Special Issue "Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion and Protection".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mariano Iannuzzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Curtin Corrosion Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, 6085, Australia
Interests: environmentally assisted cracking; hydrogen embrittlement; low alloy steels; corrosion resistant alloys; localized corrosion; fracture mechanics
Prof. Dr. Afrooz Barnoush
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Richard Birkelandsvei 2B, NO - 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: metallic materials; structural and functional properties; structure–property correlations; advanced nanoscale materials characterization; nanoscale mechanical testing; environmentally assisted fracture and fatigue; in situ testing; stress corrosion cracking; corrosion; hydrogen embrittlement
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As stated by Prof. Macdonald, “Humankind has been able to develop a metals-based civilization primarily because the reactive metals (Fe, Ni, Cr, Al, Ti, Zr, etc.) exhibit extraordinary kinetic stabilities in oxidizing environments” [1]. However, the so-called passive metals and corrosion resistant alloys are susceptible to localized attack in the form of, for example, pitting and crevice corrosion, when exposed to certain environments, often containing anions of strong acids such as chlorides and bromides. Moreover, many authors have postulated that pitting corrosion is a prerequisite for environmentally-assisted cracking mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking and sulfide stress cracking [2].

Localized corrosion is one of the most pervasive forms of attack impacting virtually all engineering metals and alloys that derive their resistance from the spontaneous development of a passive layer. Localized corrosion remains as a recurrent, costly, and difficult-to-detect phenomenon affecting a range of materials—to mention a few examples—from the plenitude of stainless steels, to nickel-based alloys, and non-ferrous systems based on, for example, aluminum, titanium, and zirconium. Localized corrosion is commonplace in diverse industry segments such as the resources, power, aerospace, water, maritime, and biomedical sectors.

In the last couple of years, there has been a revived interest, primarily as a result of the joint efforts of Frankel, Scully, and collaborators, in fundamental research aimed at linking the various critical factors and models that consider both passive film breakdown and pit stabilization. [3] Nevertheless, there are still crucial aspects of the problem, especially around the critical localized corrosion temperatures and induction times, that are yet to be understood. Presently, simple, yet foundational engineering questions, such as “what is the maximum allowable service temperature to minimize localized corrosion risks?”, or, “if a metal or alloy is exposed to an environment known to cause localized corrosion (e.g., some stainless steels in natural seawater), how long does an operator have before localized corrosion starts?”, cannot be answered.

The goal of this Special Issue is to present state-of-the-art research on passivity and localized corrosion phenomena, with emphasis on the interplay between microstructure and performance. Research linking localized and mechanically assisted corrosion (e.g., stress corrosion cracking, fretting corrosion, etc.) is also encouraged. We welcome original research articles, theoretical and modeling studies, historical failure investigations, and review papers aimed at pushing the frontiers of corrosion science and engineering. Articles focused on issues affecting the oil and gas, mining, nuclear, defense, automotive, infrastructure, and biomedical industries are of particular interest.

References

  1. Macdonald, D.D. Passivity—The key to our metals-based civilization. Pure Appl. Chem. 1999, 71, 951–978.
  2. Iannuzzi, M.; Barnoush, A.; Johnsen, R. Materials and corrosion trends in offshore and subsea oil and gas production. npj Mater. Degrad. 2017, 1, 1–11.
  3. Frankel, G.S.; Li, T.; Scully, J.R. Perspective—Localized corrosion: passive film breakdown vs pit growth stability. Electrochem. Soc. 2017, 164, C180–C181.

Prof. Dr. Mariano Iannuzzi
Prof. Dr. Afrooz Barnoush
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Localized corrosion
  • Stress corrosion cracking
  • Corrosion resistant alloys
  • Aluminum
  • Titanium
  • Biomedical
  • Oil and gas
  • Nuclear
  • Microstructure
  • Materials selection

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of Film-Forming Amines on the Acidic Stress-Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Steam Turbine Steel
Metals 2020, 10(12), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10121628 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 463
Abstract
This work evaluates the effect of film-forming amines (FFA) on the acidic stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of NiCrMoV turbine steel. Contact angle measurements show an increased hydrophobicity of the surface when coating the steel with oleyl propylene diamine (OLDA). According to potentiodynamic measurements [...] Read more.
This work evaluates the effect of film-forming amines (FFA) on the acidic stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of NiCrMoV turbine steel. Contact angle measurements show an increased hydrophobicity of the surface when coating the steel with oleyl propylene diamine (OLDA). According to potentiodynamic measurements and post-mortem scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement still occur when the steel is FFA coated. In situ constant extension rate testing (CERT) in acidic aqueous environment at elevated temperature of FFA-coated steel shows a ductility gain compared to non-coated steel, explained by a decrease in both corrosion rate and hydrogen uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Hole-Edge Corrosion Expansion Monitoring Based on Lamb Wave
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111469 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
Corrosion is a critical issue for engineered metallic components in mechanical and aerospace industries. Due to the complexity of aerospace aluminum alloy structure, corrosion is particularly tend to occur and expand in stress concentration areas, such as the edge of a hole, which [...] Read more.
Corrosion is a critical issue for engineered metallic components in mechanical and aerospace industries. Due to the complexity of aerospace aluminum alloy structure, corrosion is particularly tend to occur and expand in stress concentration areas, such as the edge of a hole, which causes the overall structure to be more likely to fail. In this paper, a Lamb wave-based active sensing method with improved sensors network was used to detect the hole-edge corrosion expansion. A0 wave packet of Lamb wave is extracted from signals, and two damage factors are used as characteristics of the signals. Probabilistic imaging algorithm is used to imaging and quantify the hole-edge corrosion area. Five corrosion extension tests show that the proposed method can effectively locate and quantify the hole-edge corrosion damage expansion of a single-hole structure; furthermore, the normalized amplitude damage index and phase change damage index can be used to predict hole-edge corrosion expansion effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Estimation of Critical Dimensions for the Crack and Pitting Corrosion Defects in the Oil Storage Tank Using Finite Element Method and Taguchi Approach
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101372 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
Tanks play an important role in storing crude oil. Therefore, the maintenance and service life of tanks are very important for oil companies. In this regard, knowledge on the state of the critical conditions of various existing defects, such as cracks and pitting [...] Read more.
Tanks play an important role in storing crude oil. Therefore, the maintenance and service life of tanks are very important for oil companies. In this regard, knowledge on the state of the critical conditions of various existing defects, such as cracks and pitting corrosion defects, can play an essential role in providing a better service to these huge metal structures. In the present research, the basic theories relating to crack defects were discussed. Then, an oil reserve in one of the island states of the country was modeled and analyzed by considering different types of defects using Finite Element (FE) simulation. Next, the critical dimensions of cracks and corrosion holes were identified in a number of cases. Eventually, the Taguchi Approach (TA) was used to investigate the effect of different parameters related to the various defects, such as length, depth and diameter, on the maximum stress. The results indicated that the effect of the crack and pitting corrosion depth is superior to the effect of the length and diameter for defects of crack and pitting corrosion, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Use of the Critical Acidification Model to Estimate the Influence of W in the Localized Corrosion Resistance of 25Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steels
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101364 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 402
Abstract
Two super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) with different W content, namely UNS S32750 (W-free) and UNS S39274 (2.1 wt.% W), were tested in simulated crevice corrosion environments to determine the influence of W on their corrosion resistance. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization experiments were performed [...] Read more.
Two super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) with different W content, namely UNS S32750 (W-free) and UNS S39274 (2.1 wt.% W), were tested in simulated crevice corrosion environments to determine the influence of W on their corrosion resistance. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization experiments were performed in two different crevice-like-solutions: 1 M HCl (as reference for a pH = 0 environment), and 7 M LiCl, adjusted to the same pH value. Galvele’s critical acidification model was used to estimate the theoretical critical potential (Ecrit) and comparatively evaluate the corrosion resistance of the two SDSS. The anodic potentiodynamic polarization results showed a statistically significant difference between the two materials in only one test condition, i.e., 7 M Cl at 60 °C. Additionally, the quantification of chemical dissolution of the metal cations after the tests suggested a surface enrichment in W only in the 7 M chloride solution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis indicated a uniform dissolution experienced by UNS S32750 in this environment, whereas UNS S39274 suffered selective corrosion of the ferrite-phase. These observations were reflected in a slight increase in the Ecrit values of UNS S32974 estimated with Galvele’s model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Electrochemical Noise Measurements of Advanced High-Strength Steels in Different Solutions
Metals 2020, 10(9), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091232 - 13 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), are commonly used in the manufacture of car bodies, as well as in front and rear rails, and safety posts. These components can be exposed to corrosive environments for instance, in countries where de-icing salts are used. In this [...] Read more.
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), are commonly used in the manufacture of car bodies, as well as in front and rear rails, and safety posts. These components can be exposed to corrosive environments for instance, in countries where de-icing salts are used. In this work, the corrosion behavior of four AHSS steels with dual-phase [ferrite-martensite (DP) and ferrite-bainite (FB)] steels were studied by means of electrochemical noise (EN) measurements according to the ASTM G199-09 standard in NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions at room temperature. The direct current (DC) trend data from EN were removed by a polynomial method of statistical and spectral analysis. According to the noise resistance (Rn) values obtained for the DP and FB dual-phase steels, both the martensite/bainite content and morphology of the phase constituents have an important effect on the corrosion behavior of these steels. The L.I. (localization index) (0.00054 to 0.15431), skewness (−6.18 to 7.35) and kurtosis (high values 37.15, 74.84 and 106.52) were calculated. In general, the results indicated that the main corrosion process is related to uniform corrosion. Corrosion behavior of AHSS steels exposed in NaCl solution could be related to the morphology of the phase constituents exposed in NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
On the Application of Bipolar Electrochemistry to Characterise the Localised Corrosion Behaviour of Type 420 Ferritic Stainless Steel
Metals 2020, 10(6), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060794 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Bipolar electrochemistry has been applied to Type 420 ferritic stainless steel in order to determine the full spectrum of anodic-to-cathodic polarisation behaviour. The occurrence of crevice corrosion, pitting corrosion in combination with general corrosion, pitting corrosion only, general corrosion only, followed by a [...] Read more.
Bipolar electrochemistry has been applied to Type 420 ferritic stainless steel in order to determine the full spectrum of anodic-to-cathodic polarisation behaviour. The occurrence of crevice corrosion, pitting corrosion in combination with general corrosion, pitting corrosion only, general corrosion only, followed by a cathodic region has been observed. Instances of pitting corrosion initiated near chromium-rich carbides with Cr23C6, Cr3C2, and Cr7C3 identified as pit nucleation sites. The observed pit growth kinetics were independent of the electrochemical over-potential. Characterisation of the pit size distributions supports the presence of a critical dissolved volume for the transition of metastable to stable pit growth and pit coalescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Effect of CO2/H2S and Applied Stress on Corrosion Behavior of 15Cr Tubing in Oil Field Environment
Metals 2020, 10(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10030409 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
The corrosion behavior of a 15Cr-6Ni-2Mo martensitic stainless steel (15Cr stainless steel) in a CO2/H2S environment was investigated by conducting high-temperature/high-pressure immersion tests combined with scanning electron microscopy and metallographic microscopy. The presence of H2S decreased the [...] Read more.
The corrosion behavior of a 15Cr-6Ni-2Mo martensitic stainless steel (15Cr stainless steel) in a CO2/H2S environment was investigated by conducting high-temperature/high-pressure immersion tests combined with scanning electron microscopy and metallographic microscopy. The presence of H2S decreased the corrosion resistance of the 15Cr tubing steel. The critical H2S partial pressure (PH2S) for stress corrosion cracking in the 15Cr tubing steel in the simulated oil field environment with a CO2 partial pressure of 4 MPa and an applied stress of 80% σs was identified. The 15Cr tubing steel mainly suffered uniform corrosion with no pitting and cracking when the PH2S was below 0.5 MPa. When the PH2S increased to 1 MPa and the test temperature was 150 °C, the pitting and cracking sensitivity increased. The stress corrosion cracking at a higher PH2S is attributed to the sulfide-induced brittle fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Laminar Flow on the Corrosion Activity of AA6061-T6 in Seawater
Metals 2020, 10(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020175 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
The electrochemical behaviour and surface changes on AA6061-T6 alloy exposed to Caribbean seawater from the Cozumel Channel for 30 days under laminar flow (0.1 m s−1) were studied, contrasting then with stationary (no flow) conditions. Monitoring of open-circuit potential and current [...] Read more.
The electrochemical behaviour and surface changes on AA6061-T6 alloy exposed to Caribbean seawater from the Cozumel Channel for 30 days under laminar flow (0.1 m s−1) were studied, contrasting then with stationary (no flow) conditions. Monitoring of open-circuit potential and current fluctuations, both considered as electrochemical noise (EN), were employed as two nondestructive methods. The calculated corrosion current, based on Rn, was one order higher in laminar flow. The fluctuations of current were transformed in the frequency domain. Their power spectral density (PSD) plots were obtained in order to gain information concerning the dynamic of the spontaneous release of energy during the corrosion process. The value of the exponent β in PSD graphs suggested that the localised corrosion on AA6061-T6 surface occurs as a persistent stationary process, in which dynamic is controlled by oxygen diffusion and its renewal at the metal interface. The changes in the morphology and elemental composition of the formed layers revealed that the localized attacks occurred in the vicinity of intermetallic particles rich in Fe and Cu, which act as cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localized Corrosion of Metals and Alloys)
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