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Open AccessArticle

Potential of Grasses in Phytolith Production in Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

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Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley (UFVJM), Campus JK, Diamantina 39.100-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil
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Federal Institute of Minas Gerais - Campus São João Evangelista, Av. Primeiro de Junho, 1043, Centro, São João Evangelista 39.705-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010109
Received: 14 December 2019 / Revised: 1 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
Cadmium (Cd) is a very toxic heavy metal occurring in places with anthropogenic activities, making it one of the most important environmental pollutants. Phytoremediation plants are used for recovery of metal-contaminated soils by their ability to absorb and tolerate high concentrations of heavy metals. This paper aims to evaluate the potential of grasses in phytolith production in soils contaminated with Cd. The experiments, separated by soil types (Typic Quartzipsamment, Xanthic Hapludox and Rhodic Hapludox), were conducted in a completely randomized design with a distribution of treatments in a 3 × 4 factorial scheme with three replications. The factors were three grasses (Urochloa decumbens, Urochloa brizantha and Megathyrsus maximus) and four concentrations of Cd applied in soils (0, 2, 4 and 12 mg kg−1). Grass growth decreased and increased Cd concentration in shoots of grasses with the increased Cd rates in soils. The toxic effect of Cd resulted in production and Cd occlusion in phytoliths produced in shoots of the grasses. Grasses showed potential for phytolith production, independent of soil type, providing phytoextraction of Cd in phytoliths. Megathyrsus maximus was the grass with the highest tolerance to Cd, evidenced by higher production and Cd capture in phytoliths for the evaluated soils. Phytolith production by grasses in Cd-contaminated soils is related to genetic and physiological differences of the evaluated grasses and Cd availability in soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal; Urochloa decumbens; Urochloa brizantha; Megathyrsus maximus; phytolith-occluded; Entisol; Oxisol heavy metal; Urochloa decumbens; Urochloa brizantha; Megathyrsus maximus; phytolith-occluded; Entisol; Oxisol
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Melo Farnezi, M.M.; de Barros Silva, E.; Lopes dos Santos, L.; Christofaro Silva, A.; Grazziotti, P.H.; Taline Prochnow, J.; Marinho Pereira, I.; Costa Ilhéu Fontan, I. Potential of Grasses in Phytolith Production in Soils Contaminated with Cadmium. Plants 2020, 9, 109.

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