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Open AccessReview

Chromium Bioaccumulation and Its Impacts on Plants: An Overview

1
State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China
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School of Bioengineering & Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab 144411, India
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School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7005, Australia
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State Higher Education Department, Jammu and Kashmir 180001, India
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Mehr Chand Mahajan D.A.V. College for Women, Chandigarh 160036, India
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Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equal.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010100
Received: 29 October 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity)
Chromium (Cr) is an element naturally occurring in rocky soils and volcanic dust. It has been classified as a carcinogen agent according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Therefore, this metal needs an accurate understanding and thorough investigation in soil–plant systems. Due to its high solubility, Cr (VI) is regarded as a hazardous ion, which contaminates groundwater and can be transferred through the food chain. Cr also negatively impacts the growth of plants by impairing their essential metabolic processes. The toxic effects of Cr are correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative stress in plants. The current review summarizes the understanding of Cr toxicity in plants via discussing the possible mechanisms involved in its uptake, translocation and sub-cellular distribution, along with its interference with the other plant metabolic processes such as chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis and plant defensive system.
Keywords: heavy metal; reactive oxygen species; oxidative burst; antioxidants heavy metal; reactive oxygen species; oxidative burst; antioxidants
MDPI and ACS Style

Sharma, A.; Kapoor, D.; Wang, J.; Shahzad, B.; Kumar, V.; Bali, A.S.; Jasrotia, S.; Zheng, B.; Yuan, H.; Yan, D. Chromium Bioaccumulation and Its Impacts on Plants: An Overview. Plants 2020, 9, 100.

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