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Languages, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: From Hispanisms to Anglicisms: Examining the Perception and Treatment of Native Linguistic Features Associated with Interference in Translator Training. Languages 4 (2019): 42
Languages 2019, 4(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030076 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 185
Abstract
The Editorial Office of Languages wants to make the following corrections to the paper (Echeverría and González-Fernández 2019)[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Developing Oral Comprehension Skills with Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education
Languages 2019, 4(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030075 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 261
Abstract
The development of oral comprehension skills is rarely studied in second and foreign language teaching, let alone in learning contexts involving students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE). Thus, we conducted a mixed-methods study attempting to measure the effect of implicit teaching [...] Read more.
The development of oral comprehension skills is rarely studied in second and foreign language teaching, let alone in learning contexts involving students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE). Thus, we conducted a mixed-methods study attempting to measure the effect of implicit teaching of oral comprehension strategies with 37 SLIFE in Quebec City, a predominantly French-speaking city in Canada. Two experimental groups received implicit training in listening strategies, whereas a control group viewed the same documents without strategy training. Participants’ listening comprehension performance was measured quantitatively before the treatment, immediately after, and one week later with three different versions of an oral comprehension test targeting both explicit and implicit content of authentic audiovisual documents. Overall, data analysis showed a low success rate for all participants in the oral comprehension tests, with no significant effect of the experimental treatment. However, data from the intervention sessions revealed that the participants’ verbalisations of their comprehension varied qualitatively over time. The combination of these results is discussed in light of previous findings on low literate adults’ informal and formal language learning experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigrant and Refugee Languages)
Open AccessArticle
Language Education for Forced Migrants: Governance and Approach
Languages 2019, 4(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030074 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 731
Abstract
This article stems from research conducted into the barriers to education, employment and language learning for refugees resettled into the convergence areas of Wales, UK. The authors consider that effective language programmes should play a key role in migration policies designed for multilingual, [...] Read more.
This article stems from research conducted into the barriers to education, employment and language learning for refugees resettled into the convergence areas of Wales, UK. The authors consider that effective language programmes should play a key role in migration policies designed for multilingual, multicultural societies. The provision of English language classes for speakers of other languages (ESOL) ensures equality of opportunities, and in doing so, enriches the culture of our societies. By highlighting the challenges to language learning faced by refugees on the Syrian Vulnerable Persons’ Resettlement Scheme (VPRS), this article draws attention to the fact that government directives for language provision commissioned under VPRS often do not sufficiently meet the needs of teachers and learners at grassroots level. Recommendations for greater flexibility in the organisation of ESOL provision for those resettled under VPRS are put forward. While this paper focuses on the specific case study of VPRS participants in Wales, it is hoped that recommendations around changes to policy and practice in language learning may be applicable to teachers, policy-makers, and community organisers working at the nexus of language and migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigrant and Refugee Languages)
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Open AccessCommunication
Coptic Language Learning and Social Media
Languages 2019, 4(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030073 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 485
Abstract
This study explored the potential of using the Internet, including existing social media platforms, for Coptic language learning. Through global exposure, endangered language maintenance and revitalization efforts may benefit from having a presence on social media. The researcher created Coptic language learning material, [...] Read more.
This study explored the potential of using the Internet, including existing social media platforms, for Coptic language learning. Through global exposure, endangered language maintenance and revitalization efforts may benefit from having a presence on social media. The researcher created Coptic language learning material, social media accounts on multiple platforms, and a website. Data were collected through a survey with questions focused on social media users’ background and experience with the Coptic language learning material. In addition to the survey, analytics from the social media and website platforms were documented. The results indicated that social media provided a global audience and the Coptic language learning material blended into survey respondents’ daily lives with positive acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOBILLE 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Sounds over Symbols? The Role of Auditory Cues in Orthographically-Correlated Speech Behavior
Languages 2019, 4(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030072 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 180
Abstract
A recent series of studies found a correlation between orthographic length and speech duration: The more orthographic units in a written form, the longer the speech duration of that word, all else being equal. Modular and encapsulated speech production models argue that orthography [...] Read more.
A recent series of studies found a correlation between orthographic length and speech duration: The more orthographic units in a written form, the longer the speech duration of that word, all else being equal. Modular and encapsulated speech production models argue that orthography should not contribute to articulation when it is not directly and explicitly relevant to speech. Such models demand that other factors such as auditory cues must be contributing to the development of this behavior. If auditory cues are being used in the development of these speech patterns, individuals would be expected to be sensitive to these differences. The current study uses an ABX task to determine whether participants are sensitive to durational differences at lengths similar to those observed in the previously found orthographically-correlated speech behavior. The current results showed no sensitivity to the critical levels of speech duration. Participants only began to show sensitivity at four times the length of the lower-bound durational lengths previously observed in individual’s speech patterns. These results call into question whether audio cues are playing a significant role in the development of this speech behavior and strengthen the claim that orthography may be influencing speech in an interactive fashion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HDLS 13: Challenges to Common Beliefs in Linguistic Research)
Open AccessArticle
Language Learning Tool for Refugees: Identifying the Language Learning Needs of Syrian Refugees Through Participatory Design
Languages 2019, 4(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030071 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 382
Abstract
A large number of refugees need to learn a new language in order to transition to, or settle in, a new country. Most refugees have access to smartphones with which they can access mobile language learning tools. However, refugees in different stages of [...] Read more.
A large number of refugees need to learn a new language in order to transition to, or settle in, a new country. Most refugees have access to smartphones with which they can access mobile language learning tools. However, refugees in different stages of their journeys have different language learning needs. Identifying the unique needs of refugees is essential to design language learning tools that support their language learning activities. Through a two-part participatory design study, we identify and compare the tacit and latent language learning needs of two different groups of Syrian refugees: a group in transition in Lebanon, and a group settling in Germany. The Syrian refugees we worked with in Lebanon are studying English to transition to another country with better living conditions. On the other hand, the Syrian refugees we worked with in Germany are trying to learn German to better integrate into German society. Our results show overlapping needs and specific needs for the two groups of refugees. We present our findings and discuss the opportunities and challenges for designing language learning tools to support the language learning activities of refugees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigrant and Refugee Languages)
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Open AccessArticle
Education and Input as Predictors of Second Language Attainment in Naturalistic Contexts
Languages 2019, 4(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030070 - 07 Sep 2019
Viewed by 369
Abstract
This study examines the effects of education and input as predictors of adult second language acquisition in naturalistic contexts. L1 Albanian learners of Greek who differed in amount of schooling (from 4 to 16 years) and length of residence (from 8 to 27 [...] Read more.
This study examines the effects of education and input as predictors of adult second language acquisition in naturalistic contexts. L1 Albanian learners of Greek who differed in amount of schooling (from 4 to 16 years) and length of residence (from 8 to 27 years) completed elicitation tasks that tested mastery of gender and number agreement, and past tense morphology. In addition, samples of spontaneous speech were assessed for fluency, grammatical complexity, and lexical richness in order to establish the learners’ overall proficiency in the L2. We hypothesized that education would facilitate attention to form and hence lead to better attainment of grammatical distinctions with relatively low functional load, particularly when these are complex. Quantity of input would be most strongly associated with aspects of language that are most relevant to communication, and in particular, fluency. These predictions were largely confirmed: education accounted for 15% of the variance on adjective number agreement and between 31% and 38% of the variance in performance on past tense morphology, which is considerably more complex. Fluency and clausal density, in contrast, were associated with length of residence but not with education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigrant and Refugee Languages)
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Open AccessArticle
The Late(r) Bird Gets the Verb? Effects of Age of Acquisition of English on Adult Heritage Speakers’ Knowledge of Subjunctive Mood in Spanish
Languages 2019, 4(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030069 - 07 Sep 2019
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Many previous studies have found that adult heritage speakers exhibit significant variability in their production and comprehension of mood morphology in Spanish. Nonetheless, it remains unclear what specific factors predict heritage speakers’ likelihood of exhibiting such variability. The present study contributes to this [...] Read more.
Many previous studies have found that adult heritage speakers exhibit significant variability in their production and comprehension of mood morphology in Spanish. Nonetheless, it remains unclear what specific factors predict heritage speakers’ likelihood of exhibiting such variability. The present study contributes to this question by testing the effect of both (a) age-of-acquisition of English and (b) Spanish proficiency on heritage speakers’ productive and receptive knowledge of mood morphology. Seventeen “early” heritage speakers (age of acquisition of English: 0 to 3.5 years), 20 “late” heritage speakers (age of acquisition of English: 4 to 6 years), and 18 later childhood immigrants (age of arrival in the US: 8 to 12 years) completed a Contextualized Elicited Production Task and a Mood Preference Task. Results of the two experiments suggest that the later childhood immigrants, despite “overusing” subjunctive in +Presupposition adjectival relative clauses, are significantly more likely than “early” and “late” heritage speakers to produce and prefer subjunctive mood in expected subjunctive contexts (with para que and in -Presupposition adjectival relative clauses). Within the heritage speaker groups, however, Spanish proficiency was a stronger predictor of subjunctive knowledge than age of acquisition of English, a finding with implications for both heritage language research and pedagogy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Language and Math: What If We Have Two Separate Naming Systems?
Languages 2019, 4(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030068 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 266
Abstract
The role of language in numerical processing has traditionally been restricted to counting and exact arithmetic. Nevertheless, the impact that each of a bilinguals’ languages may have in core numerical representations has not been questioned until recently. What if the language in which [...] Read more.
The role of language in numerical processing has traditionally been restricted to counting and exact arithmetic. Nevertheless, the impact that each of a bilinguals’ languages may have in core numerical representations has not been questioned until recently. What if the language in which math has been first acquired (LLmath) had a bigger impact in our math processing? Based on previous studies on language switching we hypothesize that balanced bilinguals would behave like unbalanced bilinguals when switching between the two codes for math. In order to address this question, we measured the brain activity with magneto encephalography (MEG) and source estimation analyses of 12 balanced Basque-Spanish speakers performing a task in which participants were unconscious of the switches between the two codes. The results show an asymmetric switch cost between the two codes for math, and that the brain areas responsible for these switches are similar to those thought to belong to a general task switching mechanism. This implies that the dominances for math and language could run separately from the general language dominance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Control Stimuli in Experimental Code-Switching Research
Languages 2019, 4(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030067 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 241
Abstract
The current study investigates whether there is variation among different types of control stimuli in code-switching (CS) research, how such stimuli can be used to accommodate heterogeneity, and how they can also be used as a baseline comparison of acceptability. A group of [...] Read more.
The current study investigates whether there is variation among different types of control stimuli in code-switching (CS) research, how such stimuli can be used to accommodate heterogeneity, and how they can also be used as a baseline comparison of acceptability. A group of native Spanish–English bilinguals (n = 20) completed a written acceptability judgment task with a 7-point Likert scale. Five different types of control stimuli were included, with three types considered to be completely acceptable (complex-sentence switches, direct-object switches, and subject–predicate switches) and two types considered to be completely unacceptable (pronoun switches and present–perfect switches). Additionally, a set of present–progressive switches were included as a comparison, as their acceptability status is still actively debated. The participants as a whole exhibited the expected grammatical distinctions among the control stimuli, but with a high degree of individual variability. Pronoun switches and auxiliary verb switches were rated significantly lower than the complex-sentence switches, direct-object switches, and subject–predicate switches. These results show that control stimuli can also establish a baseline comparison of acceptability, and recommendations for inclusion in experimental CS research are provided. Full article
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Open AccessBook Review
Educating Refugee-Background Students: Critical Issues and Dynamic Contexts. Edited by Shawna Shapiro, Raichle Farrelly and Mary Jane Curry, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2018, 264p. ISBN: 978-1-78309-996-2
Languages 2019, 4(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030066 - 26 Aug 2019
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Educators, scholars and practitioners whose work intersects with refugee learners’ lives and schooling are familiar with the many strengths and challenges these learners bring to and encounter in classrooms and communities every day [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigrant and Refugee Languages)
Open AccessArticle
Structural Priming, Levels of Awareness, and Agency in Contact-Induced Language Change
Languages 2019, 4(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030065 - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 321
Abstract
This paper focuses on structural priming, levels of awareness, and agency in contact-induced language change, bringing insights from historical and anthropological linguistics together with psycholinguistic, processing-based approaches. We begin with a discussion of the relation between levels of awareness and agency in the [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on structural priming, levels of awareness, and agency in contact-induced language change, bringing insights from historical and anthropological linguistics together with psycholinguistic, processing-based approaches. We begin with a discussion of the relation between levels of awareness and agency in the linguistic literature, focusing on the work of Von Humboldt, Silverstein, Van Coetsem, and Trudgill. Then we turn to the psycholinguistic notion of structural priming, aiming to show that cross-linguistic structural priming is a plausible mechanism driving contact-induced language change, and explore the properties of priming and its relation to the levels of awareness discussion in the linguistic literature. We end with suggestions for future research to further elucidate the relation between structural priming, levels of awareness, and agency in contact-induced language change. Full article
Open AccessArticle
‘Language Is Your Dignity’: Migration, Linguistic Capital, and the Experience of Re/De-Valuation
Languages 2019, 4(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030064 - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Using critical hermeneutic phenomenology, this study considers the lived realities of seven adult migrants with diverse migratory trajectories who came to London in order to set up a new life. Drawing on Bourdieu, it explicates their symbolic struggles for value fought out at [...] Read more.
Using critical hermeneutic phenomenology, this study considers the lived realities of seven adult migrants with diverse migratory trajectories who came to London in order to set up a new life. Drawing on Bourdieu, it explicates their symbolic struggles for value fought out at the linguistic level and the way they live through experiences of re-valuation of their linguistic capital. Because of the fact that linguistic repertoires are not equal in terms of their value in transnational settings, this is often marked by devaluation, lack, and deficiency. The question amidst unequal linguistic realities is then how space for contestation can be secured. This paper stresses the importance of paying attention to the emotional, affective dimension of such experiences to account for how social transformation may be brought about. To this end, Skeggs’ gaze is employed, particularly the notion of ‘just talk’ as a means to turn negative affects that occur in the face of inequitable relations into action. The study argues that paying attention to this could be a form of metalinguistic talk in language classrooms to counteract experiences of inequality and devaluation. Collective awareness in turn can foster a sense of solidarity and enhance collective agency as mediated by discursive action and solidarity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigrant and Refugee Languages)
Open AccessArticle
Translingual Practices and Reconstruction of Identities in Maghrebi Students in Galicia
Languages 2019, 4(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030063 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 433
Abstract
In this article, we explore the emergence of a new translingual repertoire among young adolescents of Moroccan and Algerian origin in Galicia and the role it plays in reconstructing the transnational identity of young people within the Maghrebi diaspora. The data include a [...] Read more.
In this article, we explore the emergence of a new translingual repertoire among young adolescents of Moroccan and Algerian origin in Galicia and the role it plays in reconstructing the transnational identity of young people within the Maghrebi diaspora. The data include a multimodal corpus with spoken and written interactions, collected as part of a classroom action research project, in which each student reconstructed their family and school language repertoire, as well as a WhatsApp group chat set up with the same young people. The results of our analysis reveal how the intercrossing of parental and adolescent agency plays a crucial role in dealing with the new multilingual translingual repertoire. The findings also indicate how this repertoire is deeply rooted in Moroccan Arabic as the family language and the incorporation of local languages, namely Spanish and Galician, and relies heavily on translingual multimodal practices, associated with transnational trajectories and the local schooling process of these young people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measuring Language Dominance in Early Spanish/English Bilinguals
Languages 2019, 4(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030062 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 346
Abstract
This paper analyzes the comparability of language dominance assessments with the purpose of determining whether they yield similar results. Language dominance is an important construct in the field of bilingualism as it allows for a more thorough classification of bilinguals and is thought [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the comparability of language dominance assessments with the purpose of determining whether they yield similar results. Language dominance is an important construct in the field of bilingualism as it allows for a more thorough classification of bilinguals and is thought to play a role in both bilingual production and perception. Yet, there is no unified methodology for assessing language dominance. To that end, we ask the following research question: Do different language dominance measures predict the results of one another? Twenty-nine Spanish/English early bilinguals completed four language dominance assessments. Results indicate that three of the four assessments are highly correlated with each other while the fourth, a repetition task, is not significantly correlated with any of the assessments. Further, twenty of the participants were categorized differently across the individual measures; the more “balanced” a bilingual was, the greater likelihood of being categorized differently. These results indicate that certain language dominance assessments are not comparable with one another and suggest that it could be the case they do not even measure the same variable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Learning Context Effects and Grapho(-Phonic)-Phonological Priming in Trilinguals
Languages 2019, 4(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030061 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 442
Abstract
A growing body of research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is language non-selective in nature. This claim aligns with the Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) approach to (multilingual) language acquisition, according to which complex systems involve a large number of elements [...] Read more.
A growing body of research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is language non-selective in nature. This claim aligns with the Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) approach to (multilingual) language acquisition, according to which complex systems involve a large number of elements that interact. In language learners, these interactions lead to the creation and dissolution of patterns as the tasks and environments around them change. In this study, we extend the scope from previous research on word recognition to include the role immersion plays on the transfer of grapho(-phonic)-phonological patterns among (Brazilian Portuguese–French–English) trilinguals. Two groups of participants—one group living in their L1 environment and the other in an L2 setting—were presented with a primed lexical decision task. Besides revealing a high impact of L2 immersion on the processing of grapho(-phonic)-phonological related primes, our results provide further support for the notion of language non-selective access to the lexicon, which seems to generalize to trilingual word recognition. Implications for the DST view of multiple language acquisition are briefly discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Communicative Acts Used by Emergent Trilingual Pupils in English Classrooms in the Basque Autonomous Community
Languages 2019, 4(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030060 - 30 Jul 2019
Viewed by 355
Abstract
This research aims at examining the communicative acts (CA) performed by Grade 5 emergent trilingual pupils in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) in northern Spain when interacting in the English classroom. Likewise, it examines translanguaging practices when performing CA to analyze whether pupils [...] Read more.
This research aims at examining the communicative acts (CA) performed by Grade 5 emergent trilingual pupils in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) in northern Spain when interacting in the English classroom. Likewise, it examines translanguaging practices when performing CA to analyze whether pupils deploy similar linguistic resources (LR) regardless of the CA they enact. Moreover, it investigates whether pupils from different sociolinguistic contexts behave similarly. Preliminary results suggest that Grade 5 pupils taking part in this study enact CA related to inviting elaboration or reasoning, expressing or inviting ideas, guiding direction of dialogue or activity, positioning and coordination, and showing understanding by using LR coming from different linguistic systems (mostly English and Basque) when interacting in the English classroom across sociolinguistic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formal and Methodological Approaches to Applied Linguistics)
Open AccessArticle
Using Eye-Movements to Track Bilingual Activation
Languages 2019, 4(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030059 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Recent research found that the languages of bilingual listeners are active and interact, such that both lexical representations are activated by the spoken input with which they are compatible. However, the time course of bilingual activation and whether suprasegmental information further modulates this [...] Read more.
Recent research found that the languages of bilingual listeners are active and interact, such that both lexical representations are activated by the spoken input with which they are compatible. However, the time course of bilingual activation and whether suprasegmental information further modulates this cross-language competition are still not well understood. This study investigates the effect of stress placement on the processing of English–Spanish cognates by beginner-to-intermediate Spanish-speaking second-language (L2) learners of English and intermediate-to-advanced English-speaking L2 learners of Spanish using the visual-world eye-tracking paradigm. In each trial, participants saw a target (asado, ‘roast’), one of two competitors (stress match: asados, ‘roast (pl)’; stress mismatch: asador, ‘rotisserie’), and two unrelated distracters, while hearing the target word. The experiment included a non-cognate condition (asado-asados-asador) and a cognate condition, where the stress pattern of the English word corresponding to the Spanish competitor in the stress-mismatch condition (inventor) instead matched that of the Spanish target (invento, ‘invent’). Growth-curve analyses revealed cognate-status and stress-mismatch effects for Spanish-speaking L2 learners of English, and cognate-status and stress-mismatch effects, and an interaction for English-speaking L2 learners of Spanish. This suggests that both groups use stress for word recognition, but the English stress pattern only affects the processing of Spanish words in the English-speaking L2 learners of Spanish. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Gender Assignment to Spanish Pseudowords by Monolingual and Basque-Spanish Bilingual Children
Languages 2019, 4(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030058 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 440
Abstract
This study examines gender marking in the Spanish of Basque-Spanish bilingual children. We analyze data collected via a production task designed to elicit 48 DPs, controlling for gender of referents and for number and types of morphological cues to grammatical gender. The goals [...] Read more.
This study examines gender marking in the Spanish of Basque-Spanish bilingual children. We analyze data collected via a production task designed to elicit 48 DPs, controlling for gender of referents and for number and types of morphological cues to grammatical gender. The goals were to determine the extent to which participants rely on biological cues (female referent =>FEM gender, male referent =>MASC gender) and morpho-phonological cues (-a ending =>FEM, -o ending =>MASC, others =>MASC or FEM) to assign gender to pseudowords/novel words; and whether bilinguals’ language dominance (Spanish strong/weak) has an effect. Data were collected from 49 5- to 6-year-old Spanish-speaking children—28 monolingual L1 Spanish (L1Sp) and 21 Basque-dominant (L1 Basque-L2 Spanish) bilinguals (BDB). Results reveal a general preference for MASC gender across conditions, especially in BDB children, who produced masculine modifiers for 83% of items, while the L1Sp children did so for only 63% of items. Regression analyses show that for both groups, morphological cues have more weight than the nature of the referent in participants’ assignment of gender to novel words, and that the L1Sp group is more attentive to FEM morphological markers than the BDB group, pointing towards the existence of differences in the strength of cue-patterns for gender marking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus
Languages 2019, 4(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030057 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 400
Abstract
This paper complements previous research into the late Modern English scientific writing uses of the adverbs possibly and perhaps as manifestations of either subjectivity or intersubjectivity, as presented in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing. In order to have a better [...] Read more.
This paper complements previous research into the late Modern English scientific writing uses of the adverbs possibly and perhaps as manifestations of either subjectivity or intersubjectivity, as presented in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing. In order to have a better understanding of the uses of these adverbs as markers of tentativeness, we will explore their syntagmatic relations with modal verbs. It is widely assumed that scientific discourse has an objective nature, although it has been questioned by its use of hedging and other expressions of stance. In the present study, we will assess how modal verbs accompanying these stance adverbs modulate the expression of tentativeness. The use of stance adverbs shows authorial presence and a covert interaction with the reader. The paper examines different degrees of hesitancy depending on the type of modal verb accompanying these adverbs. The analysis has been carried out on four subcorpora of the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing. Our findings will be presented from a more general to a more detailed account for each of the forms under investigation and interpreted taking into account the variables ‘date of publication’ and ‘genre’ for the text, and ‘sex’ for the author. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formal and Methodological Approaches to Applied Linguistics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Language Policy Documents in the Internationalisation of Multilingual Higher Education: An Exploratory Corpus-Based Study
Languages 2019, 4(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030056 - 15 Jul 2019
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Using corpus methods, this study explores the role of Language Policy (LP) documents in the internationalisation process of Spanish universities. It aims at understanding how non-Anglophone universities integrate English and local languages in the functions of education, research, and administration. Content analysis was [...] Read more.
Using corpus methods, this study explores the role of Language Policy (LP) documents in the internationalisation process of Spanish universities. It aims at understanding how non-Anglophone universities integrate English and local languages in the functions of education, research, and administration. Content analysis was used for the identification of key themes, and discourse analysis examined how those themes were textually expressed. Consistent with previous literature, this study shows that relevant strategic areas of LP deal with training, regulation, accreditation, and support measures. Results also highlight the role played by institutions in LP and the presence of language hierarchies between English and local languages. The discussion of these findings leads to further inquiry of mismatches between top-down institutional expectations and bottom-up realities regarding the design and implementation of institutional policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formal and Methodological Approaches to Applied Linguistics)
Open AccessArticle
Lexical Crosslinguistic Influence and Study Abroad: Do Learners Use L1-Based Resources Less?
Languages 2019, 4(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030055 - 15 Jul 2019
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Research in Crosslinguistic Influence (CLI) has traditionally addressed two broad types of lexical CLI—transfer of form and transfer of meaning (Ringbom 1987)—which were reconceptualized by Jarvis (2009) as lexemic and lemmatic transfer, respectively. Whereas the former considers the phonological and graphemic [...] Read more.
Research in Crosslinguistic Influence (CLI) has traditionally addressed two broad types of lexical CLI—transfer of form and transfer of meaning (Ringbom 1987)—which were reconceptualized by Jarvis (2009) as lexemic and lemmatic transfer, respectively. Whereas the former considers the phonological and graphemic structure of words, the latter is related to semantic and syntactic properties. These types of lexical CLI have been analysed in relation to L2 proficiency, but not in relation to factors such as Study Abroad (SA), which the present study aims to investigate. The oral production by 107 Catalan/Spanish learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) was analysed in terms of lexical CLI and the amount of input received during their SA. Results show an inverse relationship between the amount of input in SA and lexical CLI; that is, the higher the number of hours abroad, the fewer cases of lexical CLI. Statistical differences were found for lemmatic CLI and for one type of lexemic CLI. In light of these findings, it is suggested that learners that take part in SA programmes do not rely on L1-based resources when gaps in their knowledge arise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formal and Methodological Approaches to Applied Linguistics)
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Open AccessArticle
L3 Sentence Processing: Language-Specific or Phenomenon-Sensitive?
Languages 2019, 4(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030054 - 12 Jul 2019
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The article investigates non-native sentence processing and examines the existing scholarly approaches to L2 processing with a population of L3 learners of English, whose native language is Russian. In a self-paced reading experiment, native speakers of Russian and English, as well as (low) [...] Read more.
The article investigates non-native sentence processing and examines the existing scholarly approaches to L2 processing with a population of L3 learners of English, whose native language is Russian. In a self-paced reading experiment, native speakers of Russian and English, as well as (low) intermediate L3 learners of English, read ambiguous relative clauses (RC) and decided on their attachment interpretation: high attachment (HA) or low attachment (LA). In the two-by-two design, linguistic decision-making was prompted by lexical semantic cues vs. a structural change caused by a certain type of matrix verb. The results show that whenever a matrix verb caused a change of syntactic modification, which entailed HA, both native and non-native speakers abandoned the default English-like LA and chose HA. Lexical semantic cues did not have any significant effect in RC attachment resolution. The study provides experimental evidence in favor of the similarity of native and non-native processing strategies. Both native speakers and L3 learners of English apply structural processing strategies and show similar sensitivity to a linguistic prompt that shapes RC resolution. Native and non-native processing is found to be prediction-based; structure building is performed in a top-down manner. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heritage Portuguese and Heritage Polish in Contact with German: More Evidence on the Production of Objects
Languages 2019, 4(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030053 - 10 Jul 2019
Viewed by 518
Abstract
This paper compares the production of different types of direct objects by Portuguese–German and Polish–German bilingual school-aged children in their heritage languages (HLs), Polish and European Portuguese (EP). Given that the two target languages display identical options of object realization, our main research [...] Read more.
This paper compares the production of different types of direct objects by Portuguese–German and Polish–German bilingual school-aged children in their heritage languages (HLs), Polish and European Portuguese (EP). Given that the two target languages display identical options of object realization, our main research question is whether the two HLs develop in a similar way in bilingual children. More precisely, we aim at investigating whether bilingual children acquiring Polish and EP are sensitive to accessibility and animacy when realizing a direct object in their HL. The results of a production experiment show that this is indeed the case and that the two groups of bilinguals do not differ from each other, although they may overgeneralize null objects or full noun phrases to some extent. We conclude that the bilingual acquisition of object realization is guided by the relevant properties in the target languages and is not influenced by the contact language, German. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Identity Construction of Migrants on Facebook
Languages 2019, 4(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030052 - 04 Jul 2019
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Abstract
Social network sites, such as Facebook, allow access to a series of resources or discursive forms that constitute a multimodal and dialogical system that transcends barriers of time and space, favouring transnational communication, something particularly important to migrants. In addition, the comments and [...] Read more.
Social network sites, such as Facebook, allow access to a series of resources or discursive forms that constitute a multimodal and dialogical system that transcends barriers of time and space, favouring transnational communication, something particularly important to migrants. In addition, the comments and dialogues that take place in such socialisation spaces allow us to develop a greater knowledge of the identity and positioning of the user with respect to others. With this work we analyse, from a qualitative point of view, 150 posts each containing at least five comments, published between 2017 and 2019, in each of five Facebook groups of Latin American migrants living in Italy: Uruguayans, Argentinians, Colombians, Peruvians and Venezuelans. We determine their role in the migratory process and how the digital environment affects the relationships between migrants. In addition, we investigate how the identities of migrants are negotiated and (re)defined in discursive practice. Results shows that social network sites are “transnational social spaces”, in which a community is based on bonds of solidarity that derive from a shared conception of collective identity, and they forge deterritorialised “community of feeling”. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Conceptualization of English Phrasal Verbs by Greek Primary School Learners: An Empirical Cognitive Approach
Languages 2019, 4(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030051 - 02 Jul 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the way Greek EFL elementary students conceptualize English phrasal verbs of the form component verb (take) plus component particle (up, down, in, out, back, off, on, apart). It is suggested image [...] Read more.
This study investigates the way Greek EFL elementary students conceptualize English phrasal verbs of the form component verb (take) plus component particle (up, down, in, out, back, off, on, apart). It is suggested image schemas play a facilitatory role in the conceptualization and interpretation of the figurative meanings of English phrasal verbs. The study argues that within the phrasal verb construct, the component particle prompts for the extension from literal to figurative meanings since the particle designates image schematic experiences (bodily-kinesthetic). The study conducted two types of test: (1) meaning of the sentence and (2) image-matching from the sentence. In test 1, participants were asked to read sentences which contained the verb take plus particles and they had to select the most appropriate meaning of the phrasal verb that matched the overall meaning of the sentence. In test 2, participants were asked to read sentences wherein phrasal verbs of the form take plus particles were highlighted. They were asked to match the meaning of the phrasal verb with one image. Each image represented a different type of image schema such as container, front-back orientation and proximity-distance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Becoming Monolingual: The Impact of Language Ideologies on the Loss of Multilingualism on São Tomé Island
Languages 2019, 4(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030050 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 613
Abstract
This article discusses the loss of the creole languages on São Tomé Island and the societal move from multilingualism to monolingualism in Portuguese. It argues that recognizing the ideologies attached to these languages is key in understanding the language shift, but also the [...] Read more.
This article discusses the loss of the creole languages on São Tomé Island and the societal move from multilingualism to monolingualism in Portuguese. It argues that recognizing the ideologies attached to these languages is key in understanding the language shift, but also the processes leading toward monolingualism. This qualitative study is based on three main theories: Language as social practice, language ideology, and monoglot standardization. Data comes from ethnographic fieldwork and sociolinguistic interviews with 56 speakers from the capital of São Tomé and Príncipe. I argue that the existence of multilingualism on São Tomé Island is not valued at a societal level because of the pejorative ideologies that have been held about the creole languages since colonial times. Also, the use of the creole languages stood as a problem for the creation of a unified Santomean nation, as the different racial groups on the islands had their own creole. Results show how ideologies about the Portuguese language and its association with national unity, modernity, and European-ness favored its expansion on São Tomé Island and a move toward monolingualism. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Polite Language Forms as Markers of an Emerging New Language Order in Nikkei-Brazilian Japanese
Languages 2019, 4(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030049 - 27 Jun 2019
Viewed by 421
Abstract
This paper presents the results from a linguistically-oriented discourse-completion questionnaire administered in Nikkei-Brazilian (Japanese Brazilian) communities, examining in particular: (1) the use of polite language forms, (2) terms used to address one’s spouse, as well as (3) the social characteristics and cultural backgrounds [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results from a linguistically-oriented discourse-completion questionnaire administered in Nikkei-Brazilian (Japanese Brazilian) communities, examining in particular: (1) the use of polite language forms, (2) terms used to address one’s spouse, as well as (3) the social characteristics and cultural backgrounds of the informants (e.g., age, sex, generation, nationality, place of birth, place of residence, whether they have lived in the Colonia (i.e., rural communities originally established as exclusively Japanese settlements), where their parents come from, education, and their first language). In this paper, I argue that the use of polite language forms in Nikkei-Brazilian Japanese reflects the different social histories that the two groups identified in this study have been through. The first group consists of those who have experience of Colonia society, whose characteristic use of polite language forms includes: (a) traditional Japanese spousal address terms, such as otoo-san or otoo-chan (father) when the wife addresses her spouse, and okaa-san or okaa-chan (mother) when the husband addresses his spouse; (b) the Western Japanese dialectal polite suffixes -reru/-rareru; and (c) exalting and humbling polite language forms which indicate the relative social positions of the addressees. The second group consists of those who reside in urban areas without experience of life in the Colonia, whose characteristic use of polite language forms includes: (a) Brazilian Portuguese spousal address terms; (b) the use of polite language forms which show the speaker’s friendliness and distance-reducing; and (c) a greater use of standard polite language forms, namely -desu, -masu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Perspectives in Geolinguistics and Dialectology)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Access to Scalar Implicatures in Adjacency Pair Contexts: Experimental Evidence in Spanish
Languages 2019, 4(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030048 - 27 Jun 2019
Viewed by 404
Abstract
A conversational implicature arises when there is a gap between the syntactically and semantically encoded meaning of a sentence and the pragmatic meaning that is inferred in an actual communicative situation. Several experimental studies have approached the processing of implicatures and examined the [...] Read more.
A conversational implicature arises when there is a gap between the syntactically and semantically encoded meaning of a sentence and the pragmatic meaning that is inferred in an actual communicative situation. Several experimental studies have approached the processing of implicatures and examined the extent to which the derivation of the pragmatic meaning is effortful, especially in the case of generalized implicatures, where the inferred meaning seems to be the most frequent one. In this study, we present two experiments that explore the processing of scalar implicatures with algunos ‘some’ in adjacency pair contexts through an acceptability judgment task and a self-paced reading task. Our results support the claim that the access to the meaning of some as only some is context sensitive. Moreover, they also indicate that adjacency pair structure contributes to making that meaning rapidly available. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metaphor and Metonymy in Food Idioms
Languages 2019, 4(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030047 - 27 Jun 2019
Viewed by 418
Abstract
In recent decades, the development of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, put forward by Lakoff and other scholars. In this light, metaphor and metonymy have been found to provide a semantic motivation for a considerable number of idiomatic expressions. Within this framework, the present [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the development of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, put forward by Lakoff and other scholars. In this light, metaphor and metonymy have been found to provide a semantic motivation for a considerable number of idiomatic expressions. Within this framework, the present contribution explores the cognitive motivation of food idioms in English (e.g., ‘be a cup of tea,’ ‘bread and butter,’ ‘walking on eggshells’) and Spanish (e.g., darse pisto, tener mala uva, cortar el bacalao). The analysis reveals that idiomatic meaning often relies on metaphoric amalgams and metonymic chains, or on the interaction between metaphor and metonymy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formal and Methodological Approaches to Applied Linguistics)
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