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Current Progress in Nitrogen Fixing Plants and Microbiome Research

1
Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
3
Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010097
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
In agroecosystems, nitrogen is one of the major nutrients limiting plant growth. To meet the increased nitrogen demand in agriculture, synthetic fertilizers have been used extensively in the latter part of the twentieth century, which have led to environmental challenges such as nitrate pollution. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in plants is an essential mechanism for sustainable agricultural production and healthy ecosystem functioning. BNF by legumes and associative, endosymbiotic, and endophytic nitrogen fixation in non-legumes play major roles in reducing the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture, increased plant nutrient content, and soil health reclamation. This review discusses the process of nitrogen-fixation in plants, nodule formation, the genes involved in plant-rhizobia interaction, and nitrogen-fixing legume and non-legume plants. This review also elaborates on current research efforts involved in transferring nitrogen-fixing mechanisms from legumes to non-legumes, especially to economically important crops such as rice, maize, and wheat at the molecular level and relevant other techniques involving the manipulation of soil microbiome for plant benefits in the non-legume root environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological nitrogen fixation; nitrogenase; nif genes; legumes and nodules; associative nitrogen fixation; soil microbiome; rhizosphere biological nitrogen fixation; nitrogenase; nif genes; legumes and nodules; associative nitrogen fixation; soil microbiome; rhizosphere
MDPI and ACS Style

Mahmud, K.; Makaju, S.; Ibrahim, R.; Missaoui, A. Current Progress in Nitrogen Fixing Plants and Microbiome Research. Plants 2020, 9, 97.

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