Previous Issue
Volume 9, December

Table of Contents

Plants, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 127 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Phytic acid is an antinutritional compound that reduces mineral bioavailability from the diet. The [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Temporal Distinction between Male and Female Floral Organ Development in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi (Solanaceae)
Plants 2020, 9(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010127 (registering DOI) - 19 Jan 2020
Abstract
Early floral developmental investigations provide crucial evidence for phylogenetic and molecular studies of plants. The developmental and evolutionary mechanisms underlying the variations in floral organs are critical for a thorough understanding of the diversification of flowers. Ontogenetic comparisons between anthers and pistil within [...] Read more.
Early floral developmental investigations provide crucial evidence for phylogenetic and molecular studies of plants. The developmental and evolutionary mechanisms underlying the variations in floral organs are critical for a thorough understanding of the diversification of flowers. Ontogenetic comparisons between anthers and pistil within single flowers were characterized over time in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi. The ages of 42 tobacco flower or flower primordia were estimated using corolla growth analysis. Results showed that the protodermal layer in carpel primordia contributes to carpel development by both anticlinal and periclinal divisions. Periclinal divisions in the hypodermal layer of the placenta were observed around 4.8 ± 1.3 days after the formation of early carpel primordia (ECP) and ovule initiation occurred 10.0 ± 0.5 days after ECP. Meiosis in anthers and ovules began about 8.9 ± 1.1 days and 14.4 ± 1.3 days after ECP, respectively. Results showed an evident temporal distinction between megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis. Flower ages spanned a 17-day interval, starting with flower primordia containing the ECP and anther primordia to the tetrad stage of meiosis in megasporocytes and the bicellular stage in pollen grains. These results establish a solid foundation for future studies in order to identify the developmental and molecular mechanisms responsible for the mating system in tobacco. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Reproduction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Volatile Compositions and Antifungal Activities of Native American Medicinal Plants: Focus on the Asteraceae
Plants 2020, 9(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010126 (registering DOI) - 19 Jan 2020
Abstract
In the past, Native Americans of North America had an abundant traditional herbal legacy for treating illnesses, disorders, and wounds. Unfortunately, much of the ethnopharmacological knowledge of North American Indians has been lost due to population destruction and displacement from their native lands [...] Read more.
In the past, Native Americans of North America had an abundant traditional herbal legacy for treating illnesses, disorders, and wounds. Unfortunately, much of the ethnopharmacological knowledge of North American Indians has been lost due to population destruction and displacement from their native lands by European-based settlers. However, there are some sources of Native American ethnobotany remaining. In this work, we have consulted the ethnobotanical literature for members of the Asteraceae used in Cherokee and other Native American traditional medicines that are native to the southeastern United States. The aerial parts of Eupatorium serotinum, Eurybia macrophylla, Eutrochium purpureum, Polymnia canadensis, Rudbeckia laciniata, Silphium integrifolium, Smallanthus uvedalia, Solidago altissima, and Xanthium strumarium were collected from wild-growing plants in north Alabama. The plants were hydrodistilled to obtain the essential oils and the chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The essential oils were tested for in-vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The essential oil of E. serotinum showed noteworthy activity against C. neoformans with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 78 μg/mL, which can be attributed to the high concentration of cyclocolorenone in the essential oil. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fast Track to Discover Novel Promoters in Rice
Plants 2020, 9(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010125 (registering DOI) - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 109
Abstract
Promoters are key components for the application of biotechnological techniques in crop plants. Reporter genes such as GUS or GFP have been used to test the activity of promoters for diverse applications. A huge number of T-DNAs carrying promoterless GUS near their right [...] Read more.
Promoters are key components for the application of biotechnological techniques in crop plants. Reporter genes such as GUS or GFP have been used to test the activity of promoters for diverse applications. A huge number of T-DNAs carrying promoterless GUS near their right borders have been inserted into the rice genome, and 105,739 flanking sequence tags from rice lines with this T-DNA insertion have been identified, establishing potential promoter trap lines for 20,899 out of 55,986 genes in the rice genome. Anatomical meta-expression data and information on abiotic stress related to these promoter trap lines enable us to quickly identify new promoters associated with various expression patterns. In the present report, we introduce a strategy to identify new promoters in a very short period of time using a combination of meta-expression analysis and promoter trap lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Expression Systems for Bioproduct Production)
Open AccessArticle
Fumigant Toxicity in Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Controlled Release of (E)-anethole from Microspheres
Plants 2020, 9(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010124 (registering DOI) - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 77
Abstract
(E)-anethole is a phenylpropanoid that is the main compound found in the essential oils (EOs) of anise and fennel seeds, and either fumigant or direct contact activity of this compound has been demonstrated against aphids and stored product pests. In this [...] Read more.
(E)-anethole is a phenylpropanoid that is the main compound found in the essential oils (EOs) of anise and fennel seeds, and either fumigant or direct contact activity of this compound has been demonstrated against aphids and stored product pests. In this work, solid microspheres were prepared by three methods—oil emulsion entrapment, spray-drying, and complexed with β-cyclodextrin. Fumigation activity of each microsphere preparation was tested against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on pepper leaves. The best insecticidal activity was with (E)-anethole encapsulated in oil emulsion beads and introduced to aphids as a vapour over 24 h, with an LC50 of 0.415 μL/L compared to 0.336 μL/L of vapors from free (E)-anethole. Scanning electron microscopy of the beads revealed a compact surface with low porosity that produced a controlled release of the bioactive for more than 21 d, whilst most of the volatile was evaporated within two days if applied unformulated. Spray drying gave spherical particles with the greatest encapsulated yield (73%) of 6.15 g of (E)-anethole incorporated per 100 g of powder. Further work will be done on improving the formulation methods and testing the solid microspheres in all aphid stages scaling up the experimental assay. It is foreseen that nanotechnology will play a role in future developments of low risk plant protection products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticidal Plants: From Smallholder Use to Commercialisation)
Open AccessArticle
Biostimulant Effect and Biochemical Response in Lettuce Seedlings Treated with A Scenedesmus quadricauda Extract
Plants 2020, 9(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010123 (registering DOI) - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 65
Abstract
The use of natural biostimulants is becoming an attractive option in order to reduce the use of fertilizer and increase the yield of crops. In particular, algal extracts are suitable candidates as they positively affect plant physiology. Among crops, lettuce often requires the [...] Read more.
The use of natural biostimulants is becoming an attractive option in order to reduce the use of fertilizer and increase the yield of crops. In particular, algal extracts are suitable candidates as they positively affect plant physiology. Among crops, lettuce often requires the use of biostimulants to improve both the quality and quantity of production. The aim of this work is to investigate the potential use of a Scenedesmus quadricauda extract as a biostimulant in order to obtain sustainable cultivation and a reduction in the cost of chemical fertilizers in lettuce cultivation. Therefore, the effect of S. quadricauda extract on lettuce seedlings was explored by evaluating the physiological parameters, chlorophyll, carotenoid, and total protein contents as well as several plant enzymatic activities involved in primary and secondary metabolisms. The experiment was performed by growing plants on inert substrate (pumice) with a 16-h photoperiod, by carrying out two consecutive radical treatments, one week apart, using a concentration of the extract corresponding to 1 mg Corg L−1. Lettuce plants were sampled at 1, 4, and 7 days from the first treatment and 7 days from the second treatment. The results showed that the S. quadricauda extract positively affected the growth of lettuce seedlings, mainly acting at the shoot level, determining an increase in dry matter, chlorophylls, carotenoids, proteins, and influencing the activities of several enzymes involved in the primary metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Digestive Enzymes and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Fruits of Cornus alba, Cornus sanguinea subsp. hungarica and Cornus florida–A Comparative Study
Plants 2020, 9(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010122 (registering DOI) - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 76
Abstract
The fruits of some Cornus species (dogwoods) are used in traditional medicine and considered potential anti-diabetic and hypolipemic agents. The aim of the study was to determine the ability of extracts from Cornus alba (CA), Cornus florida (CF), and Cornus sanguinea (CS) to [...] Read more.
The fruits of some Cornus species (dogwoods) are used in traditional medicine and considered potential anti-diabetic and hypolipemic agents. The aim of the study was to determine the ability of extracts from Cornus alba (CA), Cornus florida (CF), and Cornus sanguinea (CS) to inhibit digestive enzymes namely α-amylase, pancreatic lipase, and α-glucosidase, as well as isolation of compounds from plant material with the strongest effect. In addition, the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of extracts from three dogwoods were compared with HPLC-DAD-MS/MS and DPPH scavenging assay, respectively. Among the aqueous-ethanolic extracts, the activity of α-amylase was the most strongly inhibited by the fruit extract of CA (IC50 = 115.20 ± 14.31 μg/mL) and the activity of α-glucosidase by the fruit of CF (IC50 = 38.87 ± 2.65 μg/mL). Some constituents of CA fruit extract, such as coumaroylquinic acid, kaempferol, and hydroxytyrosol derivatives, were isolated. Among the three species of dogwood studied, the greatest biological potential was demonstrated by CA extracts, which are sources of phenolic acids and flavonoid compounds. In contrast, iridoid compounds or flavonoid glycosides found in fruits of CF or CS extracts do not play a significant role in inhibiting digestive enzymes but exert antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plants)
Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective
Settling for Less: Do Statoliths Modulate Gravity Perception?
Plants 2020, 9(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010121 (registering DOI) - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 94
Abstract
Plants orientate their growth either towards (in roots) or away from (in shoots) the Earth’s gravitational field. While we are now starting to understand the molecular architecture of these gravity response pathways, the gravity receptor remains elusive. This perspective looks at the biology [...] Read more.
Plants orientate their growth either towards (in roots) or away from (in shoots) the Earth’s gravitational field. While we are now starting to understand the molecular architecture of these gravity response pathways, the gravity receptor remains elusive. This perspective looks at the biology of statoliths and suggests it is conceivable that their immediate environment may be tuned to modulate the strength of the gravity response. It then suggests how mutant screens could use this hypothesis to identify the gravity receptor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Genetics of Root Gravitropism)
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Plants in 2019
Plants 2020, 9(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010120 (registering DOI) - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 119
Open AccessReview
Citrus limon (Lemon) Phenomenon—A Review of the Chemistry, Pharmacological Properties, Applications in the Modern Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetics Industries, and Biotechnological Studies
Plants 2020, 9(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010119 (registering DOI) - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 126
Abstract
This review presents important botanical, chemical and pharmacological characteristics of Citrus limon (lemon)—a species with valuable pharmaceutical, cosmetic and culinary (healthy food) properties. A short description of the genus Citrus is followed by information on the chemical composition, metabolomic studies and biological activities [...] Read more.
This review presents important botanical, chemical and pharmacological characteristics of Citrus limon (lemon)—a species with valuable pharmaceutical, cosmetic and culinary (healthy food) properties. A short description of the genus Citrus is followed by information on the chemical composition, metabolomic studies and biological activities of the main raw materials obtained from C. limon (fruit extract, juice, essential oil). The valuable biological activity of C. limon is determined by its high content of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids (e.g., diosmin, hesperidin, limocitrin) and phenolic acids (e.g., ferulic, synapic, p-hydroxybenzoic acids). The essential oil is rich in bioactive monoterpenoids such as D-limonene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene. Recently scientifically proven therapeutic activities of C. limon include anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer and antiparasitic activities. The review pays particular attention, with references to published scientific research, to the use of C. limon in the food industry and cosmetology. It also addresses the safety of use and potential phototoxicity of the raw materials. Lastly, the review emphasizes the significance of biotechnological studies on C. limon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Citrus Research)
Open AccessArticle
Leaves of Invasive Plants—Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed—The Promising New Source of Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins
Plants 2020, 9(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010118 (registering DOI) - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 129
Abstract
This is the first report on identification of all B-type proanthocyanidins from monomers to decamers (monomers—flavan-3-ols, dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers, and decamers) and some of their gallates in leaves of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.), giant knotweed ( [...] Read more.
This is the first report on identification of all B-type proanthocyanidins from monomers to decamers (monomers—flavan-3-ols, dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers, and decamers) and some of their gallates in leaves of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.), giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis F. Schmidt) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia × bohemica (Chrtek & Chrtkova) J.P. Bailey). Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins were investigated using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled to densitometry, image analysis, and mass spectrometry (HPTLC–MS/MS). All species contained (−)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2, while (+)-catechin was only detected in Bohemian and giant knotweed. (−)-Epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1 and procyanidin C1 was only confirmed in giant knotweed. Leaves of all three knotweeds have the same chemical profiles of proanthocyanidins with respect to the degree of polymerization but differ with respect to gallates. Therefore, chromatographic fingerprint profiles of proanthocyanidins enabled differentiation among leaves of studied knotweeds, and between Japanese knotweed leaves and rhizomes. Leaves of all three species proved to be a rich source of proanthocyanidins (based on the total peak areas), with the highest content in giant and the lowest in Japanese knotweed. The contents of monomers in Japanese, Bohemian and giant knotweed were 0.84 kg/t of dry weight (DW), 1.39 kg/t DW, 2.36 kg/t, respectively, while the contents of dimers were 0.99 kg/t DW, 1.40 kg/t, 2.06 kg/t, respectively. Giant knotweed leaves showed the highest variety of gallates (dimer gallates, dimer digallates, trimer gallates, tetramer gallates, pentamer gallates, and hexamer gallates), while only monomer gallates and dimer gallates were confirmed in Japanese knotweed and monomer gallates, dimer gallates, and dimer digallates were detected in leaves of Bohemian knotweed. The profile of the Bohemian knotweed clearly showed the traits inherited from Japanese and giant knotweed from which it originated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Plant Mitochondrial Carriers: Molecular Gatekeepers That Help to Regulate Plant Central Carbon Metabolism
Plants 2020, 9(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010117 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 120
Abstract
The evolution of membrane-bound organelles among eukaryotes led to a highly compartmentalized metabolism. As a compartment of the central carbon metabolism, mitochondria must be connected to the cytosol by molecular gates that facilitate a myriad of cellular processes. Members of the mitochondrial carrier [...] Read more.
The evolution of membrane-bound organelles among eukaryotes led to a highly compartmentalized metabolism. As a compartment of the central carbon metabolism, mitochondria must be connected to the cytosol by molecular gates that facilitate a myriad of cellular processes. Members of the mitochondrial carrier family function to mediate the transport of metabolites across the impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane and, thus, are potentially crucial for metabolic control and regulation. Here, we focus on members of this family that might impact intracellular central plant carbon metabolism. We summarize and review what is currently known about these transporters from in vitro transport assays and in planta physiological functions, whenever available. From the biochemical and molecular data, we hypothesize how these relevant transporters might play a role in the shuttling of organic acids in the various flux modes of the TCA cycle. Furthermore, we also review relevant mitochondrial carriers that may be vital in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Lastly, we survey novel experimental approaches that could possibly extend and/or complement the widely accepted proteoliposome reconstitution approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Central Carbon and Amino Acid Metabolism in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Steady-State Levels of Cytokinins and Their Derivatives May Serve as a Unique Classifier of Arabidopsis Ecotypes
Plants 2020, 9(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010116 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 101
Abstract
We determined steady-state (basal) endogenous levels of three plant hormones (abscisic acid, cytokinins and indole-3-acetic acid) in a collection of thirty different ecotypes of Arabidopsis that represent a broad genetic variability within this species. Hormone contents were analysed separately in plant shoots and [...] Read more.
We determined steady-state (basal) endogenous levels of three plant hormones (abscisic acid, cytokinins and indole-3-acetic acid) in a collection of thirty different ecotypes of Arabidopsis that represent a broad genetic variability within this species. Hormone contents were analysed separately in plant shoots and roots after 21 days of cultivation on agar plates in a climate-controlled chamber. Using advanced statistical and machine learning methods, we tested if basal hormonal levels can be considered a unique ecotype-specific classifier. We also explored possible relationships between hormone levels and the prevalent environmental conditions in the site of origin for each ecotype. We found significant variations in basal hormonal levels and their ratios in both root and shoot among the ecotypes. We showed the prominent position of cytokinins (CK) among the other hormones. We found the content of CK and CK metabolites to be a reliable ecotype-specific identifier. Correlation with the mean temperature at the site of origin and the large variation in basal hormonal levels suggest that the high variability may potentially be in response to environmental factors. This study provides a starting point for ecotype-specific genetic maps of the CK metabolic and signalling network to explore its contribution to the adaptation of plants to local environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Plant Two-Component System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Can Inositol Pyrophosphates Inform Strategies for Developing Low Phytate Crops?
Plants 2020, 9(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010115 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are an emerging class of “high-energy” intracellular signaling molecules, containing one or two diphosphate groups attached to an inositol ring, that are connected with phosphate sensing, jasmonate signaling, and inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) storage in plants. While information regarding [...] Read more.
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are an emerging class of “high-energy” intracellular signaling molecules, containing one or two diphosphate groups attached to an inositol ring, that are connected with phosphate sensing, jasmonate signaling, and inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) storage in plants. While information regarding this new class of signaling molecules in plants is scarce, the enzymes responsible for their synthesis have recently been elucidated. This review focuses on InsP6 synthesis and its conversion into PP-InsPs, containing seven and eight phosphate groups (InsP7 and InsP8). These steps involve two types of enzymes: the ITPKs that phosphorylate InsP6 to InsP7, and the PPIP5Ks that phosphorylate InsP7 to InsP8. This review also considers the potential roles of PP-InsPs in plant hormone and inorganic phosphate (Pi) signaling, along with an emerging role in bioenergetic homeostasis. PP-InsP synthesis and signaling are important for plant breeders to consider when developing strategies that reduce InsP6 in plants, as this will likely also reduce PP-InsPs. Thus, this review is primarily intended to bridge the gap between the basic science aspects of PP-InsP synthesis/signaling and breeding/engineering strategies to fortify foods by reducing InsP6. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
HD-ZIP I Transcription Factor (PtHB13) Negatively Regulates Citrus Flowering through Binding to FLOWERING LOCUS C Promoter
Plants 2020, 9(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010114 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 128
Abstract
For floral induction in adult citrus, low temperature is one of the most important environmental factors. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays a very important role in low-temperature-induced Arabidopsis flowering by repressed FLC expression under exposure to prolonged low-temperature conditions. However, little [...] Read more.
For floral induction in adult citrus, low temperature is one of the most important environmental factors. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays a very important role in low-temperature-induced Arabidopsis flowering by repressed FLC expression under exposure to prolonged low-temperature conditions. However, little is known about the FLC regulation mechanism in perennial woody plants such as citrus. In this study, the functions of citrus FLC homolog (PtFLC) were investigated by ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. Transcription factor of homeodomain leucine zipper I (HD-ZIP I) as an upstream regulator of PtFLC was identified by yeast one-hybrid screen to regulate its transcription. The HD-ZIP I transcription factor was highly homologous to Arabidopsis ATHB13 and thus was named PtHB13. Ectopically expressed PtHB13 inhibited flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the expression of PtFLC and PtHB13 showed a seasonal change during the floral induction period and was also affected by low temperature. Thus, we propose that PtHB13 binds to PtFLC promoter to regulate its activity during the citrus floral induction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Citrus Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Callicarpa Species from Central Vietnam: Essential Oil Compositions and Mosquito Larvicidal Activities
Plants 2020, 9(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010113 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 125
Abstract
There are around 140 species in the genus Callicarpa, with 23 species occurring in Vietnam. The Vietnamese Callicarpa species have been poorly studied. In this work, the leaf essential oils of C. bodinieri, C. candicans, C. formosana, C. longifolia [...] Read more.
There are around 140 species in the genus Callicarpa, with 23 species occurring in Vietnam. The Vietnamese Callicarpa species have been poorly studied. In this work, the leaf essential oils of C. bodinieri, C. candicans, C. formosana, C. longifolia, C. nudiflora, C. petelotii, C. rubella, and C. sinuata, have been obtained from plants growing in central Vietnam. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. Mosquito larvicidal activities of the essential oils were carried out against Aedes aegypti. All of the Callicarpa leaf essential oils showed larvicidal activity, but two samples of C. candicans were particularly active with 48-h LC50 values of 2.1 and 3.8 μg/mL. Callicarpa candicans essential oil should be considered as a potential alternative mosquito control agent. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Bioactivity of Common Pesticidal Plants on Fall Armyworm Larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda)
Plants 2020, 9(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010112 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 314
Abstract
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a recent invasive pest species that has successfully established across sub-Saharan Africa where it continues to disrupt agriculture, particularly smallholder cereal production. Management of FAW in its native range in the Americas has led [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a recent invasive pest species that has successfully established across sub-Saharan Africa where it continues to disrupt agriculture, particularly smallholder cereal production. Management of FAW in its native range in the Americas has led to the development of resistance to many commercial pesticides before its arrival in Africa. Pesticide use may therefore be ineffective for FAW control in Africa, so new and more sustainable approaches to pest management are required that can help reduce the impact of this exotic pest. Pesticidal plants provide an effective and established approach to pest management in African smallholder farming and recent research has shown that their use can be cost-beneficial and sustainable. In order to optimize the use of botanical extracts for FAW control, we initially screened ten commonly used plant species. In laboratory trials, contact toxicity and feeding bioassays showed differential effects. Some plant species had little to no effect when compared to untreated controls; thus, only the five most promising plant species were selected for more detailed study. In contact toxicity tests, the highest larval mortality was obtained from Nicotiana tabacum (66%) and Lippia javanica (66%). Similarly, in a feeding bioassay L. javanica (62%) and N. tabacum (60%) exhibited high larval mortality at the highest concentration evaluated (10% w/v). Feeding deterrence was evaluated using glass-fibre discs treated with plant extracts, which showed that Cymbopogon citratus (36%) and Azadirachta indica (20%) were the most potent feeding deterrents among the pesticidal plants evaluated. In a screenhouse experiment where living maize plants infested with fall armyworm larvae were treated with plant extracts, N. tabacum and L. javanica were the most potent species at reducing foliar damage compared to the untreated control whilst the synthetic pesticide chlorpyrifos was the most effective in reducing fall armyworm foliar damage. Further field trial evaluation is recommended, particularly involving smallholder maize fields to assess effectiveness across a range of contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticidal Plants: From Smallholder Use to Commercialisation)
Open AccessReview
Silicification of Root Tissues
Plants 2020, 9(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010111 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Silicon (Si) is not considered an essential element, however, its tissue concentration can exceed that of many essential elements in several evolutionary distant plant species. Roots take up Si using Si transporters and then translocate it to aboveground organs. In some plant species, [...] Read more.
Silicon (Si) is not considered an essential element, however, its tissue concentration can exceed that of many essential elements in several evolutionary distant plant species. Roots take up Si using Si transporters and then translocate it to aboveground organs. In some plant species, root tissues are also places where a high accumulation of Si can be found. Three basic modes of Si deposition in roots have been identified so far: (1) impregnation of endodermal cell walls (e.g., in cereals, such as Triticum (wheat)); (2) formation of Si-aggregates associated with endodermal cell walls (in the Andropogoneae family, which includes Sorghum and Saccharum (sugarcane)); (3) formation of Si aggregates in “stegmata” cells, which form a sheath around sclerenchyma fibers e.g., in some palm species (Phoenix (date palm)). In addition to these three major and most studied modes of Si deposition in roots, there are also less-known locations, such as deposits in xylem cells and intercellular deposits. In our research, the ontogenesis of individual root cells that accumulate Si is discussed. The documented and expected roles of Si deposition in the root is outlined mostly as a reaction of plants to abiotic and biotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Root Development)
Open AccessArticle
Interaction Effects of Nitrogen Source and Irrigation Regime on Tuber Quality, Yield, and Water Use Efficiency of Solanum tuberosum L.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010110 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Two field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of three drip irrigation regimes (G1: 120% crop evapotranspiration (ETc), G2: 100% ETc, and G3: 80% ETc) and four nitrogen (N) source treatments (S0: non-fertilized; S [...] Read more.
Two field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of three drip irrigation regimes (G1: 120% crop evapotranspiration (ETc), G2: 100% ETc, and G3: 80% ETc) and four nitrogen (N) source treatments (S0: non-fertilized; S1: urea, S2: ammonium nitrate, and S3: ammonium sulfate on water consumption use, water utilization efficiency, chlorophyll, yield and tubers quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; cv Diamond) under a drip irrigation system during two successive winter seasons (2015/16 and 2016/17)). Nitrogen fertilization was applied at 380 kg ha−1 as standard application for potato in the investigated area. The highest tubers yield was obtained from potato grown with G1 S2 (65.8 Mg ha−1), G1 S3 (63.6 Mg ha−1), G2 S2 (64.1 Mg ha−1), and G2 S3 (62.4 Mg ha−1), while the lowest tubers yield was obtained from potato grown with G3 S0 (10.1 Mg ha−1) and G2S0 (17.4 Mg ha−1). Different treatments of N source resulted in a significant increase for water use efficiency (WUtE) compared with unfertilized treatment. For the interaction effect, the highest WUtE was obtained from potato grown with G3 S2 (18.1 kg m−3), followed by G3 S3 (17.6 kg m−3), while the lowest WUtE was obtained from plants grown with G3S0 (3.0 kg m−3). However, the highest chlorophyll content was obtained from plants grown with G1 and any N source, followed by G2S1-3, while the lowest chlorophyll content was obtained from those grown with G3S0. The highest N, S, protein, and P contents in tubers were obtained from plants grown with G3S3, G3S2, and G2S2, while the highest K content in tubers was obtained from plants grown with G1S1 and G1S2. In concussion, the integrative effects of G1 or G2 with S2 or S3 is recommended for high productivity, while the integrative effects of G3S3 and G3S2 are recommended for high quality tubers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Potential of Grasses in Phytolith Production in Soils Contaminated with Cadmium
Plants 2020, 9(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010109 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 146
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a very toxic heavy metal occurring in places with anthropogenic activities, making it one of the most important environmental pollutants. Phytoremediation plants are used for recovery of metal-contaminated soils by their ability to absorb and tolerate high concentrations of heavy [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a very toxic heavy metal occurring in places with anthropogenic activities, making it one of the most important environmental pollutants. Phytoremediation plants are used for recovery of metal-contaminated soils by their ability to absorb and tolerate high concentrations of heavy metals. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of grasses in phytolith production in soils contaminated with Cd. The experiments, separated by soil types (Typic Quartzipsamment, Xanthic Hapludox and Rhodic Hapludox), were conducted in a completely randomized design with a distribution of treatments in a 3 × 4 factorial scheme with three replications. The factors were three grasses (Urochloa decumbens, Urochloa brizantha and Megathyrsus maximus) and four concentrations of Cd applied in soils (0, 2, 4 and 12 mg kg−1). Grass growth decreased and increased Cd concentration in shoots of grasses with the increased Cd rates in soils. The toxic effect of Cd resulted in production and Cd occlusion in phytoliths produced in shoots of the grasses. Grasses showed potential for phytolith production, independent of soil type, providing phytoextraction of Cd in phytoliths. Megathyrsus maximus was the grass with the highest tolerance to Cd, evidenced by higher production and Cd capture in phytoliths for the evaluated soils. Phytolith production by grasses in Cd-contaminated soils is related to genetic and physiological differences of the evaluated grasses and Cd availability in soils. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization on Cadmium-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Glycine max (L.) Merr.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010108 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 113
Abstract
Cadmium is a heavy metal (HM) that inhibits plant growth and leads to death, causing great losses in yields, especially in Cd hyperaccumulator crops such as Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean), a worldwide economically important legume. Furthermore, Cd incorporation into the food chain [...] Read more.
Cadmium is a heavy metal (HM) that inhibits plant growth and leads to death, causing great losses in yields, especially in Cd hyperaccumulator crops such as Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean), a worldwide economically important legume. Furthermore, Cd incorporation into the food chain is a health hazard. Oxidative stress (OS) is a plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses with an intracellular burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) association is a plant strategy to cope with HM and to alleviate OS. Our aim was to evaluate the mitigation effects of mycorrhization with AMF Rhizophagus intraradices on soybean growth, nutrients, Cd accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and the activity of different antioxidant agents under Cd (0.7–1.2 mg kg−1 bioavailable Cd) induced OS. Our results suggest that glutathione may act as a signal molecule in a defense response to Cd-induced OS, and mycorrhization may avoid Cd-induced growth inhibition and reduce Cd accumulation in roots. It is discussed that R. intraradices mycorrhization would act as a signal, promoting the generation of a soybean cross tolerance response to Cd pollution, therefore evidencing the potential of this AMF association for bioremediation and encouragement of crop development, particularly because it is an interaction between a worldwide cultivated Cd hyperaccumulator plant and an AMF–HM–accumulator commonly present in soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contribution of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis to Plant Growth)
Open AccessArticle
Toxic Effects of Single Antibiotics and Antibiotics in Combination on Germination and Growth of Sinapis alba L.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010107 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 141
Abstract
Antibiotics enter agro-ecosystems via the application of farmyard manure, sewage sludge, animal by-products, or digestates. There are many open questions regarding the behavior of such compounds in the soil like their adsorption, degradation, half-life, and their effects on soil organisms and plants. The [...] Read more.
Antibiotics enter agro-ecosystems via the application of farmyard manure, sewage sludge, animal by-products, or digestates. There are many open questions regarding the behavior of such compounds in the soil like their adsorption, degradation, half-life, and their effects on soil organisms and plants. The impact of antibiotics on the development of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment is regarded as the most important effect that endangers the environment as well as human health. Nevertheless, direct plant toxicity, especially of different antibiotics and heavy metals at the same time, can be of importance as well. In the current study, commercially available phytotoxkits were tested with regard to the toxicity of single antibiotics and antibiotics in combination with the root growth of Sinapis alba L. Additionally, a pot trial was conducted to study the transfer of the observed phytotoxkits results in more complex systems. The phytotoxkits revealed direct toxicity of antibiotics on root development only at high concentrations. The highest toxicity was determined for sulfadiazine, followed by tetracycline and enrofloxacin, showing the least toxicity. When two antibiotics were tested at the same time in the phytotoxkit, synergistic effects were detected. The pot trial indicated lower effect concentrations for enrofloxacin than determined in the phytotoxkit and, therefore, to higher toxicity on plant growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evolution of Photorespiratory Glycolate Oxidase among Archaeplastida
Plants 2020, 9(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010106 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 149
Abstract
Photorespiration has been shown to be essential for all oxygenic phototrophs in the present-day oxygen-containing atmosphere. The strong similarity of the photorespiratory cycle in cyanobacteria and plants led to the hypothesis that oxygenic photosynthesis and photorespiration co-evolved in cyanobacteria, and then entered the [...] Read more.
Photorespiration has been shown to be essential for all oxygenic phototrophs in the present-day oxygen-containing atmosphere. The strong similarity of the photorespiratory cycle in cyanobacteria and plants led to the hypothesis that oxygenic photosynthesis and photorespiration co-evolved in cyanobacteria, and then entered the eukaryotic algal lineages up to land plants via endosymbiosis. However, the evolutionary origin of the photorespiratory enzyme glycolate oxidase (GOX) is controversial, which challenges the common origin hypothesis. Here, we tested this hypothesis using phylogenetic and biochemical approaches with broad taxon sampling. Phylogenetic analysis supported the view that a cyanobacterial GOX-like protein of the 2-hydroxy-acid oxidase family most likely served as an ancestor for GOX in all eukaryotes. Furthermore, our results strongly indicate that GOX was recruited to the photorespiratory metabolism at the origin of Archaeplastida, because we verified that Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, and Streptophyta all express GOX enzymes with preference for the substrate glycolate. Moreover, an “ancestral” protein synthetically derived from the node separating all prokaryotic from eukaryotic GOX-like proteins also preferred glycolate over l-lactate. These results support the notion that a cyanobacterial ancestral protein laid the foundation for the evolution of photorespiratory GOX enzymes in modern eukaryotic phototrophs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Central Carbon and Amino Acid Metabolism in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Caffeine and Trifluralin on Chromosome Doubling in Wheat Anther Culture
Plants 2020, 9(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010105 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 133
Abstract
Challenges for wheat doubled haploid (DH) production using anther culture include genotype variability in green plant regeneration and spontaneous chromosome doubling. The frequency of chromosome doubling in our program can vary from 14% to 80%. Caffeine or trifluralin was applied at the start [...] Read more.
Challenges for wheat doubled haploid (DH) production using anther culture include genotype variability in green plant regeneration and spontaneous chromosome doubling. The frequency of chromosome doubling in our program can vary from 14% to 80%. Caffeine or trifluralin was applied at the start of the induction phase to improve early genome doubling. Caffeine treatment at 0.5 mM for 24 h significantly improved green plant production in two of the six spring wheat crosses but had no effect on the other crosses. The improvements were observed in Trojan/Havoc and Lancer/LPB14-0392, where green plant numbers increased by 14% and 27% to 161 and 42 green plants per 30 anthers, respectively. Caffeine had no significant effect on chromosome doubling, despite a higher frequency of doubling in several caffeine treatments in the first experiment (67–68%) compared to the control (56%). In contrast, trifluralin significantly improved doubling following a 48 h treatment, from 38% in the control to 51% and 53% in the 1 µM and 3 µM trifluralin treatments, respectively. However, trifluralin had a significant negative effect on green plant regeneration, declining from 31.8 green plants per 20 anthers (control) to 9–25 green plants per 20 anthers in the trifluralin treatments. Further work is required to identify a treatment regime with caffeine and/or anti-mitotic herbicides that consistently increases chromosome doubling in wheat without reducing green plant regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Doubled Haploid Technology in Plant Breeding)
Open AccessArticle
Exogenously Applied Ascorbic Acid-Mediated Changes in Osmoprotection and Oxidative Defense System Enhanced Water Stress Tolerance in Different Cultivars of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.)
Plants 2020, 9(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010104 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 224
Abstract
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of exogenously applied ascorbic acid (AsA) on osmoprotectants and the oxidative defense system in four cultivars (16171, 16183, 16207 and 16246) of safflower under well-watered and water deficit conditions. Water stress (60% field capacity) [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of exogenously applied ascorbic acid (AsA) on osmoprotectants and the oxidative defense system in four cultivars (16171, 16183, 16207 and 16246) of safflower under well-watered and water deficit conditions. Water stress (60% field capacity) significantly decreased the shoot and root fresh and dry weights, shoot and root lengths and chlorophyll contents in all four safflower cultivars, while it increased the leaf free proline, total phenolics, total soluble proteins, hydrogen peroxide content and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase enzymes. Foliar-applied (100 mg L−1 and 150 mg L1) ascorbic acid caused a marked improvement in shoot and root fresh and dry weights, plant height, chlorophyll and AsA contents as well as the activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme particularly under water deficit conditions. It also increased the accumulation of leaf proline, total phenolics, total soluble proteins and glycine betaine (GB) content in all four cultivars. Exogenously applied AsA lowered the contents of MDA and H2O2, and the activities of CAT and SOD enzymes. Overall, exogenously applied AsA had a positive effect on the growth of safflower plants under water deficit conditions which could be related to AsA-induced enhanced osmoprotection and regulation of antioxidant defense system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses to Water-Deficit Stress)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) on Human Colon Carcinoma Cells Cultured In Vitro
Plants 2020, 9(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010103 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 170
Abstract
Various phytochemical studies have revealed that jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is rich in bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, volatile acids, tannins, and lectins. The aim of the study was to analyze the biological activity of water-soluble polysaccharide (WSP) isolated from jackfruit and [...] Read more.
Various phytochemical studies have revealed that jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is rich in bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, volatile acids, tannins, and lectins. The aim of the study was to analyze the biological activity of water-soluble polysaccharide (WSP) isolated from jackfruit and to assess its immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, and anti-oxidative effects on human colon carcinoma cells in vitro. The neutral red (NR) uptake assay revealed no toxic influence of the polymer on the viability of tumor cells (HT29 and SW620). After 24 h and 48 h of incubation, the cellular viability was not lower than 94%. The metabolic activity of the cells (MTT) at the compound concentration of 250 µg/mL was higher than 92% in comparison to the control. WSP (250 µg/mL) exerted no significant effect on the morphology of the cells was determined by May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining. WSP changed nitric oxide (NOx) production by the tumor cells depending on the time of incubation and prior 2-h stimulation of the cells with E. coli 0111:B4 LPS. It significantly stimulated IL-1β production by the tumor cells. The IL-6 level increased but that of IL-10 decreased by a WSP concentration-dependent manner. No such effect was detected in SW620. The WSP had antioxidant properties. In conclusion, water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from A. heterophyllus exhibits significant biological activity towards many types of both normal and cancerous cells. Therefore, it may be considered as a useful agent in the protection of human health or in functional and dietary nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polysaccharides)
Open AccessArticle
Phytotoxic Activity and Identification of Phytotoxic Substances from Schumannianthus dichotomus
Plants 2020, 9(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010102 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The phytotoxic potential of plants and their constituents against other plants is being increasingly investigated as a possible alternative to synthetic herbicides to control weeds in crop fields. In this study, we explored the phytotoxicity and phytotoxic substances of Schumannianthus dichotomus, a [...] Read more.
The phytotoxic potential of plants and their constituents against other plants is being increasingly investigated as a possible alternative to synthetic herbicides to control weeds in crop fields. In this study, we explored the phytotoxicity and phytotoxic substances of Schumannianthus dichotomus, a perennial wetland shrub native to Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. Leaf extracts of S. dichotomus exerted strong phytotoxicity against two dicot species, alfalfa and cress, and two monocot species, barnyard grass and Italian ryegrass. A bioassay-driven purification process yielded two phenolic derivatives, syringic acid and methyl syringate. Both constituents significantly inhibited the growth of cress and Italian ryegrass in a concentration-dependent manner. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition (I50 value) of the shoot and root growth of cress were 75.8 and 61.3 μM, respectively, for syringic acid, compared with 43.2 and 31.5 μM, respectively, for methyl syringate. Similarly, to suppress the shoot and root growth of Italian rye grass, a greater amount of syringic acid (I50 = 213.7 and 175.9 μM) was needed than methyl syringate (I50 = 140.4 to 130.8 μM). Methyl syringate showed higher phytotoxic potential than syringic acid, and cress showed higher sensitivity to both substances. This study is the first to report on the phytotoxic potential of S. dichotomus and to identify phytotoxic substances from this plant material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Allelopathy and Allelochemicals)
Open AccessArticle
Genomic Predictions Using Low-Density SNP Markers, Pedigree and GWAS Information: A Case Study with the Non-Model Species Eucalyptus cladocalyx
Plants 2020, 9(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010099 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
High-throughput genotyping techniques have enabled large-scale genomic analysis to precisely predict complex traits in many plant species. However, not all species can be well represented in commercial SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays. In this study, a high-density SNP array (60 K) developed for [...] Read more.
High-throughput genotyping techniques have enabled large-scale genomic analysis to precisely predict complex traits in many plant species. However, not all species can be well represented in commercial SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays. In this study, a high-density SNP array (60 K) developed for commercial Eucalyptus was used to genotype a breeding population of Eucalyptus cladocalyx, yielding only ~3.9 K informative SNPs. Traditional Bayesian genomic models were investigated to predict flowering, stem quality and growth traits by considering the following effects: (i) polygenic background and all informative markers (GS model) and (ii) polygenic background, QTL-genotype effects (determined by GWAS) and SNP markers that were not associated with any trait (GSq model). The estimates of pedigree-based heritability and genomic heritability varied from 0.08 to 0.34 and 0.002 to 0.5, respectively, whereas the predictive ability varied from 0.19 (GS) and 0.45 (GSq). The GSq approach outperformed GS models in terms of predictive ability when the proportion of the variance explained by the significant marker-trait associations was higher than those explained by the polygenic background and non-significant markers. This approach can be particularly useful for plant/tree species poorly represented in the high-density SNP arrays, developed for economically important species, or when high-density marker panels are not available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioinformatics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Organosulfur and Amino Acid Composition between Triploid Onion Allium cornutum Clementi ex Visiani, 1842, and Common Onion Allium cepa L., and Evidences for Antiproliferative Activity of Their Extracts
Plants 2020, 9(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010098 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Species that belong to the genus Allium have been widely used for human food and traditional medicine. Their beneficial health effects, as well as the specific aroma, are associated with their bioactive chemical compounds, such as sulfur compounds and flavonoids. Gas chromatography and [...] Read more.
Species that belong to the genus Allium have been widely used for human food and traditional medicine. Their beneficial health effects, as well as the specific aroma, are associated with their bioactive chemical compounds, such as sulfur compounds and flavonoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (reverse-phase HPLC) were used to identify organosulfur and amino acid content of triploid hybrid onion, Allium cornutum Clement ex Visiani, 1842, and common onion, Allium cepa L. Allium extracts were tested for their antiproliferative activity in three human cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT116, and U2OS). DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining analysis were performed on HeLa cells to evaluate the effect of extracts on DNA damage and cell morphology. The mRNA expression of p53, Bax, and Caspase-3 genes involved in apoptosis were analyzed by real-time PCR. Using GC–MS, 27 compounds were found in two Allium species headspaces. Differences were noted among the main compound abundance in the headspace (although the major thiols and disulfides were qualitatively identic in both Allium species) and dipropyl disulfide, diisopropyl trisulfide, and (Z)-prop-1-enyl propyl trisulfide were predominant sulfides. Identification of amino acids and their quantities were determined by reverse-phase HPLC. Most abundant amino acids in both onions were arginine (Arg) and glutamic acid (Glu). The results of cytotoxicity testing confirmed antiproliferative effects of both species. The DNA fragmentation assay, DAPI staining and real time PCR analysis confirmed that A. cornutum and A. cepa extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. This study presents the evidence for possible therapeutic use of A. cornutum and A. cepa extracts against human cervical carcinoma cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Current Progress in Nitrogen Fixing Plants and Microbiome Research
Plants 2020, 9(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010097 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 176
Abstract
In agroecosystems, nitrogen is one of the major nutrients limiting plant growth. To meet the increased nitrogen demand in agriculture, synthetic fertilizers have been used extensively in the latter part of the twentieth century, which have led to environmental challenges such as nitrate [...] Read more.
In agroecosystems, nitrogen is one of the major nutrients limiting plant growth. To meet the increased nitrogen demand in agriculture, synthetic fertilizers have been used extensively in the latter part of the twentieth century, which have led to environmental challenges such as nitrate pollution. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in plants is an essential mechanism for sustainable agricultural production and healthy ecosystem functioning. BNF by legumes and associative, endosymbiotic, and endophytic nitrogen fixation in non-legumes play major roles in reducing the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture, increased plant nutrient content, and soil health reclamation. This review discusses the process of nitrogen-fixation in plants, nodule formation, the genes involved in plant-rhizobia interaction, and nitrogen-fixing legume and non-legume plants. This review also elaborates on current research efforts involved in transferring nitrogen-fixing mechanisms from legumes to non-legumes, especially to economically important crops such as rice, maize, and wheat at the molecular level and relevant other techniques involving the manipulation of soil microbiome for plant benefits in the non-legume root environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
Open AccessReview
Ascorbate and Thiamin: Metabolic Modulators in Plant Acclimation Responses
Plants 2020, 9(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010101 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Cell compartmentalization allows incompatible chemical reactions and localised responses to occur simultaneously, however, it also requires a complex system of communication between compartments in order to maintain the functionality of vital processes. It is clear that multiple such signals must exist, yet little [...] Read more.
Cell compartmentalization allows incompatible chemical reactions and localised responses to occur simultaneously, however, it also requires a complex system of communication between compartments in order to maintain the functionality of vital processes. It is clear that multiple such signals must exist, yet little is known about the identity of the key players orchestrating these interactions or about the role in the coordination of other processes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have a considerable number of metabolites in common and are interdependent at multiple levels. Therefore, metabolites represent strong candidates as communicators between these organelles. In this context, vitamins and similar small molecules emerge as possible linkers to mediate metabolic crosstalk between compartments. This review focuses on two vitamins as potential metabolic signals within the plant cell, vitamin C (L-ascorbate) and vitamin B1 (thiamin). These two vitamins demonstrate the importance of metabolites in shaping cellular processes working as metabolic signals during acclimation processes. Inferences based on the combined studies of environment, genotype, and metabolite, in order to unravel signaling functions, are also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Central Carbon and Amino Acid Metabolism in Plants)
Previous Issue
Back to TopTop