under the cold tap for 1 min could remove on average at least 80% of the parasites, except for C. cayetanensis, which seems to be stickier than both G. duodenalis and C. parvum. The percent removal was slightly lower for raspberries as compared to blueberries. Although the differences are expected, a relevant result of the study is that washing contaminated berries prior to consumption by the consumer removes a considerable proportion of parasites and thereby lowers the risk of ingesting parasites’ transmission stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens on Fresh Produce: Detection and Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Dishes Adapted to Dysphagia: Sensory Characteristics and Their Relationship to Hedonic Acceptance
Foods 2021, 10(2), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020480 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 155
Abstract
Dishes whose texture has been modified for dysphagia undergo changes in other sensory characteristics as well. Therefore, it is necessary to identify these characteristics in adapted dishes and their relationship to hedonic acceptance. In the present work, the sensory characteristics of five dishes [...] Read more.
Dishes whose texture has been modified for dysphagia undergo changes in other sensory characteristics as well. Therefore, it is necessary to identify these characteristics in adapted dishes and their relationship to hedonic acceptance. In the present work, the sensory characteristics of five dishes adapted to dysphagia associated with cerebral palsy were investigated using the check-all-that-apply method. A hedonic evaluation with a panel of non-dysphagic judges was performed to relate the degree of acceptance with the sensory characteristics of the adapted dishes. The identification of the original non-adapted dish as well as the relationship between the hedonic evaluation by non-dysphagic judges and dysphagic judges were explored. The main attributes of the dishes adapted to dysphagia were “homogeneity” and “easy-to-swallow”. Attributes that increased the hedonic evaluation were “flavorful”, “flavor of the original dish”, “soft texture”, “easy-to-swallow”, and “odor of the original dish”. The attributes that decreased the hedonic evaluation were “thick mash” and “bland”. The fish dish was the only one correctly identified more than 62.5% of the time. The adapted dishes received scores above 4.7 out of 9.0 in the hedonic evaluation. The most accepted dishes were the chicken stew and the chickpea stew. Except for the pasta dish, the test yielded similar results to those obtained with dysphagic judges. The texture-modified dishes were correctly characterized and accepted. This study shows that all the sensory characteristics of the adapted dishes are crucial for acceptance and identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Chemometric Models Based on a LC-qToF-MS Approach to Verify the Geographic Origin of Virgin Olive Oil
Foods 2021, 10(2), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020479 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 155
Abstract
In the presented study a non-targeted approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-qToF-MS) combined with chemometric techniques was used to build a statistical model to verify the geographic origin of virgin olive oils. The sample preparation [...] Read more.
In the presented study a non-targeted approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-qToF-MS) combined with chemometric techniques was used to build a statistical model to verify the geographic origin of virgin olive oils. The sample preparation by means of liquid/liquid extraction of polar compounds was optimized regarding the number of multiple extractions, application of ultrasonic treatment and temperature during concentration of the analytes. The presented workflow for data processing aimed to identify the most predictive features and was applied to a set of 95 olive oils from Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece. Different strategies for data reduction and multivariate analysis were compared. Stepwise variable selection showed for both applied multivariate models—linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logit regression (LR)—to be the most suitable variable selection strategy. The 10-fold cross validation of the LDA showed a classification rate of 83.1% for the test set. For the LR models the prediction accuracy of the test set was even higher with values of 90.4% (Portugal), 86.2% (Italy), 93.8% (Greece) and 88.3% (Spain). Moreover, the reduction of features allows an easier following up strategy for identification of the unknowns and defining marker substances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Packaging Solutions to Extend the Shelf Life of Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) ‘Vegalim’
Foods 2021, 10(2), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020478 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 268
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess, through a comparative shelf-life test, the suitability of two packaging materials, namely macro-perforated polypropylene (PP MA) and micro-perforated coextruded polypropylene (PP C), for the quality preservation of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. ‘Vegalim’). Quality [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess, through a comparative shelf-life test, the suitability of two packaging materials, namely macro-perforated polypropylene (PP MA) and micro-perforated coextruded polypropylene (PP C), for the quality preservation of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. ‘Vegalim’). Quality of spears was evaluated during 30 days at refrigerated storage by monitoring chemical, physical, and enzymatic parameters as well as sensory descriptors. PP C kept headspace composition close to suggested values for fresh green asparagus. Total color difference increased during the storage and it was highly correlated with chlorophyll-a and carotenoids, however, sensory color perception did not change significantly until 22 days of storage. PP C maintained ascorbic acid concentrations close to the initial levels, limited total phenolic compound loss to 24% (45% in PP MA), determined an increase of 72% in fiber content and small changes in lignin value; enzymatic changes were significantly inhibited. Significant sensorial differences were detected after 22 days of storage, with PP C performing better than PP MA. PP C film was confirmed as the best choice, limiting weight loss and maintaining a fresh-like appearance during 30 days of storage, thus allowing an extension in postharvest life. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Valuable Tool to Tackle Food Analysis: A Literature Review on Coffee, Dairies, Honey, Olive Oil and Wine
Foods 2021, 10(2), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020477 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 209
Abstract
Nowadays, food adulteration and authentication are topics of utmost importance for consumers, food producers, business operators and regulatory agencies. Therefore, there is an increasing search for rapid, robust and accurate analytical techniques to determine the authenticity and to detect adulteration and misrepresentation. Mid-infrared [...] Read more.
Nowadays, food adulteration and authentication are topics of utmost importance for consumers, food producers, business operators and regulatory agencies. Therefore, there is an increasing search for rapid, robust and accurate analytical techniques to determine the authenticity and to detect adulteration and misrepresentation. Mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR), often associated with chemometric techniques, offers a fast and accurate method to detect and predict food adulteration based on the fingerprint characteristics of the food matrix. In the first part of this review the basic concepts of infrared spectroscopy, sampling techniques, as well as an overview of chemometric tools are summarized. In the second part, recent applications of MIR spectroscopy to the analysis of foods such as coffee, dairy products, honey, olive oil and wine are discussed, covering a timespan from 2010 to mid-2020. The literature gathered in this article clearly reveals that the MIR spectroscopy associated with attenuated total reflection acquisition mode and different chemometric tools have been broadly applied to address quality, authenticity and adulteration issues. This technique has the advantages of being simple, fast and easy to use, non-destructive, environmentally friendly and, in the future, it can be applied in routine analyses and official food control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Organic and Conventional Production Methods on Fruit Yield and Nutritional Quality Parameters in Three Traditional Cretan Grape Varieties: Results from a Farm Survey
Foods 2021, 10(2), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020476 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 197
Abstract
The antioxidants found in grapes and wine have been linked to health benefits in humans, but may be affected by agronomic parameters, grape type/variety, and processing. Here, we report results of a farm survey which investigated the effects of production system (organic vs. [...] Read more.
The antioxidants found in grapes and wine have been linked to health benefits in humans, but may be affected by agronomic parameters, grape type/variety, and processing. Here, we report results of a farm survey which investigated the effects of production system (organic vs. conventional) and grape variety on fruit yield, total antioxidant activity/capacity (TAA, assessed by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays), and total concentrations of total phenolics (TPC) and anthocyanins (TAC) in grapes of one red (Kotsifali) and two white (Villana and/or Vidiano) traditional Cretan grape varieties. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed that grape variety choice had a more substantial effect on TPC, TAA, and TAC than primary production protocols, and significant interactions were identified between production system and grape variety choice for TAATEAC. Specifically, TAATEAC was significantly (57%) higher in organic than conventional Vidiano grapes, while there was no significant effect of production system on TAATEAC in Kotsifali and Villana grapes. As expected from previous studies, the TAC was substantially higher in red Kotsifali grapes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) identified grape variety as the only strong explanatory variable/driver for yield, TPC, TAA, and TAC of table grapes, and positive associations were detected between the variety Vidiano and both TPC and TAATEAC. All other explanatory variables included in the RDA (including supplementary irrigation, orchard orientation, production system, soil type, vineyard age, plant density, and fertiliser inputs) explained only a small proportion of the additional variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Characterization and Evaluation of Bioactive Properties of Tisanes Prepared from Promising Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Foods 2021, 10(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020475 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 190
Abstract
The chemical composition and biological properties correlation in several medicinal and aromatic plants is still underexplored, especially in its most common form of consumption as tisane. The present study aims to characterize the organic acids and vitamin E composition of five tisanes and [...] Read more.
The chemical composition and biological properties correlation in several medicinal and aromatic plants is still underexplored, especially in its most common form of consumption as tisane. The present study aims to characterize the organic acids and vitamin E composition of five tisanes and their extracts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC coupled to a fluorescence detector techniques, respectively, and the phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS (mass spectrometry by electrospray ionization). It also focuses on their bioactive properties, namely antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-diabetic activities. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed in order to understand the correlation between the chemical composition and bioactive properties of the tisanes. The tisane 5 (T5) composed by lemon thyme, tutsan, cloves, and cinnamon, was the most promising mixture, presenting the lowest values for the lipid peroxidation inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activity. It also presented the highest concentration of phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids derivatives), and flavan-3-ols (catechin derivatives). Only the dry plants presented tocopherols. For the antihemolytic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity, T2 and T4 (with lemon thyme) were highlighted as the best herbal mixtures. The PCA proved to be a valid tool to select the most promising tisane according to the bioactivity. These results suggest that the studied tisanes can be source of high added-value bioactive compounds with health-promoting effects and potential for application in the food and nutraceutical industries, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Natural Additives)
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Open AccessArticle
Generating New Snack Food Texture Ideas Using Sensory and Consumer Research Tools: A Case Study of the Japanese and South Korean Snack Food Markets
Foods 2021, 10(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020474 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Food companies spend a large amount of money and time to explore markets and consumer trends for ideation. Finding new opportunities in food product development is a challenging assignment. The majority of new products launched in the market are either copies of existing [...] Read more.
Food companies spend a large amount of money and time to explore markets and consumer trends for ideation. Finding new opportunities in food product development is a challenging assignment. The majority of new products launched in the market are either copies of existing concepts or line extensions. This study demonstrates how the global marketplace can be used for generating new texture concepts for snack foods. One hundred and twenty-three prepacked snack foods from South Korea (SK) and ninety-five from Japan (JP) were purchased for this study. Projective mapping (PM) was used to sort the snacks on a 2-dimensional map (texture and flavor). Sensory scientists grouped snacks on similarities and dissimilarities. PM results showed, 65% (JP) and 76% (SK) snacks were considered as hard textures, ranging from moderate to extremely hard. Sixty-five percent of JP snacks were savory, whereas 59% of SK snacks had a sweet flavor. The PM 2-dimensional map was used to find white spaces in the marketplace. Thirty-two diversified snacks from each country were screened and profiled using descriptive sensory analysis by trained panelists. Attributes such as sustained fracturability, sustained crispness, initial crispness, and fracturability were the main sensory texture characteristics of snacks. Results showed how descriptive analysis results can be used as initial sensory specifications to develop prototypes. Prototype refinement can be performed by doing multiple developmental iterations and consumer testing. The study showed how white spaces are potential opportunities where new products can be positioned to capture market space. Practical Application: The methodology produced in this study can be used by food product developers to explore new opportunities in the global marketplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
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Open AccessReview
Current Perspective of Sialylated Milk Oligosaccharides in Mammalian Milk: Implications for Brain and Gut Health of Newborns
Foods 2021, 10(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020473 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant solid component after lactose and lipids of breast milk. All mammal milk contains soluble oligosaccharides, including neutral milk oligosaccharides (NMOs) without sialic acid (Sia) moieties and acidic oligosaccharides or sialylated milk oligosaccharides (SMOs) with [...] Read more.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant solid component after lactose and lipids of breast milk. All mammal milk contains soluble oligosaccharides, including neutral milk oligosaccharides (NMOs) without sialic acid (Sia) moieties and acidic oligosaccharides or sialylated milk oligosaccharides (SMOs) with Sia residues at the end of sugar chains. The structural, biological diversity, and concentration of milk oligosaccharides in mammalian milk are significantly different among species. HMOs have multiple health benefits for newborns, including development of immune system, modification of the intestinal microbiota, anti-adhesive effect against pathogens, and brain development. Most infant formulas lack oligosaccharides which resemble HMOs. Formula-fed infants perform poorly across physical and psychological wellbeing measures and suffer health disadvantages compared to breast-fed infants due to the differences in the nutritional composition of breast milk and infant formula. Of these milk oligosaccharides, SMOs are coming to the forefront of research due to the beneficial nature of Sia. This review aims to critically discuss the current state of knowledge of the biology and role of SMOs in human milk, infant formula milks, and milk from several other species on gut and brain health of human and animal offspring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changing Wheat Bran Structural Properties by Extrusion-Cooking on a Pilot and Industrial Scale: A Comparative Study
Foods 2021, 10(2), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020472 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Extrusion-cooking can be used to change the techno–functional and nutrition-related properties of wheat bran. In this study, pilot-scale (BC21) and industrial-scale (BC45) twin-screw extrusion-cooking using different types of extrusion (single-pass, double-pass and acid extrusion-cooking) and process parameters (temperature, moisture) were compared for their [...] Read more.
Extrusion-cooking can be used to change the techno–functional and nutrition-related properties of wheat bran. In this study, pilot-scale (BC21) and industrial-scale (BC45) twin-screw extrusion-cooking using different types of extrusion (single-pass, double-pass and acid extrusion-cooking) and process parameters (temperature, moisture) were compared for their impact on wheat bran. When applying the same process settings, the higher strong water-binding capacity, extract viscosity and extractability displayed by bran extruded using the industrial set-up reflected a more considerable wheat bran structure degradation compared to pilot-scale extrusion-cooking. This was attributed to the overall higher specific mechanical energy (SME), pressure and product temperature that were reached inside the industrial extruder. When changing the type of extrusion-cooking from single-pass to double-pass and acid extrusion-cooking, wheat bran physicochemical characteristics evolved in the same direction, irrespective of extruder scale. The differences in bran characteristics were, however, smaller on industrial-scale. Results show that the differentiating power of the latter can be increased by decreasing the moisture content and increasing product temperature, beyond what is possible in the pilot-scale extruder. This was confirmed by using a BC72 industrial-scale extruder at low moisture content. In conclusion, the extruder scale mainly determines the SME that can be reached and determines the potential to modify wheat bran. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Compostable Packaging and Perforation Rates on Cucumber Quality during Extended Shelf Life and Simulated Farm-to-Fork Supply-Chain Conditions
Foods 2021, 10(2), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020471 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Cucumbers are highly perishable and suffer from moisture loss, shriveling, yellowing, peel damage, and decay. Plastic packaging helps to preserve cucumber quality, but harms the environment. We examined the use of compostable modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with different perforation rates as a possible [...] Read more.
Cucumbers are highly perishable and suffer from moisture loss, shriveling, yellowing, peel damage, and decay. Plastic packaging helps to preserve cucumber quality, but harms the environment. We examined the use of compostable modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with different perforation rates as a possible replacement for conventional plastic packaging materials. The results indicate that all of the tested types of packaging reduced cucumber weight loss and shriveling. However, compostable MAP with micro-perforations that created a modified atmosphere of between 16–18% O2 and 3–5% CO2 most effectively preserved cucumber quality, as demonstrated by reduced peel pitting, the reduced appearance of warts and the inhibition of yellowing and decay development. Overall, micro-perforated compostable packaging extended the storage life of cucumbers under both extended shelf conditions and simulated farm-to-fork supply-chain conditions and thus may serve as a replacement for the plastic packaging currently used to preserve the postharvest quality of cucumbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Reusable, Recyclable, or Compostable Food Packages)
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Open AccessViewpoint
Participatory Methods in Food Behaviour Research: A Framework Showing Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Methods
Foods 2021, 10(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020470 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 171
Abstract
A trend is visible in the food literature showing an increasing number of publications on studies that incorporate some form of participant engagement, such as citizen science and community-based participatory research. This “participation trend” will inevitably affect the scientific field of food behaviour [...] Read more.
A trend is visible in the food literature showing an increasing number of publications on studies that incorporate some form of participant engagement, such as citizen science and community-based participatory research. This “participation trend” will inevitably affect the scientific field of food behaviour research. This new trend is however not only associated with advantages, and a critical reflection on both the advantages and disadvantages is needed. The current article is a position paper that contributes to the literature in two main ways. First, participation is still in the developmental stage. Many different forms, methods and definitions are used. By providing a structured overview of a variety of participatory methods derived from a focused search of the literature on food behaviour, we aim to clarify the relationships between the various forms of participation methods. Second, the involvement of citizens in research is increasingly calling for novel research methods (e.g., voluntary recruitment and active involvement), which may be accompanied by both advantages and disadvantages. We add to the literature by developing a framework that indicates the advantages and disadvantages of participatory methods in food behaviour research. Our study highlights the relevance of differentiating the goal of the researcher (efficiency versus engagement) and the role of citizens (collecting versus creating), thus implying a trade-off between cost-effectiveness and involvement, as well as between data richness and data quality. Our work is a first effort to create structure and guidance within a new area. Our efforts could be used in future research aimed at developing more extensive protocols and tools for the application of participation in research, thereby offering a controlled manner to ensure that research stays abreast of our changing society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessReview
Can Eating Make Us More Creative? A Multisensory Perspective
Foods 2021, 10(2), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020469 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 317
Abstract
While it is well known how food can make us physically healthy, it remains unclear how the multisensory experience of eating might influence complex cognitive abilities such as creativity. A growing body of literature has demonstrated that all human senses are capable of [...] Read more.
While it is well known how food can make us physically healthy, it remains unclear how the multisensory experience of eating might influence complex cognitive abilities such as creativity. A growing body of literature has demonstrated that all human senses are capable of sparking creativity. It follows then that eating, as one of the most multisensory of all human behaviors, should be a playground for creative thinking. The present review presents an overview of how creativity is defined and measured and what we currently know about creativity as influenced by the senses, both singular and in conjunction. Based on this foundation, we provide an outlook on potential ways in which what we eat, where we eat, and how we eat might positively support creative thinking, with applications in the workplace and home. We present the view that, by offering a rich multisensory experience, eating nourishes not only our bodies but also our mental well-being. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Papain-Hydrolyzed Camel Whey Protein and Its Hepato-Renal Protective Effects in Thioacetamide-Induced Toxicity
Foods 2021, 10(2), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020468 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Papain hydrolysis of camel whey protein (CWP) produced CWP hydrolysate (CWPH). Fractionation of CWPH by the size exclusion chromatography (SEC) generated fractions (i.e., SEC-F1 and SEC-F2). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity (ACE-IA) and free radical scavenging actions were assessed for CWP, CWPH, [...] Read more.
Papain hydrolysis of camel whey protein (CWP) produced CWP hydrolysate (CWPH). Fractionation of CWPH by the size exclusion chromatography (SEC) generated fractions (i.e., SEC-F1 and SEC-F2). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity (ACE-IA) and free radical scavenging actions were assessed for CWP, CWPH, SEC-F1, and SEC-F2. The SEC-F2 exerted the highest ACE-IA and scavenging activities, followed by CWPH. The protective effects of CWPH on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced toxicity were investigated in rats. The liver enzymes, protein profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activities, renal functions, and liver histopathological changes were assessed. Animals with TAA toxicity showed impaired hepatorenal functions, hyperlipidemia, and decreased antioxidant capacity. Treatment by CWPH counteracted the TAA-induced oxidative tissue damage as well as preserved the renal and liver functions, the antioxidative enzyme activities, and the lipid profile, compared to the untreated animals. The current findings demonstrate that the ACE-IA and antioxidative effects of CWPH and its SEC-F2 fraction are worth noting. In addition, the CWPH antioxidative properties counteracted the toxic hepatorenal dysfunctions. It is concluded that the hydrolysis of CWP generates a wide range of bioactive peptides with potent antihypertensive, antioxidant, and hepatorenal protective properties. This opens up new prospects for the therapeutic utilization of CWPH and its fractions in the treatment of oxidative stress-associated health problems, e.g., hypertension and hepatorenal failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products Consumption and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Changes of Deep-Fat-Fried Chicken Drumsticks Treated with Quercetin-in-Edible Coating during Storage Time
Foods 2021, 10(2), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020467 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 177
Abstract
In this study, 10% of chicken protein isolate (CPI) and quercetin (1 mg/mL) were used to develop an edible coating to improve the oxidative stability of deep-fat-fried chicken drumsticks during refrigerated storage (4 °C) for 10 days. Chicken samples with edible coating formulated [...] Read more.
In this study, 10% of chicken protein isolate (CPI) and quercetin (1 mg/mL) were used to develop an edible coating to improve the oxidative stability of deep-fat-fried chicken drumsticks during refrigerated storage (4 °C) for 10 days. Chicken samples with edible coating formulated with only 10% CPI served as the control. Although the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of the treated samples were lower than the control samples, no significant differences were observed. Quercetin-treated samples were generally harder than control samples. The pH was reduced by quercetin incorporation (p < 0.05). L* and b* values increased, while there was no significant variation in a* values during storage (p > 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Coatings: New Possible Sources and Uses in Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Freeze Crystallization on Quality Properties of Two Endemic Patagonian Berries Juices: Murta (Ugni molinae) and Arrayan (Luma apiculata)
Foods 2021, 10(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020466 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 156
Abstract
This work studied the effects of centrifugal block freeze crystallization (CBFC) on physicochemical parameters, total phenolic compound content (TPCC), antioxidant activity (AA), and process parameters applied to fresh murta and arrayan juices. In the last cycle, for fresh murta and arrayan juices, the [...] Read more.
This work studied the effects of centrifugal block freeze crystallization (CBFC) on physicochemical parameters, total phenolic compound content (TPCC), antioxidant activity (AA), and process parameters applied to fresh murta and arrayan juices. In the last cycle, for fresh murta and arrayan juices, the total soluble solids (TSS) showed values close to 48 and 54 Brix, and TPCC exhibited values of approximately 20 and 66 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 grams dry matter (d.m.) for total polyphenol content, 13 and 25 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 grams d.m. for total anthocyanin content, and 9 and 17 mg quercetin equivalents/100 grams d.m. for total flavonoid content, respectively. Moreover, the TPCC retention indicated values over 78% for murta juice, and 82% for arrayan juice. Similarly, the AA presented an increase over 2.1 times in relation to the correspondent initial AA value. Thus, the process parameters values were between 69% and 85% for efficiency, 70% and 88% for percentage of concentrate, and 0.72% and 0.88 (kg solutes/kg initial solutes) for solute yield. Therefore, this work provides insight about CBFC on valuable properties in fresh Patagonian berries juices, for future applications in health and industrial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Non-Thermal Food Processing Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Holistic Approach to a Successful Market Implementation of Active and Intelligent Food Packaging
Foods 2021, 10(2), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020465 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Market implementation of active and intelligent packaging (AIP) technologies specifically for fiber-based food packaging can be hindered by various factors. This paper highlights those from a social, economic, environmental, and legislative point of view, and elaborates upon the following aspects mainly related to [...] Read more.
Market implementation of active and intelligent packaging (AIP) technologies specifically for fiber-based food packaging can be hindered by various factors. This paper highlights those from a social, economic, environmental, and legislative point of view, and elaborates upon the following aspects mainly related to interactions among food packaging value chain stakeholders: (i) market drivers that affect developments, (ii) the gap between science and industry, (iii) the gap between legislation and practice, (iv) cooperation between the producing stakeholders within the value chain, and (v) the gap between the industry and consumers. We perceive these as the most influential aspects in successful market implementation at a socioeconomic level. The findings are supported by results from quantitative studies analyzing consumer buying expectations about active and intelligent packaging (value perception of packaging functions, intentions to purchase AIP, and willingness to pay more) executed in 16 European countries. Finally, in this paper, we discuss approaches that could direct future activities in the field towards industrial implementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Possibilities for Maintaining Appetite in Recovering COVID-19 Patients
Foods 2021, 10(2), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020464 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 150
Abstract
COVID-19 and sequelae thereof are known to cause chemosensory dysfunction, posing a risk for intake and adequate nutrition for recovery. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the subjective strategies for maintaining appetite applied by patients recovering from COVID-19. The study [...] Read more.
COVID-19 and sequelae thereof are known to cause chemosensory dysfunction, posing a risk for intake and adequate nutrition for recovery. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the subjective strategies for maintaining appetite applied by patients recovering from COVID-19. The study included 19 in-depth interviews, focusing on patients suffering from long-term effects of COVID-19. The results were analysed using a thematic analysis for qualitative data. Results on strategies for maintaining appetite included four key themes: (1) a focus on well-functioning senses, (2) a focus on familiar foods, (3) a focus on the eating environment, and (4) a focus on post-ingestive well-being. It was found that factors prior to, during and after food intake, as well as the context, could influence desire to eat and pleasure related to food intake. As ageusia and anosmia make characterization of food difficult, being able to recognize and memorize its flavour was important to engage in consumption. Under normal circumstances, the hedonic value of food relies predominantly on the flavour of foods. When suffering from chemosensory dysfunction, shifting focus towards the texture of food, including trigeminal stimulation during consumption, were beneficial for maintaining appetite and food-related pleasure. Furthermore, a focus on the holistic satisfying feelings of choosing healthy food, as well as a focus on other people’s enjoyment during meals were reported to boost well-being around food intake. The study elaborated our understanding of the complex consequences of COVID-19, and can be applied in health promoting initiatives targeted patients recovering from COVID-19. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Xylooligosaccharides Production for a Specific Degree of Polymerization by Liquid Hot Water Treatment of Tropical Hardwood
Foods 2021, 10(2), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020463 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Eucalyptus pellita is known as attractive biomass, and it has been utilized for eucalyptus oil, furniture, and pulp and paper production that causes a significant amount of byproducts. Liquid hot water treatment depending on combined severity factor (CSF) was subjected to isolate hemicellulose [...] Read more.
Eucalyptus pellita is known as attractive biomass, and it has been utilized for eucalyptus oil, furniture, and pulp and paper production that causes a significant amount of byproducts. Liquid hot water treatment depending on combined severity factor (CSF) was subjected to isolate hemicellulose fraction from E. pellita and to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS). The xylan extraction ratio based on the initial xylan content of the feedstock was maximized up to 77.6% at 170 °C for 50 min condition (CSF: 1.0), which had accounted for XOS purity of 76.5% based on the total sugar content of the liquid hydrolysate. In this condition, the sum of xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetraose which has a low degree of polymerization (DP) of 2 to 4 was determined as 80.6% of the total XOS. The highest XOS production score established using parameters including the xylan extraction ratio, XOS purity, and low DP XOS ratio was 5.7 at CSF 1.0 condition. XOS production score evaluated using the CSF is expected to be used as a productivity indicator of XOS in the industry (R-squared value: 0.92). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value Added Products from Agro-Food Residues)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a “Clean-Label” Gluten-Free Bread to Meet Consumers Demand
Foods 2021, 10(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020462 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 150
Abstract
The market of gluten-free (GF) products has been steadily increasing in last few years. Due to the technological importance of gluten, the GF food production is still a challenge for the industry. Indeed, large quantities of fat, sugars, structuring agents, and flavor enhancers [...] Read more.
The market of gluten-free (GF) products has been steadily increasing in last few years. Due to the technological importance of gluten, the GF food production is still a challenge for the industry. Indeed, large quantities of fat, sugars, structuring agents, and flavor enhancers are added to GF formulations to make textural and sensorial characteristics comparable to conventional products, leading to nutritional and caloric intake imbalances. The formulation of the novel “clean-label” GF bread included a commonly used mixture of maize and rice flour (ratio 1:1) fortified with selected protein-rich flours. Naturally hydrocolloids-containing flours (psyllium, flaxseed, chia) were included in the bread formulation as structuring agents. A type-II sourdough was obtained by using a selected Weissella cibaria P9 and a GF sucrose-containing flour as substrate for fermentation to promote the exo-polysaccharides synthesis by the starter lactic acid bacterium. A two-step protocol for bread-making was set-up: first, the GF sourdough was fermented (24 h at 30 °C); then, it was mixed with the other ingredients (30% of the final dough) and leavened with baker’s yeast before baking. Overall, the novel GF bread was characterized by good textural properties, high protein content (8.9% of dry matter) and in vitro protein digestibility (76.9%), low sugar (1.0% of dry matter) and fat (3.1% of dry matter) content, and an in vitro predicted glycemic index of 85. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of Winery by-Products to Enhance the Functional Aspects of the Fresh Ovine “Primosale” Cheese
Foods 2021, 10(2), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020461 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Fresh ovine “primosale” cheese was processed with the addition of grape pomace powder (GPP). Cheese making was performed using pasteurized ewes’ milk and four selected Lactococcus lactis strains (Mise36, Mise94, Mise169 and Mise190) inoculated individually. For each strain the control cheese (CCP) was [...] Read more.
Fresh ovine “primosale” cheese was processed with the addition of grape pomace powder (GPP). Cheese making was performed using pasteurized ewes’ milk and four selected Lactococcus lactis strains (Mise36, Mise94, Mise169 and Mise190) inoculated individually. For each strain the control cheese (CCP) was not added with GPP, while the experimental cheese (ECP) was enriched with 1% (w/w) GPP. GPP did not influence the starter development that reached levels of 109 CFU/g in all final cheeses. The comparison of the bacterial isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR showed the dominance of the added strains over indigenous milk bacteria resistant to pasteurization. GPP addition reduced fat content and determined an increase of protein and of secondary lipid oxidation. Sensory tests indicated that cheeses CCP94 and ECP94, produced with the strain Mise94, reached the best appreciation scores. Following in vitro simulated human digestion, bioaccessible fraction of ECP94 showed antioxidant capacity, evaluated as radical scavenging activity and inhibition of membrane lipid oxidation, significantly higher than that from CCP94, with promising increase in functional properties. Thus, the main hypothesis was accepted since the functional aspects of the final cheeses improved, confirming that GPP is relevant for sustainable nutrition by using winemaking by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue By-Products: Characterisation and Use as Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional and Antioxidant Potential of Fiddleheads from European Ferns
Foods 2021, 10(2), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020460 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Ferns are part of the diet and traditional medicine in East Asia, North America, and Oceania, however, their importance has been forgotten in Europe. Here, the nutritional and antioxidant potential of young fern fronds (fiddleheads) of eight families were studied. Most of the [...] Read more.
Ferns are part of the diet and traditional medicine in East Asia, North America, and Oceania, however, their importance has been forgotten in Europe. Here, the nutritional and antioxidant potential of young fern fronds (fiddleheads) of eight families were studied. Most of the tested fern species excelled in high antioxidant capacity when compared to the reference leafy vegetables spinach and rocket. On average, the total phenol content reached 220 mg·g−1 of extract dry weight for all fiddleheads, and 15 out of 24 tested species exceeded 1 g Trolox equivalent per gram of extract dry weight in Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. On the other hand, fiddleheads contained a comparable amount of carotenoids and ascorbic acid with the reference vegetables. In the case of fatty acid composition, fiddleheads contained especially high amounts of essential omega-3 (n3) and omega-6 (n6) polyunsaturated fatty acids with a beneficial n6/n3 ratio. The n6/n3 ratio in all tested species was between 2 and 6.4, whereas the ratio in the reference vegetables was below 0.4. All in all, fiddleheads from European ferns are a rich source of valuable antioxidants and essential fatty acids with a desirable n-6/n-3 ratio and may thus form an alternative source of these compounds, especially for those people not consuming fish and fish products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Artichoke by Products as a Source of Antioxidant and Fiber: How It Can Be Affected by Drying Temperature
Foods 2021, 10(2), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020459 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 204
Abstract
The reuse of food industry by-products constitutes one of the essential pillars of the change from a linear to a circular economic model. Drying is one of the most affordable techniques with which to stabilize by-products, making their subsequent processing possible. However, it [...] Read more.
The reuse of food industry by-products constitutes one of the essential pillars of the change from a linear to a circular economic model. Drying is one of the most affordable techniques with which to stabilize by-products, making their subsequent processing possible. However, it can affect material properties. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the drying temperature on the drying kinetics and final quality of the main artichoke processing by-products, bracts and stems, which have never been studied as independent materials. For this purpose, air drying experiments at different temperatures (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 °C) were carried out. The alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) and the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (AC) and vitamin C (VC) of the fresh and dried samples were determined. The bracts dried faster than the stems, increasing drying rate with temperature. The two by-products presented relatively large amounts of AIR, the content being higher in bracts, but better functional properties in stems. The TPC, AC and VC values of the dried samples decreased in relation to the fresh samples, with the temperatures of 40 °C (bracts) and 120 °C (stems) being the most adequate for the purposes of preserving these characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Usefulness of Hulled Wheats Grown in Polish Environment for Wholegrain Pasta-Making
Foods 2021, 10(2), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020458 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 203
Abstract
The best pasta raw material is durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). Recently, old wheat species have also attracted interest. The aim of the study was to evaluate their usefulness for industrial pasta production. The technological characteristics of grains and [...] Read more.
The best pasta raw material is durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). Recently, old wheat species have also attracted interest. The aim of the study was to evaluate their usefulness for industrial pasta production. The technological characteristics of grains and the organoleptic characteristics of pasta obtained from hulled emmer (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum) and spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta) were determined and compared to durum wheat, as a standard pasta raw material, and common wheat (T. aestivum). All wheats were grown under identical conditions. The hardness of kernels was assessed using the practical size index, wheat hardness index, torque moment, milling work of 50 g of flour, semolina yield, and starch damage. The technological and nutritional values of semolina, i.e., protein and ash content, wet gluten yield and quality, and falling number, were determined. Moreover, the organoleptic characteristics of cooked pasta were analysed in terms of appearance, colour, taste, smell, and consistency. The milling parameters of emmer were comparable to those of durum wheat; moreover, the content of protein, gluten, and ash was higher in emmer. Spelt was found to be similar to common wheat. Hulled wheats, especially emmer, show good quality parameters and can be an alternative raw material for industrial pasta production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activity and Bio-Accessibility of Polyphenols in Black Carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and Two Derived Products during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation
Foods 2021, 10(2), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020457 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 299
Abstract
Black carrot has been attracting increasing thanks to its high bioactive compound content. This study presents the polyphenol bio-accessibility of black carrot and two derived products (black carrot snack (BC snack) and black carrot seasoning (BC seasoning)) after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and [...] Read more.
Black carrot has been attracting increasing thanks to its high bioactive compound content. This study presents the polyphenol bio-accessibility of black carrot and two derived products (black carrot snack (BC snack) and black carrot seasoning (BC seasoning)) after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation. Additionally, antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Nine flavonoids and eight anthocyanins were determined by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) analysis, the predominant compounds being the hydroxycinnamic acids 3-O-feruloylquinic acid, 4-O-feruloylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid. The BC snack (108 µmol/g DW) presented the highest total polyphenol content, followed by BC seasoning (53 µmol/g DW) and black carrot (11.4 µmol/g DW). The main polyphenols still bio-accessible after in vitro digestion were the hydroxycinnamic acids, with mean recovery rates of 113 % for black carrot, 69% for BC snack and 81% for BC seasoning. The incubation of black carrot and its derived products with human faecal bacterial resulted in the complete degradation of anthocyanins and in the formation of mainly 3-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid as the major catabolic event. In conclusion, our results suggest that the black carrot matrix impacts significantly affects the bio-accessibility of polyphenols and, therefore, their potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Open AccessEditorial
Biological Activities of Plant Food Components: Implications in Human Health
Foods 2021, 10(2), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020456 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Scientific data and epidemiological evidence collected over the last fifty years have shown that nutrition plays a decisive role in human health [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Combining Celery Oleoresin, Limonene and Rhamnolipid as New Strategy to Control Endospore-Forming Bacillus cereus
Foods 2021, 10(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020455 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Foodborne diseases (FBD) are a great problem worldwide, leading millions of people to seek medical help and to significant economic losses for industry. Among the agents implicated in FDB is Bacillus cereus, a Gram-positive, toxigenic and endospore-forming bacterium. In this study, rhamnolipid [...] Read more.
Foodborne diseases (FBD) are a great problem worldwide, leading millions of people to seek medical help and to significant economic losses for industry. Among the agents implicated in FDB is Bacillus cereus, a Gram-positive, toxigenic and endospore-forming bacterium. In this study, rhamnolipid (RL) biosurfactant, celery oleoresin (OR) and limonene (LN) were evaluated as bio-based alternatives for controlling the growth of vegetative cells and endospores of B. cereus. To address their antimicrobial activity, the compounds were tested separately and in combination. Results demonstrate that, when combined with RL, both OR and LN have lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and increased endospore inhibition potential. A percentage of endospore inhibition from 73% to 98%, corresponding to a 2.8–3.6 log reduction in spore outgrowth, was observed. RL inhibited B. cereus growth and endospore germination and potentially enhanced the antimicrobial efficacy of the natural hydrophobic compounds tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Surfactant and/or Biosurfactants in Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Soil Management and Training System on Negroamaro Wine Aroma
Foods 2021, 10(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020454 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the impact of two soil managements and training systems on yield and wine aroma compounds of Negroamaro variety grown in a warm climate region (southern Italy). Cover crop (CC) and soil tillage (ST) as soil management, whilst bilateral [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the impact of two soil managements and training systems on yield and wine aroma compounds of Negroamaro variety grown in a warm climate region (southern Italy). Cover crop (CC) and soil tillage (ST) as soil management, whilst bilateral Guyot (BG) and monolateral Guyot (MG) as training systems were compared. Free and bound volatile fractions were evaluated by GC-MS. ST and CC as well as BG and MG significantly affected yield parameters. In particular, yield was higher in ST and BG than in CC and MG, respectively; moreover, it was found to be positively influenced by interaction between BG and ST. Regarding aroma compounds, significant interactions between soil management and training system factors were observed. In case of free volatiles, the most positive interaction was found between BG and ST, whereas, for bound volatiles, the best interaction was represented by MG with both soil tillage and cover crop. Vine leaf area and development over vine growth stages along with water stress levels played an important role in determining the aroma profile as well as yield parameters. In conclusion, the training system significantly interacted with soil management and affected most of important aroma compounds in Negroamaro wine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Different Vinification Techniques on Volatile Compounds and the Aromatic Profile of Palomino Fino Wines
Foods 2021, 10(2), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020453 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 163
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vinification techniques on volatile compounds and sensory profiles in young Palomino fino white wines. Four winemaking techniques (pellicular maceration, supra-extraction and use of commercial yeast strains and of β-glycosidase enzymes) were implemented [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vinification techniques on volatile compounds and sensory profiles in young Palomino fino white wines. Four winemaking techniques (pellicular maceration, supra-extraction and use of commercial yeast strains and of β-glycosidase enzymes) were implemented to enhance the aromatic quality of wines elaborated from this neutral variety of grape. Volatile compound content, aromatic profile (OAVs) and sensorial analysis were determined. The results showed that all the vinification techniques studied led to an increase in volatile compounds compared to the control wine. Likewise, an influence of the vineyard and must extraction method on these compounds was observed. However, the greatest changes in aroma activity and sensory profile were a result of the pellicular maceration and supra-extraction techniques. The latter was differentiated by the highest content of terpenes and, consequently, the highest odour activity values of floral series. In addition, the supra-extraction was a very selective technique since it extracted terpenes and aromatic precursors, but not the acids responsible for the fatty characteristic, such as octanoic acid. In terms of sensory profile, the supra-extraction technique improved the intensity of the Palomino fino white wine and its aromatic quality with a previously not-determined floral character. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Phlorotannins on Organisms: Focus on the Safety, Toxicity, and Availability of Phlorotannins
Foods 2021, 10(2), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020452 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Phlorotannins are polyphenolic compounds produced via polymerization of phloroglucinol, and these compounds have varying molecular weights (up to 650 kDa). Brown seaweeds are rich in phlorotannins compounds possessing various biological activities, including algicidal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. Many review papers on [...] Read more.
Phlorotannins are polyphenolic compounds produced via polymerization of phloroglucinol, and these compounds have varying molecular weights (up to 650 kDa). Brown seaweeds are rich in phlorotannins compounds possessing various biological activities, including algicidal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. Many review papers on the chemical characterization and quantification of phlorotannins and their functionality have been published to date. However, although studies on the safety and toxicity of these phlorotannins have been conducted, there have been no articles reviewing this topic. In this review, the safety and toxicity of phlorotannins in different organisms are discussed. Online databases (Science Direct, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) were searched, yielding 106 results. Following removal of duplicates and application of the exclusion criteria, 34 articles were reviewed. Phlorotannins from brown seaweeds showed low toxicity in cell lines, invertebrates, microalgae, seaweeds, plants, animals (fish, mice, rats, and dogs), and humans. However, the safety and toxicity of phlorotannins in aquaculture fish, livestock, and companion animals are limited. Further studies in these organisms are necessary to carry out a systematic analysis of the safety and toxicity of phlorotannins and to further identify the potential of phlorotannins as functional foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. Full article
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