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Open AccessArticle

Heritage Portuguese and Heritage Polish in Contact with German: More Evidence on the Production of Objects

1
Institut für Romanische Sprachen und Literaturen, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 60629 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2
Centro de Estudos Humanísticos, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
3
Faculty of Modern Languages and Literatures, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61 874 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Languages 2019, 4(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030053
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
This paper compares the production of different types of direct objects by Portuguese–German and Polish–German bilingual school-aged children in their heritage languages (HLs), Polish and European Portuguese (EP). Given that the two target languages display identical options of object realization, our main research question is whether the two HLs develop in a similar way in bilingual children. More precisely, we aim at investigating whether bilingual children acquiring Polish and EP are sensitive to accessibility and animacy when realizing a direct object in their HL. The results of a production experiment show that this is indeed the case and that the two groups of bilinguals do not differ from each other, although they may overgeneralize null objects or full noun phrases to some extent. We conclude that the bilingual acquisition of object realization is guided by the relevant properties in the target languages and is not influenced by the contact language, German. View Full-Text
Keywords: heritage speakers; Polish; European Portuguese; object realization; animacy; accessibility; clitic pronouns; null objects heritage speakers; Polish; European Portuguese; object realization; animacy; accessibility; clitic pronouns; null objects
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Rinke, E.; Flores, C.; Sopata, A. Heritage Portuguese and Heritage Polish in Contact with German: More Evidence on the Production of Objects. Languages 2019, 4, 53.

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