The antioxidants found in grapes and wine have been linked to health benefits in humans, but may be affected by agronomic parameters, grape type/variety, and processing. Here, we report results of a farm survey which investigated the effects of production system (organic vs.
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The antioxidants found in grapes and wine have been linked to health benefits in humans, but may be affected by agronomic parameters, grape type/variety, and processing. Here, we report results of a farm survey which investigated the effects of production system (organic vs. conventional) and grape variety on fruit yield, total antioxidant activity/capacity (TAA, assessed by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays), and total concentrations of total phenolics (TPC) and anthocyanins (TAC) in grapes of one red (Kotsifali) and two white (Villana and/or Vidiano) traditional Cretan grape varieties. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed that grape variety choice had a more substantial effect on TPC, TAA, and TAC than primary production protocols, and significant interactions were identified between production system and grape variety choice for TAATEAC
. Specifically, TAATEAC
was significantly (57%) higher in organic than conventional Vidiano grapes, while there was no significant effect of production system on TAATEAC
in Kotsifali and Villana grapes. As expected from previous studies, the TAC was substantially higher in red Kotsifali grapes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) identified grape variety as the only strong explanatory variable/driver for yield, TPC, TAA, and TAC of table grapes, and positive associations were detected between the variety Vidiano and both TPC and TAATEAC
. All other explanatory variables included in the RDA (including supplementary irrigation, orchard orientation, production system, soil type, vineyard age, plant density, and fertiliser inputs) explained only a small proportion of the additional variation.