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Metals, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 127 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An effective and feasible computational material design requires predictive material modeling supported by crucial experiments and validations. The key feature of this work is a combined experimental analysis and 2/3-dimensional phase-field simulation study, focusing on the solidification and precipitation nature of a hypoeutectic Al alloy. Demonstrating reliable modeling techniques and experimental cross-validation on the fundamental investigation of Al alloys can be expanded to various alloys, leading to an advanced mode of new material design. In this strategy, semiquantitative modeling of microstructural evolution during solidification was validated by experimental investigations. The cover image shows the simulated phase map and elemental distributions. View this paper.
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16 pages, 1513 KiB  
Review
Interfacial Aspects of Metal Matrix Composites Prepared from Liquid Metals and Aqueous Solutions: A Review
by Peter Baumli
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101400 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3236
Abstract
The paper reviews the preparation of the different metallic nanocomposites. In the preparation of composites, especially in the case of nanocomposites, interfacial phenomena play an important role. This review summarizes the literature on various interfacial phenomena, such as wettability and reactivity in the [...] Read more.
The paper reviews the preparation of the different metallic nanocomposites. In the preparation of composites, especially in the case of nanocomposites, interfacial phenomena play an important role. This review summarizes the literature on various interfacial phenomena, such as wettability and reactivity in the case of casting techniques and colloidal behavior in the case of electrochemical and electroless methods. The main contribution of this work lies in the evaluation of collected interfacial phenomena and difficulties in the production of metal matrix composites, for both nano-sized and micro-sized reinforcements. This study can guide the composite maker in choosing the best criteria for producing metal matrix composites, which means a real interface with good adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcement. This criterion results in desirable mechanical and physical properties and homogenous dispersion of the reinforcement in the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanocomposites)
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14 pages, 3894 KiB  
Article
Formation Mechanism of Micro- and Nanocrystalline Surface Layers in Titanium and Aluminum Alloys in Electron Beam Irradiation
by Sergei Nevskii, Vladimir Sarychev, Sergey Konovalov, Alexey Granovskii and Victor Gromov
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101399 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
The reported study discusses the formation of micro- and nanocrystalline surface layers in alloys on the example of Ti-Y and Al-Si-Y systems irradiated by electron beams. The study has established a crystallization mechanism of molten layers in the micro-and nanodimensional range, which involves [...] Read more.
The reported study discusses the formation of micro- and nanocrystalline surface layers in alloys on the example of Ti-Y and Al-Si-Y systems irradiated by electron beams. The study has established a crystallization mechanism of molten layers in the micro-and nanodimensional range, which involves a variety of hydrodynamic instabilities developing on the plasma–melt interface. As suggested, micro- and nanostructures form due to the combination of thermocapillary, concentration and capillary, evaporation and capillary and thermoelectric instabilities. This mechanism has provided the foundation for a mathematical model to describe the development of structures in focus in the electron beam irradiation. The study has pointed out that thermoelectric field strength E ≥ 106 V/m is attributed to the occurring combination of instabilities in micro- and nanodimensional ranges. A full dispersion equation of perturbations on the melt surface was analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Beam Treatment Technology in Metals)
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9 pages, 1583 KiB  
Article
Morphology and Optical Properties of Thin Cd3As2 Films of a Dirac Semimetal Compound
by Natalia Kovaleva, Ladislav Fekete, Dagmar Chvostova and Andrei Muratov
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101398 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Using atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and wide-band (0.02–8.5 eV) spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques, we investigated the morphology and optical properties of Cd3As2 films grown by non-reactive RF magnetron sputtering on two types of oriented crystalline substrates (100)p-Si and (001) α [...] Read more.
Using atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and wide-band (0.02–8.5 eV) spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques, we investigated the morphology and optical properties of Cd3As2 films grown by non-reactive RF magnetron sputtering on two types of oriented crystalline substrates (100)p-Si and (001) α-Al2O3. The AFM study revealed the grainy morphology of the films due to island incorporation during the film growth. The complex dielectric function spectra of the annealed Cd3As2/Al2O3 films manifest pronounced interband optical transitions at 1.2 and 3.0 eV, in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations for the body centered tetragonal Cd3As2 crystal structure. We discovered that due to electronic excitations to the Cd(s) conical bands, the low-energy absorption edge of the annealed Cd3As2 films reveals a linear dependence. We found that for the annealed Cd3As2 films, the Cd(s) conical node may be shifted in energy by about 0.08–0.18 eV above the heavy-flat As(p) valence band, determining the optical gap value. The as-grown Cd3As2 films exhibit the pronounced changes of the electronic band structure due to the doping effect associated with Cd non-stoichiometry, where fine-tuning of the Cd concentration may result in the gapless electronic band structure of Dirac semimetals. Full article
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14 pages, 7513 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Open Die Ironing Process through Artificial Neural Network for Rapid Process Simulation
by Silvia Mancini, Luigi Langellotto, Giovanni Zangari, Riccardo Maccaglia and Andrea Di Schino
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101397 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
The open die forging sequence design and optimization are usually performed by simulating many different configurations corresponding to different forging strategies. Finite element analysis (FEM) is a tool able to simulate the open die forging process. However, FEM is relatively slow and therefore [...] Read more.
The open die forging sequence design and optimization are usually performed by simulating many different configurations corresponding to different forging strategies. Finite element analysis (FEM) is a tool able to simulate the open die forging process. However, FEM is relatively slow and therefore it is not suitable for the rapid design of online forging processes. A new approach is proposed in this work in order to describe the plastic strain at the core of the piece. FEM takes into account the plastic deformation at the core of the forged pieces. At the first stage, a thermomechanical FEM model was implemented in the MSC.Marc commercial code in order to simulate the open die forging process. Starting from the results obtained through FEM simulations, a set of equations describing the plastic strain at the core of the piece have been identified depending on forging parameters (such as length of the contact surface between tools and ingot, tool’s connection radius, and reduction of the piece height after the forging pass). An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was trained and tested in order to correlate the equation coefficients with the forging to obtain the behavior of plastic strain at the core of the piece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Forged Steel)
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7 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Nanoporous High-Entropy Alloy by Liquid Metal Dealloying
by Artem Vladimirovich Okulov, Soo-Hyun Joo, Hyoung Seop Kim, Hidemi Kato and Ilya Vladimirovich Okulov
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101396 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4575
Abstract
High-entropy nanomaterials possessing high accessible surface areas have demonstrated outstanding catalytic performance, beating that found for noble metals. In this communication, we report about the synthesis of a new, nanoporous, high-entropy alloy (HEA) possessing open porosity. The nanoporous, high-entropy Ta19.1Mo20.5 [...] Read more.
High-entropy nanomaterials possessing high accessible surface areas have demonstrated outstanding catalytic performance, beating that found for noble metals. In this communication, we report about the synthesis of a new, nanoporous, high-entropy alloy (HEA) possessing open porosity. The nanoporous, high-entropy Ta19.1Mo20.5Nb22.9V30Ni7.5 alloy (at%) was fabricated from a precursor (TaMoNbV)25Ni75 alloy (at%) by liquid metal dealloying using liquid magnesium (Mg). Directly after dealloying, the bicontinuous nanocomposite consisting of a Mg-rich phase and a phase with a bulk-centered cubic (bcc) structure was formed. The Mg-rich phase was removed with a 3M aqueous solution of nitric acid to obtain the open, porous, high-entropy Ta19.1Mo20.5Nb22.9V30Ni7.5 alloy (at%). The ligament size of this nanoporous HEA is about 69 ± 9 nm, indicating the high surface area in this material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoporous and Nanocomposite Materials by Dealloying)
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11 pages, 7292 KiB  
Article
Coupling Finite Element Analysis and the Theory of Critical Distances to Estimate Critical Loads in Al6060-T66 Tubular Beams Containing Notches
by Marcos Sánchez, Sergio Cicero, Borja Arroyo and José Alberto Álvarez
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101395 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
This paper validates a methodology for the estimation of critical loads in tubular beams containing notch-type defects. The methodology is particularized for the case of Al6060-T66 tubular cantilever beams containing U-shaped notches. It consists in obtaining the stress field at the notch tip [...] Read more.
This paper validates a methodology for the estimation of critical loads in tubular beams containing notch-type defects. The methodology is particularized for the case of Al6060-T66 tubular cantilever beams containing U-shaped notches. It consists in obtaining the stress field at the notch tip using finite element analysis (FEA) and the subsequent application of the theory of critical distances (TCD) to derive the corresponding critical load (or load-bearing capacity). The results demonstrate that this methodology provides satisfactory predictions of fracture loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods for Fatigue and Fracture)
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21 pages, 5971 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Stability Fields of Arc Plasma in the HPSR Process
by Michael Andreas Zarl, Manuel Andreas Farkas and Johannes Schenk
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101394 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
One of the major challenges for Europe’s future steel production will be minimizing the inherent process emissions in the production of crude steel based on iron ores. In this case, mainly the reduction of CO2 emissions is a focus. One promising process [...] Read more.
One of the major challenges for Europe’s future steel production will be minimizing the inherent process emissions in the production of crude steel based on iron ores. In this case, mainly the reduction of CO2 emissions is a focus. One promising process to overcome these problems is the hydrogen plasma smelting reduction (HPSR) process. This process has been studied for several years already at the Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy at Montanuniversitaet Leoben. The work presented focused on the stability of plasma arcs in the DC transferred arc system of the HPSR process. The stable operating plasma arc is of utmost importance for the future development of the process. The major objective is the definition of the most favorable conditions for this kind of arc. Therefore, tests were conducted to define fields of a stable operating plasma arc for multiple gas compositions and process variables. For several gas compositions of argon, nitrogen, argon/nitrogen, argon/hydrogen and nitrogen/hydrogen, fields of stability were measured and defined. Besides, the major influencing parameters and trends for the fields of stability were evaluated and are shown in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Extractive Metallurgy)
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8 pages, 3231 KiB  
Article
Hydrochloric Acid Leaching Behaviors of Copper and Antimony in Speiss Obtained from Top Submerged Lance Furnace
by Sujin Chae, Kyoungkeun Yoo, Carlito Baltazar Tabelin and Richard Diaz Alorro
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101393 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3891
Abstract
Copper (Cu) has been recovered from speiss generated from top submerged lance furnace process, but it was reported that the leaching efficiency of Cu in sulfuric acid solution decreased with increasing antimony (Sb) content in the speiss. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy [...] Read more.
Copper (Cu) has been recovered from speiss generated from top submerged lance furnace process, but it was reported that the leaching efficiency of Cu in sulfuric acid solution decreased with increasing antimony (Sb) content in the speiss. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results indicate that Sb exists as CuSb alloy, which would retard the leaching of Cu. Therefore, hydrochloric acid leaching with aeration was performed to investigate the leaching behaviors of copper and antimony. The leaching efficiency of Cu increased with increasing agitation speed, temperature, HCl concentration, and the introduction ratio of O2, but also with decreasing pulp density. The leaching efficiency of Cu increased to more than 99% within 60 min in 1 mol/L HCl solution at 600 rpm and 90 °C with 10 g/L pulp density and 1000 cc/min O2. The leaching efficiency of Sb increased and then decreased in all 1 mol/L HCl leaching tests, and precipitate was observed in the leach solution, which was determined to be SbOCl or Sb2O3 by XRD analyses. However, in 2 mol/L–5 mol/L HCl solutions, the leaching efficiency of Sb increased to more than 95% (about 900 mg/L) and remained, so more than 2 mol/L HCl could stabilize Sb ion in the HCl solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Selective Flotation and Leaching Process in Metallurgy)
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12 pages, 4880 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation on Electron Beam Welding of Spray-Formed 7055 Aluminum Alloy
by Shaogang Wang, Zheng Wang, Chengcong Zhang and Zhiguo Wang
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101392 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The spray-formed 7055 aluminum alloy is welded by electron beam welding. Combined with the numerical simulation of a welding temperature field, the effect of different welding procedures on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints is investigated in this study. Results show [...] Read more.
The spray-formed 7055 aluminum alloy is welded by electron beam welding. Combined with the numerical simulation of a welding temperature field, the effect of different welding procedures on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints is investigated in this study. Results show that the joints with good properties can be obtained under proper welding procedures. The microstructure analysis demonstrates that the fusion zone mainly consists of equiaxed grains, while a fine equiaxed grain zone is formed near the fusion line. There are mainly α(Al), MgZn2, Al2CuMg, and Mg32(Al,Zn)49 phases in the weld metal. The morphology of the weld can be improved by modification welding after the first bead welding, which is also advantageous to the mechanical properties of a welded joint. In the as-welded condition, compared with that of the base metal, the hardness of the weld zone decreased to a certain extent. The maximum tensile strength of a welded joint reaches 371.7 MPa. There are many dimples on the tensile fracture surface of a welded joint, and it dominantly presents the characteristic of ductile fracture. The simulated molten pool is consistent with the experimental weld morphology, and the reliability and accuracy of the simulation analysis are verified. Full article
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12 pages, 6162 KiB  
Article
Evolution of the Fretting Wear Damage of a Complex Phase Compound Layer for a Nitrided High-Carbon High-Chromium Steel
by Yong Duan, Shengguan Qu, Siyu Jia and Xiaoqiang Li
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101391 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
In this paper, the X210CrW12 steel was subjected to gas nitriding to obtain a complex phase compound layer with limited porosity. The nitrided layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The fretting wear behavior [...] Read more.
In this paper, the X210CrW12 steel was subjected to gas nitriding to obtain a complex phase compound layer with limited porosity. The nitrided layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The fretting wear behavior and the evolution of fretting wear damage of the compound layer were studied, and the worn surfaces were characterized by SEM/EDS and 3D optical profilometry. The results indicated that the compound layer showed superior fretting wear resistance and sufficient load-carrying capacity in the low loading case of 35 N, but the fracture of coarse nitrides (transformed primary carbides) was obviously detrimental to wear resistance. For the high loading case of 70 N, the low toughness of the compound layer led to the occurrence of brittle cracks, and the decrease in the thickness of the compound layer due to wear resulted in the cracking and spalling of the compound layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machinability and Tribological Performance of Advanced Alloys)
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29 pages, 2803 KiB  
Article
Extraction Chromatography Materials Prepared with HDEHP on Different Inorganic Supports for the Separation of Gadolinium and Terbium
by Fabiola Monroy-Guzman, Celia del Carmen De la Cruz Barba, Edgar Jaime Salinas, Vicente Garibay-Feblés and Tobias Noel Nava Entzana
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101390 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) is frequently used as an extractant in the separation and recovery of lanthanides by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, where HDEHP (stationary phase) is fixed on an inert support and the mobile phase is an aqueous solution. Because the results [...] Read more.
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) is frequently used as an extractant in the separation and recovery of lanthanides by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, where HDEHP (stationary phase) is fixed on an inert support and the mobile phase is an aqueous solution. Because the results of extraction chromatography strongly depend on the support material, in this study, we aim to prepare solid extractants (extraction chromatography materials) with different inorganic supports impregnated with HDEHP for the adsorption of Gd and Tb from HCl solutions, putting emphasis on the effect of the supports on the solid extractant behavior. Gd and Tb partition data were determined in HCl solutions from the prepared extraction chromatography materials using elution analysis. Solid extractants were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy in order to determine their properties and to explain their extraction behavior. The characterization of the solid extractants showed a heterogeneous distribution of the HDEHP on the surfaces of the different supports studied. The irregular shape of the support particles produces discontinuous and heterogenous silanization and HDEHP coatings on the support surface, affecting the retention performance of the solid extractant and the chromatographic resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solvent Extraction of Transition Metals)
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19 pages, 4233 KiB  
Article
A 1D Analytical Model for Slag Infiltration during Continuous Casting of Steel under Non-Sinusoidal Mold Oscillation
by Hyunjin Yang
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101389 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
A 1D analytical model for slag infiltration during continuous casting of steel is developed to investigate the slag behavior in the mold–strand gap. The superposition principle and Fourier expansion are applied to obtain the analytical solution for transient slag flow under arbitrary mold [...] Read more.
A 1D analytical model for slag infiltration during continuous casting of steel is developed to investigate the slag behavior in the mold–strand gap. The superposition principle and Fourier expansion are applied to obtain the analytical solution for transient slag flow under arbitrary mold oscillation including non-sinusoidal oscillation mode. The validated model using literature data partially explains several controversies such as slope of slag film channel, mechanism of non-sinusoidal mold oscillation, and timing of slag infiltration. The model shows that a converging slag film into the casting direction is required to open the mold–strand gap if compression is applied in between. Also, model calculations imply that higher slag consumption is achievable from non-sinusoidal mold oscillation by means of the increase of film thickness through longer positive pressure with higher peak pressure. The model demonstrates a time difference between slag flow and pressure near the meniscus and the discrepancy in timing of infiltration between previous works is attributed to the mismatch. The model provides a concise but reliable tool to understand slag infiltration behavior and design mold oscillation settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mold and Tundish Metallurgy)
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14 pages, 2614 KiB  
Article
The Role of Surfactant Structure on the Development of a Sustainable and Effective Cutting Fluid for Machining Titanium Alloys
by Elisabet Benedicto, Eva María Rubio, Diego Carou and Coral Santacruz
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101388 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3083
Abstract
In cutting operations of titanium alloys, most of the problems are related to the high consumption of cutting tools due to excessive wear. An improvement of metalworking fluid (MWF) technology would increase the productivity, sustainability, and quality of machining processes by lubricating and [...] Read more.
In cutting operations of titanium alloys, most of the problems are related to the high consumption of cutting tools due to excessive wear. An improvement of metalworking fluid (MWF) technology would increase the productivity, sustainability, and quality of machining processes by lubricating and cooling. In this research article, the authors varied the surfactant’s charge, the hydrocarbon chain length, and the ethoxylation degree. Surfactants were dispersed at 1.2 mM in water and trimethylolpropane oleate to produce water-based MWF. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and total organic carbon analysis were used to study the influence of surfactant structure on the film forming ability of the emulsion and performance was studied on Ti6Al4V using tapping torque test. The results showed that by changing the molecular structure of the surfactant, it is possible to vary the affinity between the ester and the substrate and reach an optimal combination, which improves the formation of a tribofilm. The mixture with anionic surfactants has good tribology performance, while non-ionic surfactants shorten the tool’s life. Moreover, the increase in the hydrocarbon chain length and the number of ethoxylations of surfactants promotes the adhesion of ester onto the metal surface, improving the lubricity properties of environmentally friendly MWF. Full article
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8 pages, 4043 KiB  
Article
Effect of Quasi-Hydrostatic Pressure on Deformation Mechanism in Ti-10Mo Alloy
by Baozhen Jiang, Satoshi Emura and Koichi Tsuchiya
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101387 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
The deformation mechanisms of Ti-10Mo (wt.%) alloy subjected to different quasi-hydrostatic pressure values were investigated under constrained compression using stage of high-pressure torsion apparatus. Deformation products contain {332}<113> mechanical twinning, stress-induced α″ martensitic phase and stress-induced ω phase. A volume expansion accompanied stress-induced [...] Read more.
The deformation mechanisms of Ti-10Mo (wt.%) alloy subjected to different quasi-hydrostatic pressure values were investigated under constrained compression using stage of high-pressure torsion apparatus. Deformation products contain {332}<113> mechanical twinning, stress-induced α″ martensitic phase and stress-induced ω phase. A volume expansion accompanied stress-induced α″ martensitic phase transformation is 2.06%. By increasing the applied pressure from 2.5 GPa to 5 GPa, the dominant deformation mechanism underwent a transition from stress-induced α″ martensitic phase transformation to {332}<113> mechanical twinning. Full article
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18 pages, 3889 KiB  
Article
A New Nodal-Integration-Based Finite Element Method for the Numerical Simulation of Welding Processes
by Yabo Jia, Jean-Michel Bergheau, Jean-Baptiste Leblond, Jean-Christophe Roux, Raihane Bouchaoui, Sebastien Gallée and Alexandre Brosse
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101386 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2738
Abstract
This paper aims at introducing a new nodal-integration-based finite element method for the numerical calculation of residual stresses induced by welding processes. The main advantage of the proposed method is to be based on first-order tetrahedral meshes, thus greatly facilitating the meshing of [...] Read more.
This paper aims at introducing a new nodal-integration-based finite element method for the numerical calculation of residual stresses induced by welding processes. The main advantage of the proposed method is to be based on first-order tetrahedral meshes, thus greatly facilitating the meshing of complex geometries using currently available meshing tools. In addition, the formulation of the problem avoids any locking phenomena arising from the plastic incompressibility associated with von Mises plasticity and currently encountered with standard 4-node tetrahedral elements. The numerical results generated by the nodal approach are compared to those obtained with more classical simulations using finite elements based on mixed displacement–pressure formulations: 8-node Q1P0 hexahedra (linear displacement, constant pressure) and 4-node P1P1 tetrahedra (linear displacement, linear pressure). The comparisons evidence the efficiency of the nodal approach for the simulation of complex thermal–elastic–plastic problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Computational Modeling of Metal Transformation Processes)
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13 pages, 21052 KiB  
Article
A Study on Cross-Shaped Structure of Invar Material Using Cold Wire Laser Fillet Welding (PART I: Feasibility Study for Weldability)
by Du-Song Kim, Changmin Pyo, Jaewoong Kim, Jisun Kim and Hee-Keun Lee
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101385 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3004
Abstract
With the need for eco-friendly energy increasing rapidly due to global environmental issues, there is a rapidly increasing demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG). LNG is liquefied at minus 163 degrees Celsius, and its volume decreases to 1/600, giving it a relatively higher [...] Read more.
With the need for eco-friendly energy increasing rapidly due to global environmental issues, there is a rapidly increasing demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG). LNG is liquefied at minus 163 degrees Celsius, and its volume decreases to 1/600, giving it a relatively higher storage and transport efficiency than gaseous natural gas (NG). The material for the tanks that store cryogenic LNG must be a material with high impact toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Invar, which contains 36% nickel and has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, is used for the membranes and corner structures of LNG cargo holds. The cross-shaped Invar structure used in an LNG cargo hold is manufactured through manual tungsten inert gas (TIG) fillet welding, which causes welding distortion and weldability problems. This study is a feasibility study that aims to reduce welding distortion, increase weldability with welding speed, and reduce the steps in an existing process by half by replacing the existing manufacturing method with automatic fiber laser fillet welding. Laser welding using fiber laser parameters are controlled for 1.5 and 3.0 mm thick Invar materials and weldability is secured through cross-section observation. Then, the optimal welding conditions with top and back beads secured are derived through a trial and error method. Full article
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29 pages, 8426 KiB  
Review
Corrosion of Cast Aluminum Alloys: A Review
by C. Berlanga-Labari, M. V. Biezma-Moraleda and Pedro J. Rivero
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101384 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 11020
Abstract
Research on corrosion resistance of cast aluminum alloys is reviewed in this article. The effect of the main microstructural features of cast aluminum alloys such as secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS), eutectic silicon morphology, grain size, macrosegregation, microsegregation, and intermetallic compounds is discussed. [...] Read more.
Research on corrosion resistance of cast aluminum alloys is reviewed in this article. The effect of the main microstructural features of cast aluminum alloys such as secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS), eutectic silicon morphology, grain size, macrosegregation, microsegregation, and intermetallic compounds is discussed. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of cast aluminum alloys obtained by modern manufacturing processes such as semi-solid and additive manufacturing are analyzed. Finally, the protective effects provided by different coatings on the aluminum cast alloys—such as anodized, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), and laser—is reviewed. Some conclusions and future guidelines for future works are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Corrosion and Protection)
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13 pages, 641 KiB  
Article
Softening of Shear Elastic Coefficients in Shape Memory Alloys Near the Martensitic Transition: A Study by Laser-Based Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy
by Petr Sedlák, Michaela Janovská, Lucie Bodnárová, Oleg Heczko and Hanuš Seiner
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101383 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
We discuss the suitability of laser-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) for the characterization of soft shearing modes in single crystals of shape memory alloys that are close to the transition temperatures. We show, using a numerical simulation, that the RUS method enables the [...] Read more.
We discuss the suitability of laser-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) for the characterization of soft shearing modes in single crystals of shape memory alloys that are close to the transition temperatures. We show, using a numerical simulation, that the RUS method enables the accurate determination of the c shear elastic coefficient, even for very strong anisotropy, and without being sensitive to misorientations of the used single crystal. Subsequently, we apply the RUS method to single crystals of three typical examples of shape memory alloys (Cu-Al-Ni, Ni-Mn-Ga, and NiTi), and discuss the advantages of using the laser-based contactless RUS arrangement for temperature-resolved measurements of elastic constants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloys 2020)
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14 pages, 1768 KiB  
Article
First Experimental Values for the Light Penetration Depth of Platinum and Iron Gases at 532 nm
by Gonzalo Rodríguez Prieto and Luis Bilbao
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101382 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 2418
Abstract
Light penetration depth is a fundamental property that has been researched extensively with a large amount of materials. Among those studies, different planetary atmospheres and material phases, like plasmas, had been previously addressed, both theoretically and experimentally. However, no experimental data are available [...] Read more.
Light penetration depth is a fundamental property that has been researched extensively with a large amount of materials. Among those studies, different planetary atmospheres and material phases, like plasmas, had been previously addressed, both theoretically and experimentally. However, no experimental data are available for platinum and iron gases due to the difficulties for the creation of gas state from a solid metal material. This work present experimental penetration depths at 532 nm laser light for iron and platinum gases produced by a carefully tuned exploding wire system in atmospheric air. Iron presents a larger dispersion on the data than platinum, which is explained because of its large magnetic permeability value, that generates a less homogeneous gas than in the platinum case. Full article
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13 pages, 7641 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Grain Size in Single-Phase Materials by Edge Detection and Concatenation
by Lucijano Berus, Plavka Skakun, Dragan Rajnovic, Petar Janjatovic, Leposava Sidjanin and Mirko Ficko
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101381 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3850
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach for edge detection and concatenation. It applies the proposed method on a set of optical microscopy images of aluminium alloy Al 99.5% (ENAW1050A) samples with different grain size values. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel approach for edge detection and concatenation. It applies the proposed method on a set of optical microscopy images of aluminium alloy Al 99.5% (ENAW1050A) samples with different grain size values. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated based on the intercept method and compared with the manual grain size determination method. Edge detection filters have proven inefficient in grain boundaries’ detection of the presented microscopy images. To some extent only the Canny edge-detection filter was able to compute grain boundaries of lower-resolution images adequately, while the presented method proved to be superior, especially in high-resolution images. The proposed method has proven its applicability, and it implies higher automatisation and lower processing times compared to manual optical microscopy image processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Artificial Intelligence in Steelmaking)
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13 pages, 4216 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Reduction and Thermal Treatment on the Recrystallization and Crystallographic Texture Evolution of 5182 Aluminum Alloy
by Sofia Papadopoulou, Athina Kontopoulou, Evangelos Gavalas and Spyros Papaefthymiou
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101380 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2924
Abstract
During forming, thickness reduction and thermal treatment affect the recrystallization and evolution of the crystallographic texture of metallic materials. The present study focuses on the consequences of rolling reduction of a widespread aluminum alloy with numerous automotive, marine and general-purpose applications, namely Al [...] Read more.
During forming, thickness reduction and thermal treatment affect the recrystallization and evolution of the crystallographic texture of metallic materials. The present study focuses on the consequences of rolling reduction of a widespread aluminum alloy with numerous automotive, marine and general-purpose applications, namely Al 5182. Emphasis is laid on the crystallographic texture and mechanical properties on both hot and cold-rolled semi-final products. In particular, a 2.8 mm-thick hot-rolled product was examined in the as-received condition, while two cold-rolled sheets, one 1.33 mm and the other 0.214 mm thick, both originating from the 2.8 mm material, were examined in both as-received and annealed (350 °C for 1 h) conditions. Electron back-scatter diffraction indicated the presence of a large percentage of random texture as well as a weak recrystallization texture for the hot-rolled product, whereas in the case of cold rolling the evolution of β-fiber texture was noted. In addition, tensile tests showed that both the anisotropy as well as the mechanical properties of the cold-rolled properties improved after annealing, being comparable to hot-rolled ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure-Properties-Processing Relationships in Metallic Materials)
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14 pages, 5985 KiB  
Article
Influence of Scanning Strategy on the Performances of GO-Reinforced Ti6Al4V Nanocomposites Manufactured by SLM
by Xiaojin Miao, Xin Liu, Peipei Lu, Jitai Han, Weipeng Duan and Meiping Wu
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101379 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
In this work, the effects of line (L-scanning strategy), stripe (S-scanning strategy), hollow square (H-scanning strategy) and chess board partition (C-scanning strategy) on the performances of graphene oxide reinforced Ti6Al4V matrix nanocomposites (GO/TC4) as fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) were investigated. Numerical [...] Read more.
In this work, the effects of line (L-scanning strategy), stripe (S-scanning strategy), hollow square (H-scanning strategy) and chess board partition (C-scanning strategy) on the performances of graphene oxide reinforced Ti6Al4V matrix nanocomposites (GO/TC4) as fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) were investigated. Numerical temperature field simulation of four different scanning strategies was utilized to investigate the effects of thermal concentration on SLM-processed GO/TC4 nanocomposites, linking to its micro-voids, surface roughness, porosity, microhardness and tribological properties. The proposed simulation scheme is validated by comparing the simulated thermal analysis with experimental results. Simulation results show that the thermal concentration effects of a part during SLM process is distinctive under different scanning strategies, with the slowest cooling rate of 64,977.5 °C/s that is achieved by C-scanning strategy specimen. The experimental results indicate that the performances of the L-scanning strategy or S-scanning strategy sample are seriously affected by the thermal concentration, causing a large number of micro-voids and defects. All the experimental results suggest that the sample using C-scanning strategy exhibits the optimal performance of all investigated specimens, which closely correlates with its lowest temperature gradients. This study highlights the importance of using a partition scanning strategy during SLM process, which can be easily extended to other powder bed fusion process. Full article
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12 pages, 2145 KiB  
Review
Radiation Damage of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy—A Review
by Vladimír Slugeň, Stanislav Sojak, Werner Egger, Vladimir Krsjak, Jana Simeg Veternikova and Martin Petriska
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101378 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
Safe and long term operation of nuclear reactors is one of the most discussed challenges in nuclear power engineering. The radiation degradation of nuclear design materials limits the operational lifetime of all nuclear installations or at least decreases its safety margin. This paper [...] Read more.
Safe and long term operation of nuclear reactors is one of the most discussed challenges in nuclear power engineering. The radiation degradation of nuclear design materials limits the operational lifetime of all nuclear installations or at least decreases its safety margin. This paper is a review of experimental PALS/PLEPS studies of different nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels investigated over last twenty years in our laboratories. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) via its characteristics (lifetimes of positrons and their intensities) provides useful information about type and density of radiation induced defects. The new results obtained on neutron-irradiated and hydrogen ions implanted German steels were compared to those from the previous studies with the aim to evaluate different processes (neutron flux/fluence, thermal treatment or content of selected alloying elements) to the microstructural changes of neutron irradiated RPV steel specimens. The possibility of substitution of neutron treatment (connected to new defects creation) via hydrogen ions implantation was analyzed as well. The same materials exposed to comparable displacement damage (dpa) introduced by neutrons and accelerated hydrogen ions shown that in the results interpretation the effect of hydrogen as a vacancy-stabilizing gas must be considered, too. This approach could contribute to future studies of nuclear fission/fusion design steels treated by high levels of neutron irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Effects in Steels and Alloys)
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9 pages, 3068 KiB  
Article
Joining of Metal to Ceramic Plate Using Super-Spread Wetting
by Jaebong Yeon, Michiru Yamamoto, Peiyuan Ni, Masashi Nakamoto and Toshihiro Tanaka
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101377 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2786
Abstract
Ceramic-metal composites with novel performance are desirable materials; however, differences in their properties result in difficulties in joining. In this study, the joining of metal to ceramic is investigated. We recently succeeded in causing super-spread wetting on the surface fine crevice structures of [...] Read more.
Ceramic-metal composites with novel performance are desirable materials; however, differences in their properties result in difficulties in joining. In this study, the joining of metal to ceramic is investigated. We recently succeeded in causing super-spread wetting on the surface fine crevice structures of metal surfaces produced by both laser irradiation and reduction-sintering of oxide powders. In this work, joining copper onto an Al2O3 plate was achieved by taking advantage of super-spread wetting. Fe2O3 powder was first sintered under reducing conditions to produce a microstructure which can cause super-spread wetting of liquid metal on an Al2O3 plate. A powder-based surface fine crevice structure of metallic iron with high porosity was well-formed due to the bonding of the reduced metallic iron particles. This structure was joined on an Al2O3 plate with no cracking by the formation of an FeAl2O4 layer buffering the mismatch gap between the thermal expansion coefficients of iron and Al2O3. We successfully achieved metalizing of the Al2O3 surface with copper without interfacial cracks using super-spread wetting of liquid copper through the sintered metallic iron layer on the Al2O3 plate. Then, laser irradiation was conducted on the surface of the copper-metalized Al2O3 plate. A laser-irradiated surface fine crevice structure was successfully created on the copper-metalized Al2O3 plate. Moreover, it was confirmed that the super-spread wetting of liquid tin occurred on the laser-irradiated surface fine crevice structure, finally accomplishing the joining of a copper block and the copper-metalized Al2O3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Ceramic and Metal-Metal Interactions and Joining)
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13 pages, 2235 KiB  
Review
Research Progress in Preparation and Purification of Rare Earth Metals
by Hang Liu, Yao Zhang, Yikun Luan, Huimin Yu and Dianzhong Li
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101376 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 7286
Abstract
The purity of rare earth metals is one of the most important factors to research and develop high technique materials. However, high purity rare earth metals are not easily achieved. This review summarizes the preparation and purification methods of rare earth metals. First, [...] Read more.
The purity of rare earth metals is one of the most important factors to research and develop high technique materials. However, high purity rare earth metals are not easily achieved. This review summarizes the preparation and purification methods of rare earth metals. First, the preparation principle and process of molten salt electrolysis and metal thermal reduction are introduced. The main sources of metallic impurities and interstitial impurities in rare earth metals as well as the action mechanism of reducing the concentration of different impurities are analyzed and summarized. Then, the purification principle and process of vacuum distillation, arc melting, zone melting, and solid state electromigration are also discussed. Furthermore, the removal effect and function rule of metallic impurities and interstitial impurities in rare earth metals are outlined. Finally, the crucial issues in the development of high purity rare earth metals are put forward, and the development direction of high purity rare earth metals in future are pointed out on this basis. Full article
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18 pages, 10599 KiB  
Article
Study on Deformation Characteristics and Microstructure Evolution of 2205/AH36 Bimetal Composite in a Novel Hot Forming Process
by Zhou Li, Haibo Xie, Fanghui Jia, Yao Lu, Xiangqian Yuan, Sihai Jiao and Zhengyi Jiang
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101375 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
A new hot forming process of a hot-rolled 2205 duplex stainless/AH36 low-carbon steel bimetal composite (2205/AH36 BC) was proposed in this study, using the Gleeble 3500 thermal-mechanical simulator and hot bending tools. The deformation characteristics of 2205/AH36 BC were studied by hot tensile [...] Read more.
A new hot forming process of a hot-rolled 2205 duplex stainless/AH36 low-carbon steel bimetal composite (2205/AH36 BC) was proposed in this study, using the Gleeble 3500 thermal-mechanical simulator and hot bending tools. The deformation characteristics of 2205/AH36 BC were studied by hot tensile tests at temperatures from 950 to 1250 °C and strain rates ranging from 0.01 to 1 s−1. The tensile temperature has a great influence on the peak flow stress of the bimetal composite. The main microstructure evolution mechanisms, including dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX), changed with the deformation temperatures. The different strain rates and the change of strain rates during the deformation process have an influence on the flow behavior of the bimetal composite. During the hot bending process, qualified parts could be formed successfully without obvious cracks in the interfacial zone. Phase and grain orientation spread (GOS) maps of specimens after hot tensile and forming tests were obtained by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to study the microstructure evolution, respectively. It is found that the effect of the working temperature on microstructure evolution is larger than that of the stacking sequence for 2205/AH36 BC. The considerable geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) accumulation occurs around the interface of 2205/AH36 BC under all imposed working conditions after the hot bending process, due to the interfacial micro-defects and complex stress states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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25 pages, 7757 KiB  
Article
A New Approach for Obtaining the Compression Behavior of Anisotropic Sheet Metals Applicable to a Wide Range of Test Conditions
by Jorge Ayllón, Valentín Miguel, Alberto Martínez-Martínez, Juana Coello and Jesús Andrés Naranjo
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101374 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
The consideration of anisotropic and asymmetric tension-compression behaviour in some materials has proved to be of great importance for the modelling of plastic behaviours that allow for accurate results in sheet metal forming analysis. However, obtaining this compression behaviour of a sheet metal [...] Read more.
The consideration of anisotropic and asymmetric tension-compression behaviour in some materials has proved to be of great importance for the modelling of plastic behaviours that allow for accurate results in sheet metal forming analysis. However, obtaining this compression behaviour of a sheet metal in the principal plane directions is one of the most complex aspects from an experimental point of view. This complexity is notably increased when this behaviour needs to be analysed under high temperature conditions. This paper presents a compression test system with load application in the in-plane sheet directions which is characterised by a relative technical simplicity allowing its application under temperature conditions of up to 750 °C and different strain-rates. Due to the specific test conditions, namely the high temperature, it is not possible to use the common systems for measuring the strains involved and to obtain the stress-strain curve. Therefore, this paper proposes two methods for this purpose. The first is the performance of interrupted tests and measurement of the central cross sections. The second consists of inverse calibration using finite element simulations. The sensitivity of the proposed test methodology is validated through the characterisation, at room temperature, of the compression and tensile behaviour of six materials with different plastic deformation phenomena. In this way, the asymmetric tension-compression phenomena are accurately identified and high compression strains of around 0.3, higher than those existing in the literature, are investigated. A novel test methodology is thus established that is easily applicable for the mechanical characterisation of sheet metal at high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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13 pages, 9155 KiB  
Article
Effects of Extreme Thermal Shock on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Au-12Ge/Au/Ni/Cu Solder Joint
by Ziyi Wang, Songbai Xue, Weimin Long, Bo Wang, Jianhao Wang and Peng Zhang
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101373 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
Extreme temperature change has generally been the great challenge to spacecraft electronic components, particularly in long, periodic, deep-space exploration missions. Hence, researchers have paid more attention to the reliability of component packaging materials. In this study, the microstructure evolution on the interface of [...] Read more.
Extreme temperature change has generally been the great challenge to spacecraft electronic components, particularly in long, periodic, deep-space exploration missions. Hence, researchers have paid more attention to the reliability of component packaging materials. In this study, the microstructure evolution on the interface of Cu/Ni/Au/Au-12Ge/Au/Ni/Cu joints, as well as the effects of extreme thermal shock on mechanical properties and the fracture mode in the course of extreme thermal changes between −196 and 150 °C, have been investigated. Results revealed that the interface layers comprised of two thin layers of NiGe and Ni5Ge3 compounds after Au-12Ge solder alloy was soldered on the Au/Ni/Cu substrate. After extreme thermal shock tests, the microstructure morphology converted from scallop type to planar one due to the translation from NiGe to Ni5Ge3. Meanwhile, the thickness of interface layer hardly changed. The shear strength of the joints after 300 cycles of extreme thermal shock was 35.1 MPa, which decreased by 19.61%. The fracture location changed from the solder to solder/NiGe interface, and then to the interface of NiGe/Ni5Ge3 IMC layer. Moreover, the fracture type of the joints gradually transformed from ductile fracture mode to brittle mode during thermal shock test. Simultaneously, the formation and extension of defects, such as micro-voids and micro-cracks, were found during the process of thermal shock due to the different thermal expansion coefficient among the solder, interface layer and substrate. Full article
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15 pages, 5072 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Critical Dimensions for the Crack and Pitting Corrosion Defects in the Oil Storage Tank Using Finite Element Method and Taguchi Approach
by Mostafa Omidi Bidgoli, Kazem Reza Kashyzadeh, Seyed Saeid Rahimian Koloor and Michal Petru
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101372 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2935
Abstract
Tanks play an important role in storing crude oil. Therefore, the maintenance and service life of tanks are very important for oil companies. In this regard, knowledge on the state of the critical conditions of various existing defects, such as cracks and pitting [...] Read more.
Tanks play an important role in storing crude oil. Therefore, the maintenance and service life of tanks are very important for oil companies. In this regard, knowledge on the state of the critical conditions of various existing defects, such as cracks and pitting corrosion defects, can play an essential role in providing a better service to these huge metal structures. In the present research, the basic theories relating to crack defects were discussed. Then, an oil reserve in one of the island states of the country was modeled and analyzed by considering different types of defects using Finite Element (FE) simulation. Next, the critical dimensions of cracks and corrosion holes were identified in a number of cases. Eventually, the Taguchi Approach (TA) was used to investigate the effect of different parameters related to the various defects, such as length, depth and diameter, on the maximum stress. The results indicated that the effect of the crack and pitting corrosion depth is superior to the effect of the length and diameter for defects of crack and pitting corrosion, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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10 pages, 4426 KiB  
Article
GTA Weldability of Rolled High-Entropy Alloys Using Various Filler Metals
by Hyunbin Nam, Seonghoon Yoo, Junghoon Lee, Youngsang Na, Nokeun Park and Namhyun Kang
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101371 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
Gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldability of rolled CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs) was conducted using stainless steel (STS) 308L and HEA fillers. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the welds were examined to determine GTA weldability of the rolled HEA. The welds had no macro-defects, [...] Read more.
Gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldability of rolled CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs) was conducted using stainless steel (STS) 308L and HEA fillers. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the welds were examined to determine GTA weldability of the rolled HEA. The welds had no macro-defects, and component behaviour between base metal (BM) and weld metal (WM) showed significant differences in the weld using the STS 308L filler. Macro-segregation of Fe components was confirmed in the central region in the WM using the STS 308L filler. Because the columnar grain sizes of all the WMs were larger than those of the rolled HEA BM irrespective of the filler metals, the tensile properties of the GTA welds were lower than those of the rolled HEA BM, and the tensile fracture occurred in the centreline of each weld. In particular, the tensile properties of the weld using the STS 308L filler deteriorated more than those of the HEA weld. This was induced by the formation of macro-segregation and severe martensite transformation in the centreline of WM. To enhance the weldability of the rolled HEA, the formation of macro-segregation and coarse grains in the WM of GTA welds must be prevented. Full article
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