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Plants, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 189 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), an important source of dietary protein worldwide, is grown largely on small-holder farms in rural sub-Saharan Africa and Latin and South America, systems that are highly susceptible to drought. While drought reduces photosynthesis, source strength is not a reliable indicator of bean yield. Instead, partitioning efficiency from pod to seed correlates positively with bean yield in drought. This is because domesticated bean retains an ancestral trait favoring vegetative growth and abortion of reproductive structures under drought. Drought tolerant lines overcome this trait and maintain reproductive structures and yield. Transport processes at the interface between pod and seed are likely targets for stress-induced signals including the hormone, abscisic acid. Resistance to internal signaling may underlie drought-tolerance in common bean. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Drought Intensity-Responsive Salicylic Acid and Abscisic Acid Crosstalk with the Sugar Signaling and Metabolic Pathway in Brassica napus
Plants 2021, 10(3), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030610 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize hormonal crosstalk with the sugar signaling and metabolic pathway based on a time course analysis of drought intensity. Drought intensity-responsive changes in the assimilation of newly fixed carbon (C) into soluble sugar, the content of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to characterize hormonal crosstalk with the sugar signaling and metabolic pathway based on a time course analysis of drought intensity. Drought intensity-responsive changes in the assimilation of newly fixed carbon (C) into soluble sugar, the content of sugar and starch, and expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were interpreted as being linked to endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels and their signaling genes. The ABA and SA levels in the drought-stressed leaves increased together during the early drought period (days 0–6), and additional ABA accumulation occurred with depressed SA during the late period (days 6–14). Although drought treatment decreased the assimilation of newly fixed C into soluble sugar, representing a 59.9%, 33.1%, and 62.9% reduction in 13C-glucose, 13C-fructose, and 13C-sucrose on day 14, respectively, the drought-responsive accumulation of soluble sugars was significant. During the early period, the drought-responsive accumulation of hexose and sucrose was concurrent with the upregulated expression of hexokinase 1 (HXK1), which, in turn, occurred parallel to the upregulation of ABA synthesis gene 9-sis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED3) and SA-related genes (isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1) and non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene (NPR1)). During the late period, hexose accumulation, sucrose phloem loading, and starch degradation were dominant, with a highly enhanced expression of the starch degradation-related genes β-amylase 1 (BAM1) and α-amylase 3 (AMY3), which were concomitant with the parallel enhancement of sucrose non-fermenting−1 (Snf1)-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2).2 and ABA-responsive element binding 2 (AREB2) expression in an ABA-dependent manner. These results indicate that the drought-responsive accumulation of sugars (especially SA-mediated sucrose accumulation) is part of the acclamatory process during the early period. Conversely, ABA-responsive hexose accumulation and sucrose phloem loading represent severe drought symptoms during the late drought period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Diversity of Symbiotic Green Algae of Paramecium bursaria Syngens Originating from Distant Geographical Locations
Plants 2021, 10(3), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030609 - 23 Mar 2021
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Abstract
Paramecium bursaria (Ehrenberg 1831) is a ciliate species living in a symbiotic relationship with green algae. The aim of the study was to identify green algal symbionts of P. bursaria originating from distant geographical locations and to answer the question of whether the [...] Read more.
Paramecium bursaria (Ehrenberg 1831) is a ciliate species living in a symbiotic relationship with green algae. The aim of the study was to identify green algal symbionts of P. bursaria originating from distant geographical locations and to answer the question of whether the occurrence of endosymbiont taxa was correlated with a specific ciliate syngen (sexually separated sibling group). In a comparative analysis, we investigated 43 P. bursaria symbiont strains based on molecular features. Three DNA fragments were sequenced: two from the nuclear genomes—a fragment of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region and a fragment of the gene encoding large subunit ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA), as well as a fragment of the plastid genome comprising the 3′rpl36-5′infA genes. The analysis of two ribosomal sequences showed the presence of 29 haplotypes (haplotype diversity Hd = 0.98736 for ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 and Hd = 0.908 for 28S rDNA) in the former two regions, and 36 haplotypes in the 3′rpl36-5′infA gene fragment (Hd = 0.984). The following symbiotic strains were identified: Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella variabilis, Chlorella sorokiniana and Micractinium conductrix. We rejected the hypotheses concerning (i) the correlation between P. bursaria syngen and symbiotic species, and (ii) the relationship between symbiotic species and geographic distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Plastids)
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Open AccessArticle
Shading Effects on Leaf Gas Exchange, Leaf Pigments and Secondary Metabolites of Polygonum minus Huds., an Aromatic Medicinal Herb
Plants 2021, 10(3), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030608 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The growing demand for high value aromatic herb Polygonum minus-based products have increased in recent years, for its antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potentials. Although few reports have indicated the chemical profiles and antioxidative effects of Polygonum minus, no study has [...] Read more.
The growing demand for high value aromatic herb Polygonum minus-based products have increased in recent years, for its antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potentials. Although few reports have indicated the chemical profiles and antioxidative effects of Polygonum minus, no study has been conducted to assess the benefits of micro-environmental manipulation (different shading levels) on the growth, leaf gas exchange and secondary metabolites in Polygonum minus. Therefore, two shading levels (50%:T2 and 70%:T3) and one absolute control (0%:T1) were studied under eight weeks and 16 weeks of exposures on Polygonum minus after two weeks. It was found that P. minus under T2 obtained the highest photosynthesis rate (14.892 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1), followed by T3 = T1. The increase in photosynthesis rate was contributed by the enhancement of the leaf pigments content (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b). This was shown by the positive significant correlations observed between photosynthesis rate with chlorophyll a (r2 = 0.536; p ≤ 0.05) and chlorophyll b (r2 = 0.540; p ≤ 0.05). As the shading levels and time interval increased, the production of total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant properties of Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) also increased. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also significantly enhanced under T2 and T3. The current study suggested that P.minus induce the production of more leaf pigments and secondary metabolites as their special adaptation mechanism under low light condition. Although the biomass was affected under low light, the purpose of conducting the study to boost the bioactive properties in Polygonum minus has been fulfilled by 50% shading under 16 weeks’ exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolites and Regulation under Environmental Stress)
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Open AccessReview
A Review on Epidemiological and Clinical Studies on Buckwheat Allergy
Plants 2021, 10(3), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030607 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Background: Cultivated buckwheat include two species originating from China: common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum). Buckwheat can cause IgE-mediated allergy, including severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Exposure can occure when eating buckwheat food (food allergen), when [...] Read more.
Background: Cultivated buckwheat include two species originating from China: common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum). Buckwheat can cause IgE-mediated allergy, including severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Exposure can occure when eating buckwheat food (food allergen), when producing or handling buckwheat food (occupational exposure) or when sleeping on buckwheat husk pillows (houeshold environmental exposure). Methods: A search on buckwheat allergy in the medical datbase PubMed from 1970–2020. Result: A number of allergenic proteins have been identified in common buckwheat (e.g., Fag e 1, Fag e 2 and Fag e 3) and in tartary buckwheat (e.g., Fag t 1, Fag t 2, Fag t 3). Clinically relevant cross-reactivity has been described between buckwheat and peanut, latex, coconut, quinoa, and poppy seed. The prevalence of buckwheat allergy in the population can be estimated as 0.1–0.4% in Japan, Korea and buckwheat consuming areas of China. Among patients in allergy clinics in different countries, 2–7% has confirmed buckwheat allergy. School studies from Japan and Korea found 4–60 cases of buckwheat-related anaphylaxis per 100,000 school children. The incidence of severe allergic reactions to buckwheat, including anaphylaxis, can be estimated as 0.1–0.01 cases per 100,000 person-years. Conclusions: Buckwheat allergy is a neglected allegy deserving further attention but severe allergic reactions are rare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding Buckwheat for Nutritional Quality)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Coordination of Cyclic Electron Flow and Water–Water Cycle Facilitates Photoprotection under Fluctuating Light and Temperature Stress in the Epiphytic Orchid Dendrobium officinale
Plants 2021, 10(3), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030606 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Photosystem I (PSI) is the primary target of photoinhibition under fluctuating light (FL). Photosynthetic organisms employ alternative electron flows to protect PSI under FL. However, the understanding of the coordination of alternative electron flows under FL at temperature stresses is limited. To address [...] Read more.
Photosystem I (PSI) is the primary target of photoinhibition under fluctuating light (FL). Photosynthetic organisms employ alternative electron flows to protect PSI under FL. However, the understanding of the coordination of alternative electron flows under FL at temperature stresses is limited. To address this question, we measured the chlorophyll fluorescence, P700 redox state, and electrochromic shift signal in leaves of Dendrobium officinale exposed to FL at 42 °C, 25 °C, and 4 °C. Upon a sudden increase in illumination at 42 °C and 25 °C, the water–water cycle (WWC) consumed a significant fraction of the extra reducing power, and thus avoided an over-reduction of PSI. However, WWC was inactivated at 4 °C, leading to an over-reduction of PSI within the first seconds after light increased. Therefore, the role of WWC under FL is largely dependent on temperature conditions. After an abrupt increase in light intensity, cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI was stimulated at any temperature. Therefore, CEF and WWC showed different temperature responses under FL. Furthermore, the enhancement of CEF and WWC at 42 °C quickly generated a sufficient trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH). The inactivation of WWC at 4 °C was partially compensated for by an increased CEF activity. These findings indicate that CEF and WWC coordinate to protect PSI under FL at temperature stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photosynthesis under Environmental Fluctuations)
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Open AccessArticle
A Root Tip-Specific Expressing Anthocyanin Marker for Direct Identification of Transgenic Tissues by the Naked Eye in Symbiotic Studies
Plants 2021, 10(3), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030605 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The Agrobacterium rhizogenes hairy root transformation system is widely used in symbiotic studies of model legumes. It typically relies on fluorescent reporters, such as DsRed, for identification of transgenic roots. The MtLAP1 transcription factor has been utilized as a reporter system in Medicago [...] Read more.
The Agrobacterium rhizogenes hairy root transformation system is widely used in symbiotic studies of model legumes. It typically relies on fluorescent reporters, such as DsRed, for identification of transgenic roots. The MtLAP1 transcription factor has been utilized as a reporter system in Medicago truncatula based on production of anthocyanin pigment. Here, we describe a version of this reporter driven by a root-cap specific promoter for direct observation of anthocyanin accumulation in root tips, which allows the identification of transgenic hairy roots by the naked eye. Results from our analysis suggest that the reporter had no significant effects on nodulation of M. truncatula. This approach, by virtue of its strong and specific expression in root cap cells, greatly reduces false positives and false negatives, and its use of an easily scored visible pigment should allow greater versatility and efficiency in root biology studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Analysis of Medicago Spp.)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Multivariate Interaction Analysis of Winter Wheat Grown in Environment of Limited Soil Conditions
Plants 2021, 10(3), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030604 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The less productive soils present one of the major problems in wheat production. Because of unfavorable conditions, halomorphic soils could be intensively utilized using ameliorative measures and by selecting suitable stress tolerant wheat genotypes. This study examined the responses of ten winter wheat [...] Read more.
The less productive soils present one of the major problems in wheat production. Because of unfavorable conditions, halomorphic soils could be intensively utilized using ameliorative measures and by selecting suitable stress tolerant wheat genotypes. This study examined the responses of ten winter wheat cultivars on stressful conditions of halomorphic soil, solonetz type in Banat, Serbia. The wheat genotypes were grown in field trails of control and treatments with two soil amelioration levels using phosphor gypsum, in amounts of 25 and 50 tha−1. Across two vegetation seasons, phenotypic variability and genotype by environment interaction (GEI) for yield traits of wheat were studied. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) models were used to study the GEI. AMMI analyses revealed significant genotype and environmental effects, as well as GEI effect. Analysis of GEI using the IPCA (Interaction Principal Components) analysis showed a statistical significance of the first two main components, IPCA1 and IPCA2 for yield, which jointly explained 70% of GEI variation. First source of variation IPCA1 explained 41.15% of the GEI for the grain weight per plant and 78.54% for the harvest index. The results revealed that wheat genotypes responded differently to stressful conditions and ameliorative measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Soil Interactions: From Soil Fertility to Crop Growth)
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Open AccessArticle
Pratylenchus penetrans Parasitizing Potato Crops: Morphometric and Genetic Variability of Portuguese Isolates
Plants 2021, 10(3), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030603 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 493
Abstract
The root lesion Pratylenchus penetrans is an economically important pest affecting a wide range of plants. The morphometry of five P. penetrans isolates, parasitizing potato roots in Portugal, was compared and variability within and between isolates was observed. Of the 15 characters assessed, [...] Read more.
The root lesion Pratylenchus penetrans is an economically important pest affecting a wide range of plants. The morphometry of five P. penetrans isolates, parasitizing potato roots in Portugal, was compared and variability within and between isolates was observed. Of the 15 characters assessed, vulva position (V%) in females and the stylet length in both females/males showed the lowest coefficient of intra and inter-isolate variability. Moreover, DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) genomic region and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene was performed, in order to evaluate the intraspecific genetic variability of this species. ITS revealed higher isolate genetic diversity than the COI gene, with 15 and 7 different haplotypes from the 15 ITS and 14 COI sequences, respectively. Intra- and inter-isolate genetic diversity was found considering both genomic regions. The differentiation of these isolates was not related with their geographical origin. In spite of the high intraspecific variability, phylogenetic analyses revealed that both ITS region and COI gene separate P. penetrans from other related species. Our findings contribute to increasing the understanding of P. penetrans variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Parasitic Nematodes)
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Open AccessArticle
Differences in the Inhibitory Specificity Distinguish the Efficacy of Plant Protease Inhibitors on Mouse Fibrosarcoma
Plants 2021, 10(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030602 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Metastasis, the primary cause of death from malignant tumors, is facilitated by multiple protease-mediated processes. Thus, effort has been invested in the development of protease inhibitors to prevent metastasis. Here, we investigated the effects of protease inhibitors including the recombinant inhibitors rBbKI (serine [...] Read more.
Metastasis, the primary cause of death from malignant tumors, is facilitated by multiple protease-mediated processes. Thus, effort has been invested in the development of protease inhibitors to prevent metastasis. Here, we investigated the effects of protease inhibitors including the recombinant inhibitors rBbKI (serine protease inhibitor) and rBbCI (serine and cysteine inhibitor) derived from native inhibitors identified in Bauhinia bauhinioides seeds, and EcTI (serine and metalloprotease inhibitor) isolated from the seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum on the mouse fibrosarcoma model (lineage L929). rBbKI inhibited 80% of cell viability of L929 cells after 48 h, while EcTI showed similar efficacy after 72 h. Both inhibitors acted in a dose and time-dependent manner. Conversely, rBbCI did not significantly affect the viability of L929 cells. Confocal microscopy revealed the binding of rBbKI and EcTI to the L929 cell surface. rBbKI inhibited approximately 63% of L929 adhesion to fibronectin, in contrast with EcTI and rBbCI, which did not significantly interfere with adhesion. None of the inhibitors interfered with the L929 cell cycle phases. The synthetic peptide RPGLPVRFESPL-NH2, based on the BbKI reactive site, inhibited 45% of the cellular viability of L929, becoming a promising protease inhibitor due to its ease of synthesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Essential Oil Composition of Trachymene incisa Rudge subsp. incisa Rudge from Australia
Plants 2021, 10(3), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030601 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Trachymene incisa subsp. incisa is an Australian endemic taxon that varies greatly in the abundance and length of the leaf trichomes. The essential oil composition of five populations of this subspecies, three corresponding to the typical glabrous form and two of the particularly [...] Read more.
Trachymene incisa subsp. incisa is an Australian endemic taxon that varies greatly in the abundance and length of the leaf trichomes. The essential oil composition of five populations of this subspecies, three corresponding to the typical glabrous form and two of the particularly hairy variant, has been analyzed in an attempt to determinate if that variability is also reflected in their composition. The oils have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). The essential oils of T. incisa subsp. incisa were characterized by the high amount of sesquiterpenes that were the major fraction. The sesquiterepene hydrocarbons were significantly higher in the hairy variant in comparison to the glabrous one. According to the main compound, three different chemotypes were found: I.—β-selinene + bicyclogermacrene and II.—γ-bisabolene + α-pinene for the typical glabrous variant and III.—bicyclogermacrene + β-caryophyllene for the hairy variant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Characterization of Marrubium vulgare Volatiles from Serbia
Plants 2021, 10(3), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030600 - 23 Mar 2021
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Abstract
Marrubium vulgare is a cosmopolitan medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family, which produces structurally highly diverse groups of secondary metabolites. A total of 160 compounds were determined in the volatiles from Serbia during two investigated years (2019 and 2020). The main components were [...] Read more.
Marrubium vulgare is a cosmopolitan medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family, which produces structurally highly diverse groups of secondary metabolites. A total of 160 compounds were determined in the volatiles from Serbia during two investigated years (2019 and 2020). The main components were E-caryophyllene, followed by germacrene D, α-humulene and α-copaene. All these compounds are from sesquiterpene hydrocarbons class which was dominant in both investigated years. This variation in volatiles composition could be a consequence of weather conditions, as in the case of other aromatic plants. According to the unrooted cluster tree with 37 samples of Marrubium sp. volatiles from literature and average values from this study, it could be said that there are several chemotypes: E-caryophyllene, β-bisabolene, α-pinene, β-farnesene, E-caryophyllene + caryophyllene oxide chemotype, and diverse (unclassified) chemotypes. However, occurring polymorphism could be consequence of adaptation to grow in different environment, especially ecological conditions such as humidity, temperature and altitude, as well as hybridization strongly affected the chemotypes. In addition, this paper aimed to obtain validated models for prediction of retention indices (RIs) of compounds isolated from M. vulgare volatiles. A total of 160 experimentally obtained RIs of volatile compounds was used to build the prediction models. The coefficients of determination were 0.956 and 0.964, demonstrating that these models could be used for predicting RIs, due to low prediction error and high r2. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Impact of Foliar Application of Amino Acids on Total Phenols, Phenolic Acids Content of Different Mints Varieties under the Field Condition
Plants 2021, 10(3), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030599 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Phenolic compounds have a number of benefits to human health and can be used as preventive compounds for the development of some chronic diseases. Mentha plants are not only a good source of essential oils, but also contain significant levels of wide range [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds have a number of benefits to human health and can be used as preventive compounds for the development of some chronic diseases. Mentha plants are not only a good source of essential oils, but also contain significant levels of wide range of phenolic compounds. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to increase phenols content in Mentha plants under the foliar application with L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine at two concentrations (100 mg L−1 and 200 mg L−1) and to create preconditions for using this plant for even more diverse purposes. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of phenols in mints were performed by HPLC method. Foliar application of amino acids increased the total phenol content from 1.22 to 3.51 times depending on the treatment and mint variety. The most pronounced foliar application to total phenols content was tryptophane especially in Mentha piperita “Swiss”. Mentha piperita “Swiss” was affected most by foliar application and the amount of total phenolic acids depending on the treatment ranged from 159.25 to 664.03 mg 100 g−1 (DW), respectively, non-sprayed and sprayed with tryptophane 100 mg L−1. Our results suggest that the biophenol content varies according to such factors as foliar application and variety, and every single mint variety has individual response to different applications of amino acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Rising Temperature in the Deposition Patterns of Bioactive Compounds in Field Grown Food Barley Grains
Plants 2021, 10(3), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030598 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
High temperatures at the end of the season are frequent under Mediterranean conditions, affecting final grain quality. This study determined the deposition patterns throughout grain filling of dry matter, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity for four barley genotypes under two contrasting [...] Read more.
High temperatures at the end of the season are frequent under Mediterranean conditions, affecting final grain quality. This study determined the deposition patterns throughout grain filling of dry matter, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity for four barley genotypes under two contrasting temperatures. Deposition pattern for dietary fiber followed that of grain weight. Genotypic differences for duration were more significant than for rate. Anthocyanins followed a second-degree polynomial pattern, reaching a maximum before grain maturation. Free and bound phenols decreased as grain developed, suggesting that they are synthesized in early stages. Rate of bound phenols deposition was more sensitive to genotypic changes. Overall, antioxidant capacity decreased over time; the decay being less steep under stress for all genotypes. Heat stress negatively affected grain weight. It did not alter the profile of β-glucans and arabinoxylans deposition but positively changed the accumulation of some phenolic compounds, increasing the antioxidant capacity differentially across genotypes. These results support the growing of food barley in high-temperature stress-prone areas, as some bioactive compound and antioxidant capacity will increase, regardless of the smaller grain size. Moreover, if a market develops for food-barley ingredients, early harvesting of non-mature grain to maximize antioxidant capacity should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Physiology and Breeding)
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Humus, Iron, Sulphate and Magnesium Content Affect Nectar Traits of Wild Garlic (Allium ursinum L.)
Plants 2021, 10(3), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030597 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Recent studies revealed that from various ecological factors influencing nectar yield and quality of a plant, soil properties can be as important as microclimatic features. To date, few studies have investigated the relationship of soil characters to nectar traits of bee pollinated plants [...] Read more.
Recent studies revealed that from various ecological factors influencing nectar yield and quality of a plant, soil properties can be as important as microclimatic features. To date, few studies have investigated the relationship of soil characters to nectar traits of bee pollinated plants growing in natural associations. Our study intended to reveal which soil properties had the most powerful impact on nectar variables of wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.). Specimens were collected from fourteen habitats in two different years, and were potted in their original soil under the same climatic conditions. Nectar volumes and sugar concentrations were measured and soil samples were analysed for fourteen parameters. Statistical analyses revealed that the number of nectar producing Allium flowers, as well as the nectar volume and sugar content of nectar in individual flowers were influenced by both year and habitat. The humus, iron and sulphate content of soil showed negative correlation with the number of flowers producing nectar; total nectar volumes were negatively correlated with humus and iron content, but positively affected by magnesium content of the soil. Our results suggest that in addition to the effect of microclimatic factors, certain soil properties can have significant impact on nectar traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floral Biology)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Native Eragrostis curvula Impacts Diversity of Pastures in South-Eastern Australia Even When Native Themeda triandra Remains Co-Dominant
Plants 2021, 10(3), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030596 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Lowland grassy woodlands in Australia’s south-east face reductions in native plant diversity because of invasion by non-native plants. We compared the relative abundance and diversity of plant species among sites dominated by the native Kangaroo grass (KG) Themeda triandra with sites co-dominated by [...] Read more.
Lowland grassy woodlands in Australia’s south-east face reductions in native plant diversity because of invasion by non-native plants. We compared the relative abundance and diversity of plant species among sites dominated by the native Kangaroo grass (KG) Themeda triandra with sites co-dominated by the non-native African lovegrass (ALG) Eragrostis curvula and KG. We found significant differences in plant species composition depending on the dominant species. Furthermore, our results revealed differences in several diversity parameters such as a lower species richness and forb diversity on sites co-dominated by ALG and KG. This was the case despite the functional similarity of both ALG and KG—both C4 perennial tussock grasses of a similar height. Therefore, our results highlight the critical function of the native KG in maintaining and enhancing the target plant species composition and diversity within these grassy woodlands. Herbivore grazing potentially impacts on the abundance of the dominant grass and forb species in various ways, but its impact likely differs depending on their evolutionary origin. Therefore, disentangling the role of individual herbivore groups (native-, non-native mammals, and invertebrates) on the plant community composition of the lowland grassy woodlands is essential to find appropriate grazing regimes for ALG management in these ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Management in Rangeland Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Genotypic Difference in the Responses to Nitrogen Fertilizer Form in Tibetan Wild and Cultivated Barley
Plants 2021, 10(3), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030595 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Nitrogen (N) availability and form have a dramatic effect on N uptake and assimilation in plants, affecting growth and development. In the previous studies, we found great differences in low-N tolerance between Tibetan wild barley accessions and cultivated barley varieties. We hypothesized that [...] Read more.
Nitrogen (N) availability and form have a dramatic effect on N uptake and assimilation in plants, affecting growth and development. In the previous studies, we found great differences in low-N tolerance between Tibetan wild barley accessions and cultivated barley varieties. We hypothesized that there are different responses to N forms between the two kinds of barleys. Accordingly, this study was carried out to determine the response of four barley genotypes (two wild, XZ16 and XZ179; and two cultivated, ZD9 andHua30) under 4Nforms (NO3, NH4+, urea and glycine). The results showed significant reduction in growth parameters such as root/shoot length and biomass, as well as photosynthesis parameters and total soluble protein content under glycine treatment relative to other N treatments, for both wild and cultivated barley, however, XZ179 was least affected. Similarly, ammonium adversely affected growth parameters in both wild and cultivated barleys, with XZ179 being severely affected. On the other hand, both wild and cultivated genotypes showed higher biomass, net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll and protein in NO3 treatment relative to other three N treatments. It may be concluded that barley undisputedly grows well under inorganic nitrogen (NO3), however in response to the organic N wild barley prefer glycine more than cultivated barely. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Agronomic Assessment of a Controlled-Release Polymer-Coated Urea-Based Fertilizer in Maize
Plants 2021, 10(3), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030594 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Increasing nutrient use efficiency of fertilizers is one of the major challenges to improve crop yields and minimize environmental impacts. This work compared the efficacy of a new ecological polymer-coated urea fertilizer and a slow release urea-based traditional fertilizer. Reductions in the N [...] Read more.
Increasing nutrient use efficiency of fertilizers is one of the major challenges to improve crop yields and minimize environmental impacts. This work compared the efficacy of a new ecological polymer-coated urea fertilizer and a slow release urea-based traditional fertilizer. Reductions in the N doses of the polymer-coated fertilizer were tested. A comparative study was first carried out by measuring the different physiological and yield parameters at the micro-scale level, and later-on field experiments were performed. Grain yield in the field was significantly higher (20%) when applying the new controlled-release fertilizer than when using the traditional one at the same dose. A 20% reduction in N content in the new fertilizer gave similar physiological and yield responses compared to the traditional fertilizer. We conclude that this new fertilizer can be used in extensive cropping of maize, guaranteeing at least the same yields than traditional fertilizers, with a reduction on the impact on soil properties and nitrogen losses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Zinc Finger-Homeodomain Transcriptional Factors (ZF-HDs) in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Identification, Evolution, Expression Analysis and Response to Abiotic Stresses
Plants 2021, 10(3), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030593 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Zinc finger-homeodomain transcriptional factors (ZF-HDs), a kind of plant-specific transcription factor, play important roles in plant growth, development and various stress responses. In this study, the genome-wide analysis of the ZF-HD gene family was performed in wheat. A total of 37 TaZF-HD genes [...] Read more.
Zinc finger-homeodomain transcriptional factors (ZF-HDs), a kind of plant-specific transcription factor, play important roles in plant growth, development and various stress responses. In this study, the genome-wide analysis of the ZF-HD gene family was performed in wheat. A total of 37 TaZF-HD genes were identified in T. aestivum and classified into six groups. The results of a synteny analysis showed that gene replication events contributed to the expansion of the TaZF-HD gene family. The TaZF-HD paralogous gene pairs with similar chromosomal locations in different subgenomes had similar expression patterns. TaZF-HDs were highly induced under PEG (polyethylene glycol), NaCl and cold stress but not induced under heat stress. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and protein-protein interactions suggested that TaZF-HD proteins may participate in various biological processes of plants. These results increase our understanding of ZF-HD genes and provide robust candidate genes for future functional investigations aimed at crop improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Germination on the Microstructural and Physicochemical Properties of Different Legume Types
Plants 2021, 10(3), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030592 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The microstructural and physicochemical compositions of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), lentil (Lens culinaris Merr.), soybean (Glycine max L.), chickpea (Cicer aretinium L.) and lupine (Lupinus albus) were investigated over 2 and 4 days of germination. Different [...] Read more.
The microstructural and physicochemical compositions of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), lentil (Lens culinaris Merr.), soybean (Glycine max L.), chickpea (Cicer aretinium L.) and lupine (Lupinus albus) were investigated over 2 and 4 days of germination. Different changes were noticed during microscopic observations (Stereo Microscope, SEM) of the legume seeds subjected to germination, mostly related to the breakages of the seed structure. The germination caused the increase in protein content for bean, lentil, and chickpea and of ash content for lentil, soybean and chickpea. Germination increased the availability of sodium, magnesium, iron, zinc and also the acidity for all legume types. The content of fat decreased for lentil, chickpea, and lupine, whereas the content of carbohydrates and pH decreased for all legume types during the four-day germination period. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) spectra show that the compositions of germinated seeds were different from the control and varied depending on the type of legume. The multivariate analysis of the data shows close associations between chickpea, lentil, and bean and between lupine and soybean samples during the germination process. Significant negative correlations were obtained between carbohydrate contents and protein, fat and ash at the 0.01 level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Evaluation of Plant-Derived Foods)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Toxic Effects of Antibiotics on Freshwater and Marine Photosynthetic Microorganisms: State of the Art
Plants 2021, 10(3), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030591 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Antibiotic residues have been commonly detected worldwide in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. The review summarizes the up-to-date information about the toxic effects of over 60 antibiotics on nontarget autotrophic microorganisms with a particular focus on marine microalgae. A comprehensive overview of the [...] Read more.
Antibiotic residues have been commonly detected worldwide in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. The review summarizes the up-to-date information about the toxic effects of over 60 antibiotics on nontarget autotrophic microorganisms with a particular focus on marine microalgae. A comprehensive overview of the available reports led to the identification of significant knowledge gaps. The data on just one species of freshwater green algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata) constitute 60% of the total information on the toxicity of antibiotics, while data on marine species account for less than 14% of the reports. Moreover, there is a clear knowledge gap regarding the chronic effects of antibiotic exposure (only 9% of studies represent exposition time values longer than 7 days). The review summarizes the information on different physiological endpoints, including processes involved in photosynthesis, photoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms. Currently, the hazard assessment is mostly based on the results of the evaluation of individual chemicals and acute toxicity tests of freshwater organisms. Future research trends should involve chronic effect studies incorporating sensitive endpoints with the application of environmentally relevant concentrations, as well as studies on the mixture effects and combined environmental factors influencing toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Plant Chlorophyll Degradation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Short-Term Metabolic Modulation of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. ‘Genovese’) after Exposure to Cold or Heat
Plants 2021, 10(3), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030590 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Chilling stress in spring and mid-season heat stress are important environmental stresses that can significantly affect plant productivity. The objectives of this study were to understand the effects of cold (4 and 10 °C) or heat (30 and 40 °C) stress on biochemical [...] Read more.
Chilling stress in spring and mid-season heat stress are important environmental stresses that can significantly affect plant productivity. The objectives of this study were to understand the effects of cold (4 and 10 °C) or heat (30 and 40 °C) stress on biochemical and physiological traits in leaves and roots of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. ‘Genovese’) young plants. After short-time exposure to mild and severe temperature stresses, both photosynthetic pigments’ and protein, as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense components in basil leaves and roots, were quantified and compared with the control non-stressed plants. It was shown that both cold and heat treatment increase the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids. Chilling correlated with higher content of soluble proteins in leaves, whereas the concentration of these osmoprotectants in roots was higher under both cold and heat stress. For all tested antioxidant enzymes, higher activity was measured in leaves, and activity was related to temperature stress. SOD, CAT, A-POX, and P-POX activities was induced under heat stress, while the higher activity of SOD, CAT, P-POX, and G-POX was recorded under cold stress, compared to the control. In addition to the induced activity of enzymatic components, the content of secondary metabolites including total phenolics, flavonoids, and total anthocyanins, was several times higher compared to the non-stressed plants. Furthermore, total phenolic content was higher in roots than in leaves. Significant positive correlation can be seen among photosynthetic pigments, SOD, total phenolics, and flavonoids under severe temperature stress (4 or 40 °C) in basil leaves, while for roots, positive correlation was found in the content of secondary metabolites and activity of CAT or peroxidases. Obtained results are discussed in terms of phenotyping of O. basilicum cv. ‘Genovese’ response to heat and chilling stress, which should contribute to a better understanding of merged responses to cold and heat tolerance of this valuable crop. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Non-Uniform Distribution of Cryoprotecting Agents in Rice Culture Cells Measured by CARS Microscopy
Plants 2021, 10(3), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030589 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Cryoprotectants allow cells to be frozen in liquid nitrogen and cryopreserved for years by minimizing the damage that occurs in cooling and warming processes. Unfortunately, how the specific cryoprotectants keep the cells viable through the cryopreservation process is not entirely evident. This contributes [...] Read more.
Cryoprotectants allow cells to be frozen in liquid nitrogen and cryopreserved for years by minimizing the damage that occurs in cooling and warming processes. Unfortunately, how the specific cryoprotectants keep the cells viable through the cryopreservation process is not entirely evident. This contributes to the arduous process of optimizing cryoprotectant formulations for each new cell line or species that is conserved. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy facilitates the visualization of deuterated cryoprotectants within living cells. Using this technique, we directly imaged the location of fully deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (d6-DMSO), the deuterated form of a commonly used cryoprotectant, DMSO, within rice suspension cells. This work showed that d6-DMSO does not uniformly distribute throughout the cells, rather it enters the cell and sequesters within organelles, changing our understanding of how DMSO concentration varies within the cellular compartments. Variations in cryoprotectant concentration within different cells and tissues will likely lead to differing protection from liquid nitrogen exposure. Expanding this work to include different cryoprotectants and mixtures of cryoprotectants is vital to create a robust understanding of how the distributions of these molecules change when different cryoprotectants are used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cryopreservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytogeographical Analysis and Ecological Factors of the Distribution of Orchidaceae Taxa in the Western Carpathians (Local study)
Plants 2021, 10(3), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030588 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
In the years 2018–2020, we carried out large-scale mapping in the Western Carpathians with a focus on determining the biodiversity of taxa of the family Orchidaceae using field biogeographical research. We evaluated the research using phytogeographic analysis with an emphasis on selected ecological [...] Read more.
In the years 2018–2020, we carried out large-scale mapping in the Western Carpathians with a focus on determining the biodiversity of taxa of the family Orchidaceae using field biogeographical research. We evaluated the research using phytogeographic analysis with an emphasis on selected ecological environmental factors (substrate: ecological land unit value, soil reaction (pH), terrain: slope (°), flow and hydrogeological productivity (m2.s−1) and average annual amounts of global radiation (kWh.m–2). A total of 19 species were found in the area, of which the majority were Cephalenthera longifolia, Cephalenthera damasonium and Anacamptis morio. Rare findings included Epipactis muelleri, Epipactis leptochila and Limodorum abortivum. We determined the ecological demands of the abiotic environment of individual species by means of a functional analysis of communities. The research confirmed that most of the orchids that were studied occurred in acidified, calcified and basophil locations. From the location of the distribution of individual populations, it is clear that they are generally arranged compactly and occasionally scattered, which results in ecological and environmental diversity. During the research, we identified 129 localities with the occurrence of 19 species and subspecies of orchids. We identify the main factors that threaten them and propose specific measures to protect vulnerable populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Plant Conservation)
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Open AccessReview
An Overview on the Conservative Management of Endometriosis from a Naturopathic Perspective: Phytochemicals and Medicinal Plants
Plants 2021, 10(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030587 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is a chronic and debilitating disease, which affects millions of young women worldwide. Although medicine has incontestably evolved in the last years, there is no common ground regarding the early and accurate diagnosis of this condition, its pathogenic mechanisms, and curative [...] Read more.
Background: Endometriosis is a chronic and debilitating disease, which affects millions of young women worldwide. Although medicine has incontestably evolved in the last years, there is no common ground regarding the early and accurate diagnosis of this condition, its pathogenic mechanisms, and curative treatment. Even though the spontaneous resolution of endometriosis is sometimes possible, recent reports suggested that it can be a progressive condition. It can associate chronic pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, infertility, or malignant degenerescence. Conventional treatments could produce many side effects, and despite treatment, the symptoms may reappear. In recent years, experimental evidence suggested that plant-based medicine could exert beneficial effects on endometriosis and endometriosis-related symptoms. This study aims to highlight the pharmaceutical activity of phytochemicals and medicinal plants against endometriosis and to provide a source of information regarding the alternative treatment of this condition. Methods: For this review, we performed a research using PubMed, GoogleScholar, and CrossRef databases. We selected the articles published between January 2000 and July 2020, written in English. Results: We found 17 medicinal plants and 13 phytochemicals, which have demonstrated their beneficial effects against endometriosis. Several of their biological activities consist of antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory effects, and oxidative-stress reduction. Conclusion: Medicinal herbs and their bioactive compounds exhibit antiangiogenic, antioxidant, sedative and pain-alleviating properties and the effects recorded until now encourage their use for the conservative management of endometriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Berchemia floribunda in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells through Regulation of NF-κB and MAPKs Signaling Pathway
Plants 2021, 10(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030586 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Berchemia floribunda (Wall.) Brongn. (BF), which belongs to Rhamnaceae, is a special plant of Anmyeon Island in Korea. BF has been reported to have antioxidant and whitening effects. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of BR has not been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated [...] Read more.
Berchemia floribunda (Wall.) Brongn. (BF), which belongs to Rhamnaceae, is a special plant of Anmyeon Island in Korea. BF has been reported to have antioxidant and whitening effects. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of BR has not been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of leaves (BR-L), branches (BR-B) and fruit (BR-F) extracted with 70% ethanol of BR and elucidated the potential signaling pathway in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. BR-L showed a strong anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of NO production. BR-L significantly suppressed the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. BR-L suppressed the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB-α, which contributed to the inhibition of p65 nuclear accumulation and NF-κB activation. BR-L obstructed the phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Consequently, these results suggest that BR-L may have great potential for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs to treat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition and Biological Activities of Plant Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptome Analyses Throughout Chili Pepper Fruit Development Reveal Novel Insights into the Domestication Process
Plants 2021, 10(3), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030585 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is an important crop, as well as a model for fruit development studies and domestication. Here, we performed a time-course experiment to estimate standardized gene expression profiles with respect to fruit development for six domesticated and four wild [...] Read more.
Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is an important crop, as well as a model for fruit development studies and domestication. Here, we performed a time-course experiment to estimate standardized gene expression profiles with respect to fruit development for six domesticated and four wild chili pepper ancestors. We sampled the transcriptomes every 10 days from flowering to fruit maturity, and found that the mean standardized expression profiles for domesticated and wild accessions significantly differed. The mean standardized expression was higher and peaked earlier for domesticated vs. wild genotypes, particularly for genes involved in the cell cycle that ultimately control fruit size. We postulate that these gene expression changes are driven by selection pressures during domestication and show a robust network of cell cycle genes with a time shift in expression, which explains some of the differences between domesticated and wild phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Reproductive Development)
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Open AccessReview
Ethnobotanical Research and Compilation of the Medicinal Uses in Spain and the Active Principles of Chiliadenus glutinosus (L.) Fourr. for the Scientific Validation of Its Therapeutic Properties
Plants 2021, 10(3), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030584 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
The species Chiliadenus glutinosus (L.) Fourr. has a large number of therapeutic uses reported in the traditional Spanish medicine. The growing interest in preserving the ethnopharmacological knowledge related to the botanical diversity existing in Spain and the interest in achieving scientific validation of [...] Read more.
The species Chiliadenus glutinosus (L.) Fourr. has a large number of therapeutic uses reported in the traditional Spanish medicine. The growing interest in preserving the ethnopharmacological knowledge related to the botanical diversity existing in Spain and the interest in achieving scientific validation of the therapeutic properties of medicinal species has led to the development of this study. To do it, all the known medicinal uses of Ch. glutinosus in Spain were compiled, then an exhaustive bibliographic research on its chemical composition was carried out, and finally, an in silico validation of the bioactive phytochemicals present in a higher proportion in the essential oil of Ch. glutinosus: camphor, borneol, lucinone, glutinone, quercetin, kutdtriol, and kaempferol; in an attempt to justify the reported traditional uses of the species. It was found that much of the traditional medicinal uses of Ch. glutinosus, along with the biological activity of its phytochemicals, are supported by scientific evidence. The results place this species in a prominent position to initiate possible lines of research to develop new, more effective drugs and improve therapies to treat conditions and diseases that affect the different organic systems of the human being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Tracking of Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticle Effects on Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Plant Growth, Pigments, Mineral Content and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization
Plants 2021, 10(3), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030583 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Important gaps in knowledge remain regarding the potential of nanoparticles (NPs) for plants, particularly the existence of helpful microorganisms, for instance, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi present in the soil. Hence, more profound studies are required to distinguish the impact of NPs on plant [...] Read more.
Important gaps in knowledge remain regarding the potential of nanoparticles (NPs) for plants, particularly the existence of helpful microorganisms, for instance, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi present in the soil. Hence, more profound studies are required to distinguish the impact of NPs on plant growth inoculated with AM fungi and their role in NP uptake to develop smart nanotechnology implementations in crop improvement. Zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) NPs are prepared via the citrate technique and defined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as transmission electron microscopy for several physical properties. The analysis of the XRD pattern confirmed the creation of a nanocrystalline structure with a crystallite size equal to 25.4 nm. The effects of ZnFe2O4 NP on AM fungi, growth and pigment content as well as nutrient uptake of pea (Pisum sativum) plants were assessed. ZnFe2O4 NP application caused a slight decrease in root colonization. However, its application showed an augmentation of 74.36% and 91.89% in AM pea plant shoots and roots’ fresh weights, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, the synthesized ZnFe2O4 NP uptake by plant roots and their contents were enhanced by AM fungi. These findings suggest the safe use of ZnFe2O4 NPs in nano-agricultural applications for plant development with AM fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Paphiopedilum insigne Morphological and Physiological Features during In Vitro Rooting and Ex Vitro Acclimatization Depending on the Types of Auxin and Substrate
Plants 2021, 10(3), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030582 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
To obtain healthy and good quality plants from in vitro cultivation, it is necessary to produce plantlets with well-developed rooting systems because they must undergo acclimatization, a final and a very difficult stage of micropropagation. In the present research, the effect of auxins [...] Read more.
To obtain healthy and good quality plants from in vitro cultivation, it is necessary to produce plantlets with well-developed rooting systems because they must undergo acclimatization, a final and a very difficult stage of micropropagation. In the present research, the effect of auxins NAA, IAA and IBA in concentrations of 0.5; 1; 2.5 and 5 mg·dm−3 on the Paphiopediluminsigne in vitro rooting was studied, and it was noted that 1 mg·dm−3 of IAA or IBA enabled the obtaining of a lot of rooted and good quality plantlets. The subsequent influence of the two most advantageous auxins on the acclimatization of plantlets in different substrates (sphagnum moss, sphagnum moss + substrate for orchids, substrate for orchids, substrate for orchids + acid peat) was tested, in the means of morphological features of plants and their physiological parameters, i.e., chlorophyll fluorescence (FV, Fm, Fv/Fm), stress enzyme activity (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase), and water balance. Considering all the tested features, it might be stated that the best results were obtained when explants were rooted in vitro in the presence of 1 mg·dm−3 of IAA and then planted ex vitro in substrate for orchids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Tissue Culture for Studying the Environmental Cues and Signals)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Maternal Environment on Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor of Petunia × hybrida under Different Abiotic Stresses
Plants 2021, 10(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030581 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Seed germination and seedling vigor can be affected by environmental cues experienced by the mother plant. However, information about how the maternal environment affects seed quality is scarce in ornamental plants. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two different maternal environments [...] Read more.
Seed germination and seedling vigor can be affected by environmental cues experienced by the mother plant. However, information about how the maternal environment affects seed quality is scarce in ornamental plants. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two different maternal environments on the seed germination and seedling vigor of Petunia × hybrida under a variety of abiotic stresses. Petunia mother plants were grown in either a greenhouse during the summer months or an indoor controlled-temperature-and-light environment. Collected seeds were subjected to external stressors, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), sodium chloride (NaCl), high temperature, and abscisic acid (ABA), to determine seed germination percentage and seedling vigor. Results indicated that seeds harvested from the mother plants grown in a controlled environment germinated better than seeds harvested from the mother plants grown in the greenhouse when suboptimal germination conditions were applied. Additionally, the seedlings from the controlled maternal environment performed better in both ABA and salinity stress tests than the greenhouse seedlings. Interestingly, the greenhouse seedlings displayed less reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage and lower electrolyte leakage than the controlled environment seedlings under dehydration stress. The difference in germination and seedling vigor of seeds from the two different maternal environments might be due to the epigenetic memory inherited from the mother plants. This study highlighted the strong impact of the maternal environment on seed germination and seedling vigor in Petunia and may assist in high-quality seed production in ornamental plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seed Dormancy and Germination in Response to Climate Change)
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