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Educ. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2022) – 80 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Teachers in training in primary education often have lack of knowledge, low levels of teaching self-efficacy, and negative emotions toward the teaching of physics. In this research, the influence of two teaching methodologies on the learning and teaching self-efficacy of teachers-in-training on optics content is compared. A sample of 173 trainee primary school teachers was used. The control group used an academic–expositional teaching methodology, and the experimental group used a practical methodology based on the use of STEM teaching tools. Measuring instruments were designed and applied before and after interventions to measure the evolution of cognitive and competence variables, in the short and long term. The results reveal statistically significant improvements in the knowledge level and in the teaching self-efficacy variables. View this paper
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Article
Student Grade Evaluation, Survey Feedback, and Lessons Learned during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Study of Virtual vs. In-Person Offering of a Freshman-Level General Chemistry II Course in Summer at Xavier University of Louisiana
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030226 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
A primary motivation for this study was to compare student perceptions and performance within a virtual learning environment to the traditional in-person learning experience for the General Chemistry II course taught during a 5-week summer session at Xavier University of Louisiana, a minority [...] Read more.
A primary motivation for this study was to compare student perceptions and performance within a virtual learning environment to the traditional in-person learning experience for the General Chemistry II course taught during a 5-week summer session at Xavier University of Louisiana, a minority serving institution. The authors present quantitative and qualitative analyses including the comparison of student performance on exams during the COVID-19 remote learning experience with exam performance over a 3-year period of conventional in-person instruction. In this article, student grades, survey feedback, and learning outcomes are outlined. This study was performed to assist the faculty in improving and enriching the course content and its delivery, as they coped with the transition to a virtual learning environment imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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Article
Embedding Sustainability in Learning and Teaching: Lessons Learned and Moving Forward—Approaches in STEM Higher Education Programmes
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030225 - 19 Mar 2022
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Embedding sustainability into pedagogical approaches is a key priority in higher education. Equipping students with knowledge, understanding, and skills, and developing the next generation of innovators and leaders, can potentially provide the change needed and create a real impact in the journey to [...] Read more.
Embedding sustainability into pedagogical approaches is a key priority in higher education. Equipping students with knowledge, understanding, and skills, and developing the next generation of innovators and leaders, can potentially provide the change needed and create a real impact in the journey to a sustainable future. Advancement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), and corresponding industries can be seen as vital for the success of meeting a majority of the sustainable development goals, and hence the approaches taken to embed sustainability in learning and teaching in STEM higher education programmes can be considered significant in many ways. This paper is based on published literature over the last two decades and a semi-structured interview with 12 university academics from a developing country. Hence, the paper reviews approaches taken to embed sustainability in learning, teaching and assessments in STEM programmes. It also aims to investigate the actions taken by universities to integrate sustainability in STEM education and the remedies taken to minimise the impact of the pandemic on the effectiveness of the learning pedagogies used to integrate sustainability concepts. Full article
Article
Teaching Innovation in STEM Education Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030224 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has increased in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions. This means there is a growing need to integrate UAV training into STEM education. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a UAV education module [...] Read more.
The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has increased in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions. This means there is a growing need to integrate UAV training into STEM education. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a UAV education module and laboratory exercise for natural resource science students. The study used a series of reusable learning objects (RLOs) to assess students’ prior knowledge of remote sensing and UAVs. Students were taught the steps of UAV data acquisition and processing through lectures and UAV simulation videos. Students applied this knowledge by completing a laboratory exercise that used previously collected UAV data. Student knowledge retention and understanding were evaluated using an online quiz to determine the effectiveness of the education module. The average quiz score was 92%, indicating that the UAV laboratory exercise effectively taught students about UAV data acquisition and processing for natural resource research. Overall, students expressed positive opinions about the UAV education module. Student feedback indicated that the laboratory exercise was engaging, but some students would have preferred a hands-on experience for some parts of the exercise. However, in-person UAV instruction may not be accessible for all educators because of UAV cost or lack of instructor training. This study provides educators with crucial recommendations for designing UAV exercises to improve access to UAV-related educational content. This study indicates that online training can effectively introduce students to UAVs. Given the wide range of UAV uses across STEM fields, students in many STEM disciplines would benefit from UAV education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for STEM Curriculum)
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Article
An ESP Approach to Teaching Nursing Note Writing to University Nursing Students
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030223 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
For nursing students in the vocational education system in Taiwan, English-language writing skills, whether for general or specific purposes, have long been ignored, which may jeopardize their success in medical-oriented courses and their future careers. This study designed a nursing note-writing course (NNWC) [...] Read more.
For nursing students in the vocational education system in Taiwan, English-language writing skills, whether for general or specific purposes, have long been ignored, which may jeopardize their success in medical-oriented courses and their future careers. This study designed a nursing note-writing course (NNWC) for university nursing students and explored the teaching outcomes of its implementation. The three main objectives were to (a) examine the effectiveness of the NNWC in enhancing learners’ competencies; (b) survey learners’ satisfaction with the NNWC, and (c) investigate learners’ perceptions of the NNWC. In this action research, 49 students practiced five writing tasks while guided with five teaching tools, namely an online writing platform, multiple revisions, peer-review activities, and direct and indirect teacher feedback, for a semester. External examiners included a language teacher and a nursing professional, and the data-collection instruments used included a writing competence scale and a course satisfaction questionnaire. The results showed that the learners’ writing competence significantly improved after the NNWC. They also demonstrated a fair level of satisfaction toward the NNWC. A total of 90% of the learners preferred online writing compared to traditional handwriting. The learners also indicated a preference for feedback from the teacher rather than from peers, and they perceived vocabulary capability to be crucial. ESP/ENP teachers are advised to consider the implementation of the NNWC when designing syllabi. Full article
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Article
Mapping Enabling Conditions for High-Quality PBL: A Collaboratory Approach
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030222 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 648
Abstract
This paper explores enabling conditions for scaling high-quality project-based learning (PBL) to understand factors that influence how PBL spreads, whether and how it can be sustained and the extent to which it informs meaningful change in schools. We report on a year-long collaboration [...] Read more.
This paper explores enabling conditions for scaling high-quality project-based learning (PBL) to understand factors that influence how PBL spreads, whether and how it can be sustained and the extent to which it informs meaningful change in schools. We report on a year-long collaboration across three research projects. Each project team analyzed qualitative data from their individual project and then aggregated data across projects to understand similarities and variations in conditions that support the long-term implementation goals of PBL. We used systems mapping as a methodological tool and a case study approach to test and refine the map. We focus on two enabling conditions for PBL that emerged across all contexts: teacher agency and productive disciplinary engagement (PDE). Teachers reported having agency and described making instructional decisions and adapting PBL to support students’ needs. PDE motivated teachers to deepen PBL practices. While the studied collaboratory is not the first to pursue shared goals, to our knowledge it is the first to produce research that aggregates knowledge and data across projects. While scaling innovations in schools is complex, the results suggest that certain conditions enable PBL to be implemented with greater depth and can be generalized across contexts. We discuss the implications of this approach for researchers, stakeholders, and practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Curriculum and Instruction)
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Article
Primary Pupils’ Multimodal Representations in Worksheets—Text Work in Science Education
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030221 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 996
Abstract
Worksheets are common in science classrooms with an aim to support pupils’ meaning-making, e.g., for guiding them in performing hands-on activities and documenting their experiences of such activities. Yet, there have been few systematic studies of pupils’ disciplinary representations in worksheets. Drawing on [...] Read more.
Worksheets are common in science classrooms with an aim to support pupils’ meaning-making, e.g., for guiding them in performing hands-on activities and documenting their experiences of such activities. Yet, there have been few systematic studies of pupils’ disciplinary representations in worksheets. Drawing on systemic functional linguistics, we have analyzed fifth grade pupils’ (age 10–11) multimodal texts in worksheets (n = 25) when they were working with shadow formation as part of their regular classroom activities. In the worksheets they were asked to first explain in writing why or why not a shadow was formed and then explain shadow formation through a drawing. At an overall level, we found that a majority of the pupils managed to express in writing why a shadow is formed, though it appeared to be more challenging for them to explain why a shadow is not formed. In their drawings, quite a few pupils managed to include several key aspects of shadow formation, at least when combining image with writing. For all tasks, the explanatory parts of the pupils’ responses were often implicit. Based on our results, we suggest that pupils may benefit from teaching practices that integrate a parallel focus on form and content as a way to raise their awareness of, for instance, the affordances of different resources and how explanations can be structured. Such practices may support pupils to be able to consider and choose appropriate resources in their disciplinary texts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Languages and Literacies in Science Education)
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Case Report
The Importance of Professional Development in a Programmatic Assessment System: One Medical School’s Experience
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030220 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM) was created in 2004 as a 5-year undergraduate medical education program with a mission to produce future physician-investigators. CCLCM’s assessment system aligns with the principles of programmatic assessment. The curriculum [...] Read more.
The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM) was created in 2004 as a 5-year undergraduate medical education program with a mission to produce future physician-investigators. CCLCM’s assessment system aligns with the principles of programmatic assessment. The curriculum is organized around nine competencies, where each competency has milestones that students use to self-assess their progress and performance. Throughout the program, students receive low-stakes feedback from a myriad of assessors across courses and contexts. With support of advisors, students construct portfolios to document their progress and performance. A separate promotion committee makes high-stakes promotion decisions after reviewing students’ portfolios. This case study describes a systematic approach to provide both student and faculty professional development essential for programmatic assessment. Facilitators, barriers, lessons learned, and future directions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Programmatic Assessment in Education for Health Professions)
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Article
Characteristics of the Authority Basis of Icelandic Compulsory School Principals in Comparison to Other TALIS Countries
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030219 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to explore the authority basis of compulsory school principals in Iceland by making a general comparison to the other participating countries in the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2018, as well as by using Hofstede’s [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the authority basis of compulsory school principals in Iceland by making a general comparison to the other participating countries in the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2018, as well as by using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory. The study utilizes data from principals in 48 of the countries that participated in the TALIS 2018. The authority bases of the principals and of the other governing agents are explored with regard to the key task areas, which range from managerial to curriculum tasks. The authority basis of the principals and the other agents in Iceland has commonalities with most of the other Nordic countries, as well as with Baltic countries, Anglophone countries (except for Canada (Alberta)), and with many Eastern European countries. On the basis of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model, Iceland is “individualist”, with a low “power distance”, and it allocates more responsibility to the principals and to the other school agents at the school level than it does to the authorities. The major implication of this study for the Icelandic context is the need to enhance and strengthen the role of the school boards in terms of the professional support for principals. Full article
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Review
Starting at Home: What Does the Literature Indicate about Parental Involvement in Early Childhood STEM Education?
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030218 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Developing STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) competencies is a global priority. In response to this educational need, initiatives have been implemented mainly at the school level. However, in preschool education, the STEAM programs are more recent. Research advances orient preschool teachers to reach [...] Read more.
Developing STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) competencies is a global priority. In response to this educational need, initiatives have been implemented mainly at the school level. However, in preschool education, the STEAM programs are more recent. Research advances orient preschool teachers to reach these competencies in school-based programs, although parental involvement has been systematically forgotten as a critical factor. This article describes the current issues on research about parental participation in STEM education in early childhood to identify advances and gaps. We selected documents published between 1995 and 2021 in the leading educational databases, identifying 11 documents explicitly related to parental involvement in STEM education in preschoolers. The results show that STEM activities can promote parental engagement, improve the value parent attribute to STEM, and positively affect STEM learning in preschoolers. Moreover, parents shape children’s interests and self-efficacy about STEM and content application that can favor their children’s approach to STEM. This article discusses the scarcity of research published on the connection between STEM and parental influence, despite the fundamental role of parents in early STEM education. We present practical criteria to guide the development of early STEM education in the family context and questions to guide the planning of research and intervention programs. Full article
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Article
Investigation of the Effect of Badges in the Online Homework System for Undergraduate General Physics Course
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030217 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Badges in education are an increasingly popular phenomenon, and a variety of questions exists as to the abilities and effectiveness of badges. In this study, the effect of digital badges within a Moodle-based online homework system was studied for an undergraduate general physics [...] Read more.
Badges in education are an increasingly popular phenomenon, and a variety of questions exists as to the abilities and effectiveness of badges. In this study, the effect of digital badges within a Moodle-based online homework system was studied for an undergraduate general physics course at a large research-based university in northeast Taiwan. One hundred and sixty-two participants from two General Physics sessions were involved in this study and divided into two groups through self-selected options. Sixty-eight students in the treatment group could use digital badges in the online homework system, being able to earn one badge per assignment for turning their assignments in earlier than the assignment deadline, while the other students in the control group had no digital badges in the online homework system. The results showed that students in the treatment group turned in their assignments earlier than students in the control group did, and this difference was statistically significant. Further analysis showed that students in the treatment group spaced out their assignment practice more than students in the control group did, and the difference was statistically significant. Additionally, students in the treatment group actively attempted to earn badges, as there was a statistically significant increase in the number of badges earned by students in the treatment group over those in the control group. Based on a questionnaire given to study participants towards the conclusion of the study, the study found that students’ perception of badges was positive. These findings corroborate earlier findings by other researchers that badges can be used to motivate specific behaviors in students whilst requiring minimal changes to the course structure. However, further corroborating earlier research is the finding that badges may not be particularly useful to motivate students towards challenging tasks. An earlier study of this course in a preceding academic year found that students are appreciative of the online homework system, and it appears from this study that the primary function of badges within the system is to enhance the experience of students, as well as to motivate timely engagement with assignments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Game-Based Learning and Gamification for Education)
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Article
Online Teaching in COVID-19 Pandemic: Secondary School Teachers’ Beliefs on Teaching Presence and School Support
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030216 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic, with the consecutive lockdowns, has led schools around the world to transition suddenly from face-to-face education to online teaching. The purpose of this paper was to investigate secondary school teachers’ beliefs on online teaching presence and school support for online [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic, with the consecutive lockdowns, has led schools around the world to transition suddenly from face-to-face education to online teaching. The purpose of this paper was to investigate secondary school teachers’ beliefs on online teaching presence and school support for online learning during the pandemic. The sample was 238 teachers in Greece who are interested in e-learning and received some preparation to teach online courses. An online questionnaire was administered and three factors were revealed: instruction and organization, facilitation and cognitive activation, and school support. Teachers’ perceived online teaching presence was strong (over 63% expressed agreement), and the highest percentages of agreement were linked to clear instruction, communication of time frames and course topics, and facilitation and encouragement that could help students learn. On the other hand, perceived school support for online learning was weak (over 50% expressed disagreement and neutral views), and the highest percentages of disagreement regarded the existence of a professional development strategy and of clear objectives/vision towards online learning. Gender, years of teaching experience, and experience with online teaching had a small effect on teachers’ beliefs. Implications for teacher professional development, educational policy, and the design of educational technology applications are discussed. Full article
Article
Perceptions of Digital Device Use and Accompanying Digital Interruptions in Blended Learning
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030215 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Using various digital devices, and being faced with digital interruptions is a given for students not only in traditional university classes but also in blended learning courses. Hence, this study (N = 201) at an Austrian university of applied sciences investigated students’ perceptions [...] Read more.
Using various digital devices, and being faced with digital interruptions is a given for students not only in traditional university classes but also in blended learning courses. Hence, this study (N = 201) at an Austrian university of applied sciences investigated students’ perceptions of digital device use and the digital interruptions that they face during webinars and on-campus sessions. Results show that students primarily use the same types of digital devices during webinars and on-campus sessions, i.e., computers for course-related (CR) activities, and smartphones for non-course-related (NCR) activities. Results further indicate that while the majority of students are aware of the interruptive impact that NCR activities have on their learning, the effect on others seems to be a blind spot. The reasons for NCR activities are manifold. Moreover, results suggest that students have difficulties in assessing the actual time spent on NCR activities during webinars. Full article
Article
Promoting Enquiry Skills in Trainee Teachers within the Context of the University Ecological Garden
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030214 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 560
Abstract
One of the objectives of science teaching and learning is to achieve quality science education, which involves improving initial teacher training. The use of methodologies that promote learning in science, such as the enquiry-based learning strategy, are encouraged. It is also necessary to [...] Read more.
One of the objectives of science teaching and learning is to achieve quality science education, which involves improving initial teacher training. The use of methodologies that promote learning in science, such as the enquiry-based learning strategy, are encouraged. It is also necessary to provide appropriate contexts that give meaning to the investigation conducted, and arouse the students’ interest. The purpose of this study is to identify the skills related to the enquiry competency that future pre-school teachers acquire after carrying out investigations using the University Ecological Garden as a context. To undertake this study, a non-experimental quantitative methodology was developed based on the application of two instruments: the New Practical Test Assessment Inventory (NPTAI), based on the Practical Test Assessment Inventory, and the trainee teachers’ Enquiry Competency Level (ECL), adapted for the present work. Thirty-seven group reports were analysed and recoded to establish five levels of enquiry competency. A predominance of students with a high level of enquiry competency as opposed to "pre-scientific" and "unscientific" lower levels was observed. The results allowed us to explore the role of the teacher in the monitoring process during the strategy, the context used, and the main difficulties encountered in the implementation of the strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gardens as Innovative Learning Contexts)
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Article
Access to Baccalaureate School in Switzerland: Regional Variance of Institutional Conditions and Its Consequences for Educational Inequalities
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030213 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
In Switzerland, baccalaureate school is still considered to be the royal road to a university education and the elite path for the social reproduction of the upper class. However, cantonal enrollment to baccalaureate school varies widely due to Swiss federalism. There is a [...] Read more.
In Switzerland, baccalaureate school is still considered to be the royal road to a university education and the elite path for the social reproduction of the upper class. However, cantonal enrollment to baccalaureate school varies widely due to Swiss federalism. There is a recurring debate on whether access to baccalaureate school is fair and equal among pupils who live in different cantons and who are of different social origin. This paper aims to analyze how the institutional conditions of cantons and municipalities impact a pupil’s probability of entering baccalaureate school and how the cantonal provisioning of places in baccalaureate school affects social inequality of access. For our theoretical foundation, we combine concepts of neo-institutionalism with mechanisms of social reproduction in education. Empirically, we analyze national longitudinal register data to model educational transitions from compulsory to baccalaureate school by using logistic regression models. Our results show that institutional structures at the cantonal and municipal levels influence the probability of transition beyond individual pupils’ characteristics. The degree of inequality varies between cantons, depending on the supply of baccalaureate school places. Inequality first increases with an increasing number of places (the scissors effect) and decreases only after the demand of more privileged families for places at baccalaureate school is saturated. Full article
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Article
Developing Intercultural Mindedness through an Experiential Learning Activity—A Case Study from Singapore
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030212 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Recent incidents of alleged racism worldwide amid the COVID-19 pandemic have challenged us to ponder on the meaning and importance of intercultural education. However, it can be difficult to understand the ways in which intercultural discourse can be beneficial for learning, as well [...] Read more.
Recent incidents of alleged racism worldwide amid the COVID-19 pandemic have challenged us to ponder on the meaning and importance of intercultural education. However, it can be difficult to understand the ways in which intercultural discourse can be beneficial for learning, as well as prepare young people to act against racism and inequalities to work towards a more sustainable future. This study presents analysis of learning materials from a case study conducted in one secondary school in Singapore. The objective of the activity is for students to engage in intercultural learning by participating in walking trails with different themes in a few neighborhoods, to learn more about the history of and life in multiracial Singapore. Researchers followed and observed the two-day event and collected data from the students. Specifically, written reflections from a trail named Many Races—One Nation were collected from the students, as well as their reflective posters at the end of the event. The content analysis of these artefacts concentrates on the meanings and ideologies underlying intercultural learning through an examination of the learning materials and the students’ responses. Furthermore, this study introduces an intercultural mindedness framework that transcends the conflict avoidance approach for deeper learning. Full article
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Article
How Diversity Fails: An Empirical Investigation of Organizational Status and Policy Implementation on Three Public Campuses
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030211 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Although diversity has been a guiding preoccupation in higher education for several decades, organizational diversity practice, i.e., what happens when colleges and universities implement diversity plans, is rarely a subject of inquiry. As a result, there is relatively little empirical understanding of [...] Read more.
Although diversity has been a guiding preoccupation in higher education for several decades, organizational diversity practice, i.e., what happens when colleges and universities implement diversity plans, is rarely a subject of inquiry. As a result, there is relatively little empirical understanding of why diversity has failed to significantly advance racial equity on college campuses. In response, this ethnographic, collective case study draws on interviews with 54 respondents, archival and organizational documents, and campus observations to interrogate diversity practice on three campuses of different status in one public system in the U.S. This study employs Bourdieu’s theory of practice, specifically institutional habitus as an analytic lens, to examine the influence of campus social status on diversity practice related to a statewide policy. Findings reveal that each campus has a unique institutional habitus—that is, a status-linked sense of campus identity, constraints, and opportunities—that prefigured and, on most campuses, derailed diversity practice in response to the policy. Only the middle-status campus made any substantive progress. By juxtaposing these findings, this analysis demonstrates that diversity practice does not exist within a campus vacuum; instead, it is inevitably influenced, constrained, or aided by the institutional habitus of the organizational environment. The paper concludes by arguing that organizational change efforts that recognize diversity work as a situated organizational practice that reflects broader power relations can better challenge inequities to spur transformative change across educational levels and contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
Systematic Review
Text Mining in Education—A Bibliometrics-Based Systematic Review
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030210 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Advances in Information Technology (IT) and computer science have without a doubt had a significant impact on our daily lives. The past few decades have witnessed the advancement of IT enabled processes in generating actionable insights in various fields, encouraging research based applications [...] Read more.
Advances in Information Technology (IT) and computer science have without a doubt had a significant impact on our daily lives. The past few decades have witnessed the advancement of IT enabled processes in generating actionable insights in various fields, encouraging research based applications of modern Data Science methods. Among many other fields, education research has also been adopting different analytical approaches to advance the state of education systems. Moreover, developments in software engineering and web-based applications have made collection of education data possible at large scales. This systematic review aims to explore the 21st century’s state of the art applications of text mining methods used in the field of education. We analyse the metadata of all publications that use text mining or natural language processing in educational settings to report on the key themes of application of text mining methods in educational studies providing an overview of the current state of the art and the future directions for research and applications. Full article
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Review
Online Formative Assessment in Higher Education: Bibliometric Analysis
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030209 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Assessment is critical in postsecondary education, as it is at all levels. Assessments are classified into four types: diagnostic, summative, evaluative, and formative. Recent trends in assessment have migrated away from summative to formative evaluations. Formative evaluations help students develop expertise and concentrate [...] Read more.
Assessment is critical in postsecondary education, as it is at all levels. Assessments are classified into four types: diagnostic, summative, evaluative, and formative. Recent trends in assessment have migrated away from summative to formative evaluations. Formative evaluations help students develop expertise and concentrate their schedules, ease student anxiety, instill a feeling of ownership in students as they go, and confirm the module’s subject notion. Online formative assessment (OFA) emerged as a result of the convergence of formative and computer-assisted assessment research. Bibliometric analyses provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of a study topic across a particular time period. We used a PRISMA-compliant bibliometric method. The Scopus database was searched for BibTex-formatted publication data. In total, 898 studies were analyzed. According to the results, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education and Computers & Education are the most influential sources. RWTH Aachen University and Universitat Oberta De Catalunya are the most effective institutions. The red cluster includes terms associated with higher education and evaluation. The word “e-assessment, e-learning, assessment, moodle” appears in the green cluster. This group is quite influential yet has a low centrality. The highest percentage is 79.2 for “online assessment”. The subject is comprised of three components: “distance learning”, “accessibility”, and “assessment design”. The most important topics were “e-assessment”, “higher education”, and “online learning”. According to the country participation network, the USA and UK were the two main centers. Full article
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Article
Usability of Memes and Humorous Resources in Virtual Learning Environments
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030208 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 811
Abstract
This research consists of a quantitative analysis of the perspective of a group of university professors from different areas of knowledge and from 19 different Latin American countries on the use of humor and memes in virtual learning environments (VLEs) in higher education. [...] Read more.
This research consists of a quantitative analysis of the perspective of a group of university professors from different areas of knowledge and from 19 different Latin American countries on the use of humor and memes in virtual learning environments (VLEs) in higher education. The data have been obtained from an own-design survey, and the answers have been analyzed in a descriptive and inferential way with the aim of knowing the opinion of the 401 participants (professors) about the didactic effectiveness of humor and the benefits and employability of memes in virtual classrooms. The analysis differentiates the sample by the professors’ area of knowledge as the main variable, and by gender, age and teaching experience. As results, the participants give a high evaluation of humorous didactic resources, particularly memes, although the evaluation of their usability in the classroom is intermediate. In this sense, it is shown that the area of knowledge has a significant influence on opinions in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Online Technical Applications for Non-Face-to-Face Learning)
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Article
Information and Communication Technologies for Education Considering the Flipped Learning Model
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030207 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Technology development has been integrated into the educational environment and has led teachers to become much better trained in educational, technological tools. Currently, education is being transformed; for this, there are new methodological approaches, and education needs the integration of digital tools. Previously [...] Read more.
Technology development has been integrated into the educational environment and has led teachers to become much better trained in educational, technological tools. Currently, education is being transformed; for this, there are new methodological approaches, and education needs the integration of digital tools. Previously and still today, traditional and not very creative strategies are applied in the teaching–learning process, which does not fully contribute to the progress of education. The present work focuses on using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), considering the Flipped Learning Model (FL), an active methodology. However, it is also essential to know the appropriate ICT to apply during the learning process. The Information and Communication Technologies articulated with the Flipped Learning Model benefits and motivates students; in this way, through collaborative learning, communication between classmates and teachers is favored; in addition, it encourages autonomous work, helps the analysis of the contents in each of the subjects, and favors the construction of new knowledge. Therefore, knowing which ICTs are incorporated as the most efficient in the Flipped Learning Model is necessary. In this way, it is required to obtain information about the ICTs teachers have preferred to apply within the Flipped Learning Model and which ones are recommended from the classroom experience. The work shows which ICTs are most used and which ones benefit students to obtain significant learning. Consequently, considering the application of ICT and Flipped Learning in educational communities is a way to innovate the teaching–learning process. Full article
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Article
REEdI Design Thinking for Developing Engineering Curricula
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030206 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Universities are coming under increasing pressure to re-invent the way that engineering is taught in order to produce graduates that are capable of meeting the skills needs of the country’s industries. This paper described an active project where Design Thinking (DT) methodology is [...] Read more.
Universities are coming under increasing pressure to re-invent the way that engineering is taught in order to produce graduates that are capable of meeting the skills needs of the country’s industries. This paper described an active project where Design Thinking (DT) methodology is being applied in a novel way to Engineering Curriculum Development. Enterprise partners from a range of different manufacturing sectors participated in a series of Curriculum Development workshops and the results were cross referenced with subjects taught on existing engineering programmes internationally. This process highlighted the need for increased training in Lean, 6-Sigma, transversal and soft skills competencies, and the need to review how and when content is delivered. A survey was developed from the results of the workshops and sent out to a larger cohort of industry contacts for feedback on the proposed Engineering curriculum. Design Thinking methodology has helped ensure our customers’ needs are met by building the curriculum framework around competencies identified by both industry and academia while ensuring the students engage in a significant learning experience through experiential and applied learning using the latest immersive technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Trends and Issues in Engineering Education)
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Article
Cohort-Based Education and Other Factors Related to Student Peer Relationships: A Mixed Methods Social Network Analysis
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030205 - 13 Mar 2022
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Graduate students face a variety of stressors that relate to poor academic performance, lower completion rates, and high rates of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Student peers provide supports for coping with these stressors and succeeding academically. However, graduate students may find it [...] Read more.
Graduate students face a variety of stressors that relate to poor academic performance, lower completion rates, and high rates of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Student peers provide supports for coping with these stressors and succeeding academically. However, graduate students may find it difficult to form relationships with their peers. This mixed method social network analysis (MMSNA) examines graduate student perceptions of their peer relationships and the factors associated with peer friendships in a program that placed students in cohorts for the first semester of a two-year Master of Social Work program. Findings from three student focus groups include four main themes related to the cohort system and the tendency for students to gravitate to others who were similar to them (i.e., homophily). Focus group findings informed model specification for a curved exponential family model of student friendships at the end of the third semester of the program (N = 70) that identified correlates of student friendships including statistically significant direct and homophily effects for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. First-semester relationships and shared classes in subsequent semesters also increased the likelihood of friendships in the third semester. Findings emphasize the value of cohorts and a diverse student body for peer relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixed-Methods Perspectives on Social Networks in Education Research)
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Systematic Review
Transversal Competencies for Employability in University Graduates: A Systematic Review from the Employers’ Perspective
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030204 - 12 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
The aim of this article is to provide a systematic review of the transversal competencies for employability in university graduates from an employer’s perspective, with consideration to the importance of the topic in the cross-national context. The PRISMA statement was used to guide [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to provide a systematic review of the transversal competencies for employability in university graduates from an employer’s perspective, with consideration to the importance of the topic in the cross-national context. The PRISMA statement was used to guide the methodology and the reporting for the systematic review. The data collection produced 52 articles from the Scopus and Web of Science (JCR only) databases in the ten years between 2008 and 2018. The analysis focused on the characteristics of the employers and organizations, the methods and the instruments for evaluating transversal competencies, and the most highly valued competencies, both internationally and by continent. One of the main contributions is the creation of a classification that is made up of 41 transversal competencies that are grouped into five dimensions. The results show that employers attributed more importance to the competencies in the dimensions of Job-related basic (JRB) skills, Socio-relational (SR) skills, and Self-management (SM) skills. We conclude that Higher education institutions need to incorporate “pedagogies for employability”, which will strengthen the link between the academic setting and the socio-occupational reality and will ensure that graduates make a suitable transition to the world of work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transversal Competencies, Higher Education and Employment)
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Article
Meaningful Encounters with the Built Environment as the Basis for Urban Environmental Education
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030203 - 12 Mar 2022
Viewed by 728
Abstract
As the majority of people in the world now live in cities, it makes sense to question the state of urban environmental education and how it could be developed going forward. In this article, we suggest a way forward based on the essays [...] Read more.
As the majority of people in the world now live in cities, it makes sense to question the state of urban environmental education and how it could be developed going forward. In this article, we suggest a way forward based on the essays written by Finnish university students. The students reflected on their relationship with an environment that is meaningful to them. In the essays selected for this case study (n = 25), the built environment of Helsinki—the capital of Finland—and its characteristics are in focus. In this qualitative research, inductive content analysis was used for processing the essays. Many students described the connections between urban nature and built environments, but the results also show that the built environment is especially significant because of its social and cultural aspects. Students described the importance of social bonding and how meeting different sorts of people supports their acceptance of diverse perspectives. Personal experiences and meanings attached to the city, as well as their lack, were mentioned; that is, without these personal bonds, meaningful relations to urban environments cannot be developed. Architecture, aesthetics, and soundscapes were also mentioned. In addition, it was expressed that feeling safe in the built environment is important. In urban environmental education, it is therefore important to pay attention to the social and cultural aspects, too, and not just to the ecological dimension. It is crucial that children and young people have access to the city in order to construct their personal relationships with the built environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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Article
Impacts on Students’ Academic Performance Due to Emergency Transition to Remote Teaching during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Financial Engineering Course Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030202 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has enforced higher education institutions to adopt emergency remote teaching (ERT) as the substitution for traditional face-to-face (F2F) classes. A lot of concerns have been raised among education institutions, faculty, and students regarding the effectiveness of this sudden shift to [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has enforced higher education institutions to adopt emergency remote teaching (ERT) as the substitution for traditional face-to-face (F2F) classes. A lot of concerns have been raised among education institutions, faculty, and students regarding the effectiveness of this sudden shift to online learning. This study aims to statistically investigate the impacts of such a transition on the academic performance of undergraduate students enrolled in the Financial Engineering course. A novel rank percentage measure is proposed and employed to compare the academic performance of around 500 students who attended the course during the four semesters, including the transitional disrupted semester by the pandemic, two consecutive online semesters, and the traditional face-to-face classroom. Our analysis emphasizes the significance of the differences between specific subgroups of the students. In particular, academically average to good students with cumulative GPAs greater than 2.90 have been negatively impacted by the transition to online learning, whereas the results for students with cumulative GPAs less than 2.90 are not very conclusive. Realizing the effects of such closures on the academic performance of students is considered important, since the results might have some merits for other courses and instructors. The template model can be transferred to other courses, and employed by the university administrators, specifically for developing policies in emergency circumstances that are not limited to pandemics. Full article
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Article
Re-Imagining Approaches to Learning and Teaching: Youth and Community Work Education Post COVID-19
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030201 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
This article draws on research undertaken by the Professional Association of Lecturers in Youth and Community Work (PALYCW) in collaboration with the Open University, University of Glasgow and the University of Hull. The authors are all part of a community of practice of [...] Read more.
This article draws on research undertaken by the Professional Association of Lecturers in Youth and Community Work (PALYCW) in collaboration with the Open University, University of Glasgow and the University of Hull. The authors are all part of a community of practice of lecturers teaching in higher education on Community and Youth Work (CYW) degree programmes. These CYW programmes are professionally endorsed by Youth Work and Community Development professional bodies across the UK. They adopt informal methodologies and have a strong focus on preparing students to work as informal educators with young people and communities. The unique contribution of this paper is highlighting the experiences, issues and challenges presented and exploring creative approaches that have been developed by programmes that adopt these approaches to educate professional practitioners. Looking forward in a context of great uncertainty, the research also set out to consider what the future might look like for CYW programmes, located in the neoliberal university. Questions explored included the extent to which the pandemic might lead to longer term changes in learning and teaching methodologies in CYW in higher education (HE) and how CYW programmes should be preparing students for navigating practice in the society that unfolds post COVID-19 as the basis for taking action in communities in response to new formations of social injustice and inequality with conscious intent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Educating Informal Educators)
Article
Influence of Sociodemographic Factors and Knowledge in Pedagogy on the Labor Market Insertion of Education Science Professionals
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030200 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 735
Abstract
The profile of the pedagogy student is polyvalent, the motivations, competencies, attitudes, and necessary aptitudes are also varied and suitable for developing the exercise of their profession in different labor scenarios, ranging from the educational-training context to the business context. The aim of [...] Read more.
The profile of the pedagogy student is polyvalent, the motivations, competencies, attitudes, and necessary aptitudes are also varied and suitable for developing the exercise of their profession in different labor scenarios, ranging from the educational-training context to the business context. The aim of this research has been to analyze the influence of sociodemographic factors and knowledge in pedagogy on labor market insertion, expectations about the degree, and employability of students of the degree in pedagogy at the University of Granada, Spain. The methodology used was based on a cross-sectional study design through a survey administered to a total of 334 students. The results obtained show that there are differences between the two genders. Regarding the year of study, no significant differences were found. Knowledge about the profile of the pedagogue is a factor that does influence expectations about the degree, job placement, and employability. However, expectations about the degree did not influence job placement, although employability did. It is concluded by stating that there is a lack of knowledge about the role of the pedagogue, which needs to be alleviated, as well as highlighting the need to reinforce the curricular, academic, and practical training of this degree. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Higher Education: Improvements for a Better System)
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Article
Training in Mathematics Education from a Sustainability Perspective: A Case Study of University Teachers’ Views
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030199 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Humankind is faced with major global challenges to ensure the future of our planet. Target 4.7 of Sustainable Development Goal 4 (quality education) of the 2030 Agenda establishes the importance of ensuring that all learners acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to [...] Read more.
Humankind is faced with major global challenges to ensure the future of our planet. Target 4.7 of Sustainable Development Goal 4 (quality education) of the 2030 Agenda establishes the importance of ensuring that all learners acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to promote sustainable development through education for sustainable development, human rights, gender equality, and global citizenship, amongst others. The research presented in this article is based on an exploratory study on the views of a group of university teachers from the area of Didactics of Mathematics in the Faculty of Education Sciences at Universidad de Cádiz with regard to Education for Sustainability and its integration in the field of training future teachers in mathematics education. It aims to analyse the perceptions teachers have regarding the subject of study, the work methodologies they use, etc. in greater depth. The authors of the research later interviewed three teachers in the area of Didactics of Mathematics who teach in different education degrees: bachelor’s degree in early childhood education, bachelor’s degree in primary education, and master’s degree in teacher training for compulsory secondary education and baccalaureate. Three instruments were used to collect data: the syllabi of the subjects for which the teachers were responsible, an initial exploratory questionnaire, and a semi-structured personal interview. The instrument employed to analyse the information was the Tool for Methodological Analysis through Sustainability (Herramienta de Análisis Metodológico desde la Sostenibilidad, HAMS in Spanish). The results show the different views and positions the university teachers in the area of Didactics of Mathematics at Universidad de Cádiz have with respect to integrating sustainability into future teachers’ training in mathematics education. It is concluded that the effective integration of sustainability into mathematics education requires university teachers to change and to work together from the same perspective—the one they intend to promote. Full article
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Article
Study of Kindergarten Teachers’ Intentions to Choose Content and Teaching Method for Teaching Science
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030198 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the intentions of kindergarten teachers to use the content and to apply the teaching methods that they acquired in a one-day teacher training seminar. According to the theory of planned behavior, the answer to this research question is [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the intentions of kindergarten teachers to use the content and to apply the teaching methods that they acquired in a one-day teacher training seminar. According to the theory of planned behavior, the answer to this research question is directly related to a series of social-psychological personal criteria assessments, such as an assessment of the personal gains or losses, the opinions of important third persons, the teacher’s own assessment of the value of the students’ learning, and the perceived behavioral control assessment. A total of 114 participants completed a 5-point Likert-scale questionnaire that consisted of two sets of five questions each. The results show that the kindergarten teachers’ intentions to use particular content and teaching methods are based on whether they have the skills to apply them successfully, and on their assessment of the ability of their students to acquire meaningful knowledge. The teacher’s choice of teaching method is also associated with the assessment of the personal gains or losses, as well as with the opinions of important third persons. Furthermore, the study findings show that there are two distinct categories of kindergarten teachers: those whose teaching is based on the tradition of science education, and those whose teaching is based on the tradition of early childhood education. The teaching implications of the results are also discussed. Full article
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Article
A Comprehensive Overview of Education during Three COVID-19 Pandemic Periods: Impact on Engineering Students in Sri Lanka
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030197 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the education system in Sri Lanka, similar to many countries in the world. As a result, the mode of education shifted from conventional face-to-face classes to online mode. The main objective of this study is to provide a [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the education system in Sri Lanka, similar to many countries in the world. As a result, the mode of education shifted from conventional face-to-face classes to online mode. The main objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the changes to the educational system due to the COVID-19 pandemic among engineering undergraduates of Sri Lanka over three identified pandemic periods. Quantitative descriptive analysis was used together with chi-square statistics to answer the research questions using the data collected through a google survey from engineering undergraduates in Sri Lanka. According to the results, students’ attendance in online classes has improved over time compared to the initial pandemic period. Nearly 50% of students’ family income has been impacted, either stopped or reduced due to the pandemic. Most students have issues regarding computing devices, internet connectivity, and the home environment. According to the chi-square statistics results, few of these issues had a statistically significant relationship between the family income; lower the income, higher the negative impact on students. More than half of the students felt isolated when studying at home during the pandemic. Still, more than 50% of students agreed that lecturers were well prepared to guide and deliver lessons remotely. The overall recommendations of the study are implementing workshops, training on new technologies, awareness programs for educational stakeholders, providing incentives to purchase digital devices, and improving internet connectivity to improve the new standard education system of Sri Lanka. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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