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Metals, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 161 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In situ and interrupted electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) characterization of a small polycrystalline region of a magnesium alloy where both profuse and no twinning conditions took place in adjacent grains provided an opportunity to study the effect of twin accommodation mechanisms on the damage. Postmortem fractography analyses revealed the importance of twin–GB, slip–twin, twin–twin, and double twinning interactions in early damage initiation in magnesium. Analysis of in situ EBSD micrographs showed key features such as non-Schmid effects related to {10-12} multivariant twinning. The differences in volume fractions of different twin variants active in the same grain are correlated with the ease of {10-12} twin nucleation at grain boundaries. View this paper
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Article
Quantification of the Dislocation Density, Size, and Volume Fraction of Precipitates in Deep Cryogenically Treated Martensitic Steels
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111561 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Two groups of martensitic alloys were examined for changes induced by deep cryogenic treatment (DCT). The first group was a range of binary and ternary compositions with 0.6 wt % carbon, and the second group was a commercial AISI D2 tool steel. X-ray [...] Read more.
Two groups of martensitic alloys were examined for changes induced by deep cryogenic treatment (DCT). The first group was a range of binary and ternary compositions with 0.6 wt % carbon, and the second group was a commercial AISI D2 tool steel. X-ray diffraction showed that DCT made two changes to the microstructure: retained austenite was transformed to martensite, and the dislocation density of the martensite was increased. This increase in dislocation density was consistent for all alloys, including those that did not undergo phase transformation during DCT. It is suggested that the increase in dislocation density may be caused by local differences in thermal expansion within the heterogeneous martensitic structure. Then, samples were tempered, and the cementite size distribution was examined using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and atom probe tomography. First principles calculations confirmed that all magnetic scattering originated in cementite and not carbon clusters. Quantitative SANS analysis showed a measurable change in cementite size distribution for all alloys as a result of prior DCT. It is proposed that the increase in dislocation density that results from DCT modifies the cementite precipitation through enhanced diffusion rates and increased cementite nucleation sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Treatment and Mechanical Properties of Metals and Alloys)
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Communication
Feeding and Pore Formation in Semisolid Metal Casting
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111560 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 522
Abstract
Semisolid casting can provide excellent castings, but the nature of the pore-forming mechanisms has not been properly clarified. In the current communication, it was suggested that hydrogen precipitated during slurry making might have a decisive role in the formation of both gas and [...] Read more.
Semisolid casting can provide excellent castings, but the nature of the pore-forming mechanisms has not been properly clarified. In the current communication, it was suggested that hydrogen precipitated during slurry making might have a decisive role in the formation of both gas and shrinkage porosity. Intensive stirring at the end of the slurry making process may act as a degassing step. Without the intense shearing, structures of primary slurry particles form around the hydrogen pores, strongly affecting pore formation and feeding during the intensification stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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Article
Prediction of Surface Wrinkle Defect of Welding Wire Steel ER70S-6 in Hot Bar Rolling Process Using Finite Element Method and Experiments
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111559 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 548
Abstract
High quality products are demanded due to increasingly fierce market competition. In this paper, the generation of surface wrinkle defect of welding wire steel ER70S-6 was studied by the combination of the experimental method and finite element simulation. Firstly, a thermal compression test [...] Read more.
High quality products are demanded due to increasingly fierce market competition. In this paper, the generation of surface wrinkle defect of welding wire steel ER70S-6 was studied by the combination of the experimental method and finite element simulation. Firstly, a thermal compression test was conducted on the Gleeble-3500 thermosimulator under different strain rates and temperatures and a strain dependent Arrhenius-type constitutive function was employed to fit the flow stress–strain curves obtained from the experiments. Then, the elastoplastic constitutive relationship was implemented using radial return mapping algorithm by means of the user subroutine VUMAT of Abaqus/Explicit. A new instability criterion was proposed to predict the possibility of the surface wrinkle defect during the multipass hot bar rolling process. In order to verify the reliability of the finite element model of the six-pass continuous rolling process, the simulated results were compared with experimental data. Finally, the effects of groove width and groove radius on the billet were investigated by the orthogonal test method, and the friction coefficient and rolling temperature. The results show that the groove width and groove radius are key factors to suppress the surface wrinkle defect. Decreasing the groove width can be beneficial for improving the surface quality and reducing the fillet radius. The optimized combination of the rolling process parameters was further applied in an industrial test and the surface quality of the billet was greatly improved. Full article
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Article
A Combined Pyro- and Hydrometallurgical Approach to Recycle Pyrolyzed Lithium-Ion Battery Black Mass Part 2: Lithium Recovery from Li Enriched Slag—Thermodynamic Study, Kinetic Study, and Dry Digestion
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111558 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Due to the increasing demand for battery raw materials, such as cobalt, nickel, manganese, and lithium, the extraction of these metals, not only from primary, but also from secondary sources, is becoming increasingly important. Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) represent a potential source of [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing demand for battery raw materials, such as cobalt, nickel, manganese, and lithium, the extraction of these metals, not only from primary, but also from secondary sources, is becoming increasingly important. Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) represent a potential source of raw materials. One possible approach for an optimized recovery of valuable metals from spent LIBs is a combined pyro- and hydrometallurgical process. The generation of mixed cobalt, nickel, and copper alloy and lithium slag as intermediate products in an electric arc furnace is investigated in part 1. Hydrometallurgical recovery of lithium from the Li slag is investigated in part 2 of this article. Kinetic study has shown that the leaching of slag in H2SO4 takes place according to the 3-dimensional diffusion model and the activation energy is 22–24 kJ/mol. Leaching of the silicon from slag is causing formation of gels, which complicates filtration and further recovery of lithium from solutions. The thermodynamic study presented in the work describes the reasons for the formation of gels and the possibilities of their prevention by SiO2 precipitation. Based on these findings, the Li slag was treated by the dry digestion (DD) method followed by dissolution in water. The silicon leaching efficiency was significantly reduced from 50% in the direct leaching experiment to 5% in the DD experiment followed by dissolution, while the high leaching efficiency of lithium was maintained. The study takes into account the preparation of solutions for the future trouble-free acquisition of marketable products from solutions. Full article
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Article
Corrosion Behavior and Microstructure of Stir Zone in Fe-30Mn-3Al-3Si Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel after Friction Stir Welding
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111557 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 544
Abstract
The effect of friction stir welding on microstructure and corrosion property was studied in Fe-30Mn-3Al-3Si (wt.%) twinning-induced plasticity steel using both an electron backscattered diffractometer and electrochemical testing (i.e., polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscope). The stir zone has a relatively higher corrosion [...] Read more.
The effect of friction stir welding on microstructure and corrosion property was studied in Fe-30Mn-3Al-3Si (wt.%) twinning-induced plasticity steel using both an electron backscattered diffractometer and electrochemical testing (i.e., polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscope). The stir zone has a relatively higher corrosion resistance with uniform dissolution on the surface despite after welding, whereas the base metal shows localized corrosion attack with deep and long degradation along the grain boundaries. This is due to the corrosion-resistant coincidence site lattice boundaries caused by discontinuous dynamic recrystallization via the grain boundary bulging during the friction stir welding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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Article
Cyclic Performance of End-Plate Biaxial Moment Connection with HSS Columns
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111556 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 737
Abstract
This paper presents a numerical study on the seismic performance of end-plate moment connection between I-beam to HSS (hollow structural section) column stiffened by outer diaphragms (EP-HSS). In previous experimental research, this moment connection showed a satisfactory performance according to requirements established in [...] Read more.
This paper presents a numerical study on the seismic performance of end-plate moment connection between I-beam to HSS (hollow structural section) column stiffened by outer diaphragms (EP-HSS). In previous experimental research, this moment connection showed a satisfactory performance according to requirements established in Seismic provisions. However, one type of joint was studied and bidirectional and axial loads were not considered. In this since, several configurations representative of 2D interior joints and 3D interior and exterior joints in a steel building were modeled and subjected to unidirectional or bidirectional cyclic displacements according to protocol in seismic provisions. Firstly, a similar joint configuration was calibrated from experimental data, obtaining an acceptable adjustment. The assessment of seismic performance was based on hysteretic curves, failure mechanisms, stiffness, dissipated energy, and equivalent damping. The results obtained showed a ductile failure modes for 2D and 3D joint configurations with EP-HSS moment connection. The axial load has no significant effect on the moment connection. However, it affects the column strength due to the increase of the stresses in the column wall. Compared with 2D joints, 3D joints reached higher deformations even when a similar number of beams is used. The external diaphragms to the column panel zone provided rigidity in the joints and no degradation of slope for each loop in load/reload segment for elastic loop; therefore, curves without pinching were observed. All inelastic deformation is concentrated mainly in the beams. A moment resistance above 80% of the capacity of the beam at a drift of 4% is achieved in all joints. From the results reached, the use of EP-HSS moment connection with hollow structural section columns is a reliable alternative in seismic zones when steel moment frames are employed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Article
Effect of Pulse Current-Assisted Rolling on the Interface Bonding Strength and Microstructure of Cu/Al Laminated Composite
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111555 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 556
Abstract
In this paper, Cu/Al laminated composite was prepared by adopting the pulse current-assisted rolling method, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the material were investigated. The results showed that the Cu/Al laminated composite with pulsed current was significantly strengthened. The composite interface [...] Read more.
In this paper, Cu/Al laminated composite was prepared by adopting the pulse current-assisted rolling method, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the material were investigated. The results showed that the Cu/Al laminated composite with pulsed current was significantly strengthened. The composite interface of Cu/Al laminated composite with pulse current-assisted rolling was found without intermetallic phase, and its bonding mode was mainly mechanical combined. The number of reticulated ridges increased at the shear interface. The small cracks on the copper surface were firmly embedded in the aluminum metal. There were obvious folds on the copper surface without aluminum embedding. The structural change of the bonding interface increases the contact area between copper sheet and aluminum sheet, thereby enhancing the bonding strength of the Cu/Al laminated composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys and Aluminum Matrix Composites)
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Article
Sensitivity Analysis in the Modelling of a High Speed Steel Thin-Wall Produced by Directed Energy Deposition
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111554 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
This paper reports the sensitivity of the thermal and the displacement histories predicted by a finite element analysis to material properties and boundary conditions of a directed-energy deposition of a M4 high speed steel thin-wall part additively manufactured on a 42CrMo4 steel substrate. [...] Read more.
This paper reports the sensitivity of the thermal and the displacement histories predicted by a finite element analysis to material properties and boundary conditions of a directed-energy deposition of a M4 high speed steel thin-wall part additively manufactured on a 42CrMo4 steel substrate. The model accuracy was assessed by comparing the simulation results with the experimental measurements such as evolving local temperatures and distortion of the substrate. The numerical results of thermal history were successfully correlated with the solidified microstructures measured by scanning electron microscope technique, explaining the non-uniform, cellular-type grains depending on the deposit layers. Laser power, thermal conductivity, and thermal capacity of deposit and substrate were considered in the sensitivity analysis in order to quantify the effect of their variations on the local thermal history, while Young’s modulus and yield stress variation effects were evaluated on the distortion response of the sample. The laser power showed the highest impact on the thermal history, then came the thermal capacity, then the conductivity. Considering distortion, variations of the Young’s modulus had a higher impact than the yield stress. Full article
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Article
Recovery of Cobalt from the Residues of an Industrial Zinc Refinery
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111553 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
The electrolytic production of metallic zinc from processing zinc sulfide concentrates generates a residue containing cadmium, copper, and cobalt that need to be removed from the electrolytic zinc solution because they are harmful to the zinc electro-winning process. This residue is commonly sent [...] Read more.
The electrolytic production of metallic zinc from processing zinc sulfide concentrates generates a residue containing cadmium, copper, and cobalt that need to be removed from the electrolytic zinc solution because they are harmful to the zinc electro-winning process. This residue is commonly sent to other parties that partly recover the contained elements. These elements can generate revenues if recovered at the zinc plant site. A series of laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate a method to process a zinc plant residue with the objective of recovering cobalt into a salable product. The proposed process comprises washing, selective leaching, purifying and precipitation of cobalt following its oxidation. The process allows the production of a cobalt rich hydroxide precipitate assaying 45 ± 4% Co, 0.8 ± 0.2% Zn, 4.4 ± 0.7% Cu, and 0.120 ± 0.004% Cd at a 61 ± 14% Co recovery. Replicating the whole process with different feed samples allowed the identification of the critical steps in the production of the cobalt product; one of these critical steps being the control of the oxidation conditions for the selective precipitation step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery and Recycling of Valuable Metals)
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Article
Effect of Microstructure on Corrosion Behavior of WE43 Magnesium Alloy in As Cast and Heat-Treated Conditions
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111552 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
The improvement in corrosion resistance of WE43 was well realized by heat treatment. To study the influence of microstructure on the corrosion behavior of WE43 in as-cast and heat-treated conditions, an immersion test was employed with as-cast and heat-treated samples in the 3.5% [...] Read more.
The improvement in corrosion resistance of WE43 was well realized by heat treatment. To study the influence of microstructure on the corrosion behavior of WE43 in as-cast and heat-treated conditions, an immersion test was employed with as-cast and heat-treated samples in the 3.5% NaCl solution. The corrosion rate and change of morphology were recorded and the corrosion behavior was further investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the corrosion rate of the WE43 alloy decreased after heat treatment. It was observed that the eutectic gradually damages the protective film on the surface of the as-cast WE43 in the process of corrosion, which further increases the corrosion rate. The Zr-rich phase formed a domed structure resulting in the adjacent area being further corroded. The Y-rich phase has little effect on the corrosion reaction. Full article
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Article
Prediction of Leidenfrost Temperature in Spray Cooling for Continuous Casting and Heat Treatment Processes
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111551 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 590
Abstract
Spray cooling of hot steel surfaces is an inherent part of continuous casting and heat treatment. When we consider the temperature interval between room temperature and for instance 1000 °C, different boiling regimes can be observed. Spray cooling intensity rapidly changes with the [...] Read more.
Spray cooling of hot steel surfaces is an inherent part of continuous casting and heat treatment. When we consider the temperature interval between room temperature and for instance 1000 °C, different boiling regimes can be observed. Spray cooling intensity rapidly changes with the surface temperature. Secondary cooling in continuous casting starts when the surface temperature is well above a thousand degrees Celsius and a film boiling regime can be observed. The cooled surface is protected from the direct impact of droplets by the vapour layer. As the surface temperature decreases, the vapour layer is less stable and for certain temperatures the vapour layer collapses, droplets reach the hot surface and heat flux suddenly jumps enormously. It is obvious that the described effect has a great effect on control of cooling. The surface temperature which indicates the sudden change in the cooling intensity is the Leidenfrost temperature. The Leidenfrost temperature in spray cooling can occur anywhere between 150 °C and over 1000 °C and depends on the character of the spray. This paper presents an experimental study and shows function for prediction of the Leidenfrost temperature based on spray parameters. Water impingement density was found to be the most important parameter. This parameter must be combined with information about droplet size and velocity to produce a good prediction of the Leidenfrost temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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Article
A New Method for Determining the Brittle-to-Ductile Transition Temperature of a TiAl Intermetallic
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111550 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Intermetallic materials typically change their deformation behavior from brittle to ductile at a certain temperature called the Brittle-to-Ductile Transition Temperature (BDTT). This specific temperature can be determined by the Charpy impact, tensile or bending tests conducted at different temperatures and strain rates, which [...] Read more.
Intermetallic materials typically change their deformation behavior from brittle to ductile at a certain temperature called the Brittle-to-Ductile Transition Temperature (BDTT). This specific temperature can be determined by the Charpy impact, tensile or bending tests conducted at different temperatures and strain rates, which usually requires a large number of specimens. In order to reduce the number of necessary specimens for finding the BDTT, a new methodology comprising cyclic loadings as the crucial step was studied on a fully lamellar TiAl alloy with composition Ti-48Al-2Nb-0.7Cr-0.3Si. The loading blocks are applied isothermally under strain control and repeated on the same specimen at different temperatures. The development of plastic strain amplitude with increasing temperature is analyzed to determine the BDTT of the specimen. The BDTTs found with the described method agree well with literature data derived with conventional methods. With the loading strategy presented in this study, the BDTT and additionally the effect of strain rate on it can be found by using a single specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TiAl-Based Alloys and Their Applications)
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Article
High Speed Steel with Iron Addition Materials Sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111549 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
Attempts were made to describe the effect of the sintering temperature and pure iron powder addition on the properties of high speed steel based materials produced by the spark plasma sintering technique. After sintering, their density, hardness, flexural strength, and tribological properties were [...] Read more.
Attempts were made to describe the effect of the sintering temperature and pure iron powder addition on the properties of high speed steel based materials produced by the spark plasma sintering technique. After sintering, their density, hardness, flexural strength, and tribological properties were determined. The sintered materials were also subjected to microstructural analysis in order to determine the phenomena occurring at the particle contact boundaries during sintering. Based on the analysis of the obtained results, it was found that the mechanical properties and microstructure were mainly influenced by the sintering temperature. Using the temperature of 1000 °C allowed materials with a density close to the theoretical density to be obtained, characterized by a high hardness of about 360 HB and a low wear rate of about 1E-07 g/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Field-Assisted Sintering Technologies)
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Article
Evaluation of the Use of Electric Arc Furnace Slag and Ladle Furnace Slag in Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixes with Discarded Cellulose Fibers from the Papermaking Industry
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111548 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
The construction sector is one of the most demanding of raw materials that exist at present. In turn, the greenhouse gas emissions that it produces are important. Therefore, at present there are several lines of research in which industrial by-products are incorporated for [...] Read more.
The construction sector is one of the most demanding of raw materials that exist at present. In turn, the greenhouse gas emissions that it produces are important. Therefore, at present there are several lines of research in which industrial by-products are incorporated for the manufacture of bituminous mixtures and the reduction of CO2 emissions, framed inside the circular economy. On the base of the aforementioned, in this research, bituminous mixtures of the Stone Mastic Asphalt type were developed with electric arc furnace slag, ladle furnace slag and discarded cellulose fibers from the papermaking industry. To this end, the waste is first characterized physically and chemically, and its properties evaluated for use in bituminous mixtures. Later, different groups of samples are conformed with conventional materials and with the waste in order to be able to compare the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained bituminous mixtures. The physical tests carried out were bulk density, maximum density and void index, as well as the Marshall test for the evaluation of the strength and plastic deformations of all the bituminous mixtures manufactured. The study and evaluation of the results showed that the incorporation of slag makes it possible to absorb a greater percentage of bitumen and obtain better mechanical properties, while maintaining a similar deformation and void content. Therefore, it is feasible to use the mentioned slags to create sustainable, resistant and suitable pavements for important traffic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery and Recycling of Valuable Metals)
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Article
Influence of Surface Finishing on Corrosion Behaviour of 3D Printed TiAlV Alloy
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111547 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 584
Abstract
Additive manufacturing is currently one of the promising methods for the fabrication of products of complex shapes. It is also used in medical applications, thanks to technological progress, which also enables the printing of metallic materials. However, the final products often have to [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing is currently one of the promising methods for the fabrication of products of complex shapes. It is also used in medical applications, thanks to technological progress, which also enables the printing of metallic materials. However, the final products often have to undergo a final surface treatment. In this work, the influence of surface finishing on the corrosion behavior of the medical alloy Ti-6Al-4V prepared by the selective laser melting technique is studied. The samples were subjected to mechanical, chemical and electrochemical treatments. Corrosion behavior was investigated using DC and AC electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic and potentiostatic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, the influence of surface treatments on the possibility of localized corrosion attack was evaluated. The results showed that the surface treatments have a positive effect on the corrosion resistance and reduce the risk of crevice corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Treatment of Hexagonal Metallic Materials)
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Article
Experimental Determination of the Emissivity of Powder Layers and Bulk Material in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Using Infrared Thermography and Thermocouples
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111546 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Recording the temperature distribution of the layer under construction during laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is of utmost interest for a deep process understanding as well as for quality assurance and in situ monitoring means. While having a notable number of thermal monitoring [...] Read more.
Recording the temperature distribution of the layer under construction during laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is of utmost interest for a deep process understanding as well as for quality assurance and in situ monitoring means. While having a notable number of thermal monitoring approaches in additive manufacturing (AM), attempts at temperature calibration and emissivity determination are relatively rare. This study aims for the experimental temperature adjustment of an off-axis infrared (IR) thermography setup used for in situ thermal data acquisition in L-PBF processes. The temperature adjustment was conducted by means of the so-called contact method using thermocouples at two different surface conditions and two different materials: AISI 316L L-PBF bulk surface, AISI 316L powder surface, and IN718 powder surface. The apparent emissivity values for the particular setup were determined. For the first time, also corrected, closer to real emissivity values of the bulk or powder surface condition are published. In the temperature region from approximately 150 °C to 580 °C, the corrected emissivity was determined in a range from 0.2 to 0.25 for a 316L L-PBF bulk surface, in a range from 0.37 to 0.45 for 316L powder layer, and in a range from 0.37 to 0.4 for IN718 powder layer. Full article
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Editorial
Cellular Metals: Fabrication, Properties and Applications
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111545 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Cellular solids and porous metals have become some of the most promising lightweight multifunctional materials due to their superior combination of advanced properties mainly derived from their base material and cellular structure [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Metals: Fabrication, Properties and Applications)
Article
Experimental and Simulation Studies on the Compressive Properties of Brazed Aluminum Honeycomb Plates and a Strength Prediction Method
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111544 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 454
Abstract
To study the compressive mechanical properties of a new type of brazed aluminum honeycomb plate (BAHP), tensile tests on single- and brazed-cell walls as well as compression tests in the out-of-plane, in-plane longitudinal, and transverse directions were conducted. Compared to the material properties [...] Read more.
To study the compressive mechanical properties of a new type of brazed aluminum honeycomb plate (BAHP), tensile tests on single- and brazed-cell walls as well as compression tests in the out-of-plane, in-plane longitudinal, and transverse directions were conducted. Compared to the material properties of a traditional glued aluminum honeycomb plate (GAHP), those of the single- and brazed-cell walls of the BAHP are entirely different. Therefore, their characteristics should be considered separately when performing theoretical and simulation analysis. Under out-of-plane compression, the core of the BAHP did not debond, owing to its higher strength than that of the GAHP. In comparison, under in-plane compression in the longitudinal and transverse directions, the load–displacement characteristics, ultimate load, and failure modes also differed, and there was no large-scale cracking. Considering the characteristics of the BAHP, a strength prediction method was proposed. The simulation results demonstrated that the model built based on the new method was highly consistent with the experimental results. Defects with uneven height and debonding will cause the overall instability, and the degree of defects will influence the strength and instability displacement, which have little impact on the elastic stage. Moreover, the model considering defects is closer to the test results. Full article
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Article
An Infrared Local-Heat-Assisted Cold Stamping Process for Martensitic Steel and Application to an Auto Part
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111543 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 834
Abstract
The automotive industry has tried to employ ultra-high-strength steel (UHSS), which has a higher strength with a thinner thickness. However, because of its low formability, there is a limit to the use of UHSS in industrial applications. Even though the hot-press-forming method can [...] Read more.
The automotive industry has tried to employ ultra-high-strength steel (UHSS), which has a higher strength with a thinner thickness. However, because of its low formability, there is a limit to the use of UHSS in industrial applications. Even though the hot-press-forming method can resolve the formability problem, elevated-temperature conditions lead to side effects—heat transfer and productivity issues. This work presents the concept of an infrared local-heat-assisted cold stamping process. Before the forming process, local areas, where the formability problem occurs, are locally heated by the gathering of infrared rays and cooled to room temperature before delivery. Since the heat treatment is completed by the material supplier, the stamping companies can conduct cold stamping without new investments or the productivity issue. In this work, a heat-assisted cold V-bending test was conducted with a martensitic (MS) 1.5 GPa steel, the CR1470M steel provided by POSCO. The heating effects on the microstructure, hardness, and local ductility were also observed. Finally, a commercial door impact beam was successfully manufactured with the present method. In this application, only a targeted small area was heated. The results show that the present method can improve the formability and springback problems of MS steel in the stamping process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combinatorial Investigations of Alloys)
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Article
Improved Friction and Wear Properties of Al6061-Matrix Composites Reinforced by Cu-Ni Double-Layer-Coated Carbon Fibers
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111542 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 485
Abstract
The friction and wear properties of an Al6061 alloy reinforced with carbon fibers (CF) modified with Cu-Ni bimetallic layers were researched. Cu-Ni double layers were applied to the CF by electroless plating and Al6061-matrix composites were prepared by powder metallurgy technology. The metal-CF/Al [...] Read more.
The friction and wear properties of an Al6061 alloy reinforced with carbon fibers (CF) modified with Cu-Ni bimetallic layers were researched. Cu-Ni double layers were applied to the CF by electroless plating and Al6061-matrix composites were prepared by powder metallurgy technology. The metal-CF/Al interfaces and post-dry-wear-testing wear loss weights, friction coefficients, worn surfaces, and wear debris were characterized. After T6 heat treatment, the interfacial bonding mechanism of Cu-Ni-CF changed from mechanical bonding to diffusion bonding and showed improved interfacial bonding strength because the Cu transition layer reduced the fiber damage caused by Ni diffusion. The metal–CF interfacial bonding strongly influenced the composite’s tribological properties. Compared to the Ni-CF/Al and Cu-CF/Al composites, the Cu-Ni-CF/Al composite showed the highest hardness, the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate, and the best load-carrying capacity. The wear mechanisms of Cu-Ni-CF/Al composite are mainly slight abrasive wear and adhesive wear. Full article
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Article
Cathodic and Anodic Stress Corrosion Cracking of a New High-Strength CrNiMnMoN Austenitic Stainless Steel
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111541 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 676
Abstract
A new high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel with excellent mechanical properties was tested for its resistance to stress corrosion cracking. The new conventional produced hybrid CrNiMnMoN stainless steel combines the excellent mechanical properties of CrMnN stainless steels with the good corrosion properties of CrNiMo [...] Read more.
A new high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel with excellent mechanical properties was tested for its resistance to stress corrosion cracking. The new conventional produced hybrid CrNiMnMoN stainless steel combines the excellent mechanical properties of CrMnN stainless steels with the good corrosion properties of CrNiMo stainless steels. Possible applications of such a high-strength material are wires in maritime environments. In principle, the material can come into direct contact with high chloride solutions as well as low pH containing media. The resistance against chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking was determined by slow strain rate tests and constant load tests in different chloride-containing solutions at elevated temperatures. Resistance to hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking was investigated by precharging and ongoing in-situ hydrogen charging in both slow strain rate test and constant load test. The hydrogen charging was carried out by cathodic charging in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution with addition of 1 g/L thiourea as corrosion inhibitor and recombination inhibitor to ensure hydrogen absorption with negligible corrosive attack. Slow strain rate tests only lead to hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking by in-situ charging, which leads to total hydrogen contents of more than 10 wt.-ppm and not by precharging alone. Excellent resistance to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking in 43 wt.% CaCl2 at 120 °C and in 5 wt.% NaCl buffered pH 3.5 solution at 80 °C is obtained for the investigated austenitic stainless steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Embrittlement of Metallic Materials)
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Article
Effect of Cavitation Erosion Wear, Vibration Tumbling, and Heat Treatment on Additively Manufactured Surface Quality and Properties
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111540 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
The paper is devoted to researching various post-processing methods that affect surface quality, physical properties, and mechanical properties of laser additively manufactured steel parts. The samples made of two types of anticorrosion steels—20kH13 (DIN 1.4021, X20Cr13, AISI 420) and 12kH18N9T (DIN 1.4541, X10CrNiTi18-10, [...] Read more.
The paper is devoted to researching various post-processing methods that affect surface quality, physical properties, and mechanical properties of laser additively manufactured steel parts. The samples made of two types of anticorrosion steels—20kH13 (DIN 1.4021, X20Cr13, AISI 420) and 12kH18N9T (DIN 1.4541, X10CrNiTi18-10, AISI 321) steels—of martensitic and austenitic class were subjected to cavitation abrasive finishing and vibration tumbling. The roughness parameter Ra was reduced by 4.2 times for the 20kH13 (X20Cr13) sample by cavitation-abrasive finishing when the roughness parameter Ra for 12kH18N9T (X10CrNiTi18-10) sample was reduced by 2.8 times by vibratory tumbling. The factors of cavitation-abrasive finishing were quantitatively evaluated and mathematically supported. The samples after low tempering at 240 °C in air, at 680 °C in oil, and annealing at 760 °C in air were compared with cast samples after quenching at 1030 °C and tempering at 240 °C in air, 680 °C in oil. It was shown that the strength characteristics increased by ~15% for 20kH13 (X20Cr13) steel and ~20% for 12kH18N9T (X10CrNiTi18-10) steel than for traditionally heat-treated cast samples. The wear resistance of 20kH13 (X20Cr13) steel during abrasive wear correlated with measured hardness and decreased with an increase in tempering temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Laser Materials Processing)
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Article
Design Optimization of a Single-Strand Tundish Based on CFD-Taguchi-Grey Relational Analysis Combined Method
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111539 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
A novel digital design methodology that combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and Taguchi-Grey relational analysis method was presented for a single-strand tundish. The present study aimed at optimizing the flow control device in the tundish with an emphasis on maximizing the inclusion [...] Read more.
A novel digital design methodology that combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and Taguchi-Grey relational analysis method was presented for a single-strand tundish. The present study aimed at optimizing the flow control device in the tundish with an emphasis on maximizing the inclusion removal rate and minimizing the dead volume fraction. A CFD model was employed to calculate the fluid flow and the residence-time distribution of liquid steel in the tundish. The Lagrangian approach was applied to investigate the behavior of non-metallic inclusions in the system. The calculated residence-time distribution curves were used to analyze the dead volume fraction in the tundish. A Taguchi orthogonal array L9(3^4) was used to analyze the effects of design factors on both single and multiple responses. Moreover, for the purpose of meeting the multi-objective target functions, grey relational analysis and analysis of variance were used. The optimum positions of the weir and the dam were obtained based on the design targets. A special focus of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of the Taguchi-Grey relational analysis method as a powerful means of increasing the effectiveness of CFD simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling in Steel Metallurgy)
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Article
Microstructure Development in Additive Friction Stir-Deposited Cu
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111538 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
This work details the additive friction stir-deposition (AFS-D) of copper and evaluation of its microstructure evolution and hardness. During deposition, a surface oxide is formed on the deposit exterior. A very fine porosity is formed at the substrate–deposit interface. The deposit (four layers [...] Read more.
This work details the additive friction stir-deposition (AFS-D) of copper and evaluation of its microstructure evolution and hardness. During deposition, a surface oxide is formed on the deposit exterior. A very fine porosity is formed at the substrate–deposit interface. The deposit (four layers of 1 mm nominal height) is otherwise fully dense. The grains appear to have recrystallized throughout the deposit with varying levels of refinement. The prevalence of twinning was found to be dependent upon the grain size, with larger local grain sizes having a higher number of twins. Vickers hardness measurements reveal that the deposit is softer than the starting feedstock. This result indicates that grain refinement and/or higher twin densities do not replace work hardening contributions to strengthen Cu processed by additive friction stir-deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Additive Manufacturing)
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Editorial
Recent Advancements in Metallic Glasses
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111537 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Investigations of the structure and properties of metallic glasses constitute a subject of unabated interest [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in Metallic Glasses)
Article
Thermomechanical Treatment of Martensitic Stainless Steels Sheets and Its Effects on Their Deep Drawability and Resulting Hardness in Press Hardening
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111536 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 580
Abstract
The deep drawability of three Martensitic Stainless Steels (MSS) alloys under conventional press hardening thermomechanical process conditions was investigated. The three alloys differ in the content of the main elements C and Cr. Firstly, the metallurgical properties of the alloys were determined, i.e., [...] Read more.
The deep drawability of three Martensitic Stainless Steels (MSS) alloys under conventional press hardening thermomechanical process conditions was investigated. The three alloys differ in the content of the main elements C and Cr. Firstly, the metallurgical properties of the alloys were determined, i.e., the phase mass fraction diagrams and the concentration of alloying elements in solid solution at the austenitic temperatures with help of the JMatPro® software version 7.0. Derived from this analysis, specific thermomechanical process parameters were defined to evaluate experimentally and numerically the hot sheet formability of the alloys during the deep drawing process. The hot deep drawability of the MSS alloys was experimentally assessed. The hot deep drawability was evaluated with the resulting maximum drawing depth values. In general, all three alloys developed very good formability at forming temperatures between 700 and 900 °C. However, they are susceptible to chemical composition, austenization temperature, dwell time, and flange gap. The hot formability behavior of the alloys as well as the resulting hardness showed very good concordance with the calculated metallurgical values. Finally, a numerical analysis was conducted using Simufact Forming® 15.0 software. The interval time during hot blank transfer to the tool determines the initial and final forming temperature. The effect of the time interval on the forming temperature was analyzed numerically and validated experimentally. It was also possible to determine the maximum level of plastic strain in the deep drawn cup. Full article
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Article
Renewable Hydrogen Production Processes for the Off-Gas Valorization in Integrated Steelworks through Hydrogen Intensified Methane and Methanol Syntheses
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111535 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Within integrated steelmaking industries significant research efforts are devoted to the efficient use of resources and the reduction of CO2 emissions. Integrated steelworks consume a considerable quantity of raw materials and produce a high amount of by-products, such as off-gases, currently used [...] Read more.
Within integrated steelmaking industries significant research efforts are devoted to the efficient use of resources and the reduction of CO2 emissions. Integrated steelworks consume a considerable quantity of raw materials and produce a high amount of by-products, such as off-gases, currently used for the internal production of heat, steam or electricity. These off-gases can be further valorized as feedstock for methane and methanol syntheses, but their hydrogen content is often inadequate to reach high conversions in synthesis processes. The addition of hydrogen is fundamental and a suitable hydrogen production process must be selected to obtain advantages in process economy and sustainability. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different hydrogen production processes from renewable energy, namely polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis, solid oxide electrolyze cell electrolysis, and biomass gasification. Aspen Plus® V11-based models were developed, and simulations were conducted for sensitivity analyses to acquire useful information related to the process behavior. Advantages and disadvantages for each considered process were highlighted. In addition, the integration of the analyzed hydrogen production methods with methane and methanol syntheses is analyzed through further Aspen Plus®-based simulations. The pros and cons of the different hydrogen production options coupled with methane and methanol syntheses included in steelmaking industries are analyzed. Full article
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Article
Geometric Optimization of Drills Used to Repair Holes in Magnesium Aeronautical Components
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111534 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 581
Abstract
Magnesium alloys are used in the aeronautical sector due to their excellent strength/weight ratios, motivated by the reduction of weight that their use entails. In this sector, drilling is one of the most common operations, if not the most, due to the large [...] Read more.
Magnesium alloys are used in the aeronautical sector due to their excellent strength/weight ratios, motivated by the reduction of weight that their use entails. In this sector, drilling is one of the most common operations, if not the most, due to the large number of holes that are used in joining processes, mainly by riveting. The appearance of cracks is a risk to the structural safety of the components, such that it is necessary to regularly check them for maintenance and/or repair tasks. The present study tries to determine the optimization of the characteristics of the twist drills, which are re-sharpened successively to restore the cutting edge after use, as well as the operating parameters in machining. For this purpose, a full factorial experimental design was established, analyzing through the analysis of the variance (ANOVA) the response variables. Surface integrity was considered to carry out a global vision of the quality obtained, covering as response variables the surface roughness, the size of the burrs and the modification of the hardness produced, in addition to a topological characterization by optical means of machined surfaces. The main conclusion is that it is possible that the geometric optimization of the tools and the operating parameters considered in this study in drilling processes allow them to be performed, while maintaining quality and environmental requirements, and at the same time, maximize the productivity of operations. Full article
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Article
Molecular Dynamics Study on the Impact of Cu Clusters at the BCC-Fe Grain Boundary on the Tensile Properties of Crystal
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111533 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 501
Abstract
The molecular dynamics (MD) method was used to simulate and calculate the segregation energy and cohesive energy of Cu atoms at the Σ3{111}(110) and Σ3{112}(110) grain boundaries, and the tensile properties of the BCC-Fe crystal, with the grain boundaries containing coherent Cu clusters [...] Read more.
The molecular dynamics (MD) method was used to simulate and calculate the segregation energy and cohesive energy of Cu atoms at the Σ3{111}(110) and Σ3{112}(110) grain boundaries, and the tensile properties of the BCC-Fe crystal, with the grain boundaries containing coherent Cu clusters of different sizes (a diameter of 10 Å, 15 Å and 20 Å). The results showed that Cu atoms will spontaneously segregate towards the grain boundaries and tend to exist in the form of large-sized, low-density Cu clusters at the grain boundaries. When Cu cluster exists at the Σ3{111}(110) grain boundary, the increase in the size of the Cu cluster leads to an increase in the probability of vacancy formation inside the Cu cluster during the tensile process, weakening the breaking strength of the crystal. When the Cu cluster exists at the Σ3{112}(110) grain boundary, the Cu cluster with a diameter of 10 Å will reduce the strain hardening strength of the crystal, but the plastic deformation ability of the crystal will not be affected, and the existence of Cu clusters with a diameter of 15 Å and 20 Å will suppress the structural phase transformation of the crystal, and significantly decrease the plastic deformation ability of the crystal, thereby resulting in embrittlement of the crystal. Full article
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Article
Crystallization of FCC and BCC Liquid Metals Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111532 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
The atomic structure variations on cooling, vitrification and crystallization processes in liquid metals face centered cubic (FCC) Cu are simulated in the present work in comparison with body centered cubic (BCC) Fe. The process is done on continuous cooling and isothermal annealing using [...] Read more.
The atomic structure variations on cooling, vitrification and crystallization processes in liquid metals face centered cubic (FCC) Cu are simulated in the present work in comparison with body centered cubic (BCC) Fe. The process is done on continuous cooling and isothermal annealing using a classical molecular-dynamics computer simulation procedure with an embedded-atom method potential at constant pressure. The structural changes are monitored with direct structure observation in the simulation cells containing from about 100 k to 1 M atoms. The crystallization process is analyzed under isothermal conditions by monitoring density and energy variation as a function of time. A common-neighbor cluster analysis is performed. The results of thermodynamic calculations on estimating the energy barrier for crystal nucleation and a critical nucleus size are compared with those obtained from simulation. The differences in crystallization of an FCC and a BCC metal are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
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