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Open AccessArticle

Antioxidant Activity and Bio-Accessibility of Polyphenols in Black Carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and Two Derived Products during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation

1
Department of Food Science and Health, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and 7 Training (IFAPA), Alameda del Obispo, Avda. Menéndez-Pidal, s/n, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
2
Departamento de Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Campus Rabanales, Ed. Darwin-anexo 9 Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Netzel
Foods 2021, 10(2), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020457
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
Black carrot has been attracting increasing thanks to its high bioactive compound content. This study presents the polyphenol bio-accessibility of black carrot and two derived products (black carrot snack (BC snack) and black carrot seasoning (BC seasoning)) after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation. Additionally, antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Nine flavonoids and eight anthocyanins were determined by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) analysis, the predominant compounds being the hydroxycinnamic acids 3-O-feruloylquinic acid, 4-O-feruloylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid. The BC snack (108 µmol/g DW) presented the highest total polyphenol content, followed by BC seasoning (53 µmol/g DW) and black carrot (11.4 µmol/g DW). The main polyphenols still bio-accessible after in vitro digestion were the hydroxycinnamic acids, with mean recovery rates of 113 % for black carrot, 69% for BC snack and 81% for BC seasoning. The incubation of black carrot and its derived products with human faecal bacterial resulted in the complete degradation of anthocyanins and in the formation of mainly 3-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid as the major catabolic event. In conclusion, our results suggest that the black carrot matrix impacts significantly affects the bio-accessibility of polyphenols and, therefore, their potential health benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavonoids; anthocyanins; phenolic acids; in vitro digestion; antioxidant activity; derived products; microbial metabolites flavonoids; anthocyanins; phenolic acids; in vitro digestion; antioxidant activity; derived products; microbial metabolites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pereira-Caro, G.; Ordóñez-Díaz, J.L.; de Santiago, E.; Moreno-Ortega, A.; Cáceres-Jiménez, S.; Sánchez-Parra, M.; Roldán-Guerra, F.J.; Ortiz-Somovilla, V.; Moreno-Rojas, J.M. Antioxidant Activity and Bio-Accessibility of Polyphenols in Black Carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and Two Derived Products during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation. Foods 2021, 10, 457. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020457

AMA Style

Pereira-Caro G, Ordóñez-Díaz JL, de Santiago E, Moreno-Ortega A, Cáceres-Jiménez S, Sánchez-Parra M, Roldán-Guerra FJ, Ortiz-Somovilla V, Moreno-Rojas JM. Antioxidant Activity and Bio-Accessibility of Polyphenols in Black Carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and Two Derived Products during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation. Foods. 2021; 10(2):457. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020457

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pereira-Caro, Gema; Ordóñez-Díaz, José L.; de Santiago, Elsy; Moreno-Ortega, Alicia; Cáceres-Jiménez, Salud; Sánchez-Parra, Mónica; Roldán-Guerra, Francisco J.; Ortiz-Somovilla, Víctor; Moreno-Rojas, José M. 2021. "Antioxidant Activity and Bio-Accessibility of Polyphenols in Black Carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and Two Derived Products during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation" Foods 10, no. 2: 457. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020457

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