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Insects, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) There are more species of caddisflies (Trichoptera) than of all other primarily aquatic orders of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Insecticidal Properties of Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogon winterianus against Acanthoscelides obtectus, Insect Pest of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050151
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
The bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. The control of this insect is still poor and involves the use of conventional insecticides. There is an increasing demand in the search [...] Read more.
The bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. The control of this insect is still poor and involves the use of conventional insecticides. There is an increasing demand in the search for new active substances and products for pest control towards reduction of adverse effects on human health and the environment. The protection of grains with alternative products, such as essential oils, is a possible alternative to meet the needs described above. Therefore, this investigation evaluated the applications of basil, Ocimum basilicum, and citronella, Cymbopogon winterianus, essential oils for A. obtectus control. These essential oils significantly reduced the bean weight losses and the number of beans damaged by A. obtectus at higher doses than 60 or 120 μL/sample. The number of holes per bean did not differ between the doses of basil essential oil, not even at the dose of 60 μL, while it was higher at 120 μL, probably due to a lower capacity of movement of the insects treated with this dose and/or the oil’s direct or indirect effects on the insects. Basil and citronella oils exhibited similar patterns of insecticidal activity over the insect, both directly in adult insects or indirectly over bean seeds. These essential oils affected the development of A. obtectus since the greatest doses applied on beans decreased the emergence of the bean weevil. The results prove the insecticidal capacity of the tested essential oils and hence their potential as active substances against A. obtectus in environmentally low risk pest control strategies. Supplementary trials should be conducted under real storage conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Case Study: A Practical Application of an Aerosol Treatment in a Commercial Mill
Insects 2019, 10(5), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050150
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest and need for alternatives to structural fumigations, and one alternative that has been used across the industry is aerosol insecticides. Previous tests inside a pilot-scale mill demonstrated that aerosol particle size, delivery method, and [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest and need for alternatives to structural fumigations, and one alternative that has been used across the industry is aerosol insecticides. Previous tests inside a pilot-scale mill demonstrated that aerosol particle size, delivery method, and the spatial configuration of the mill all influenced effectiveness. However, there is no research conducted inside large commercial facilities. The objective of this research was to evaluate a pyrethrin-plus-methoprene aerosol application inside a commercial mill on adult Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duVal, confused flour beetle, directly exposed to the aerosol and residual effects on larvae. Additionally, five aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometers were placed in the facility and recorded instantaneous spray concentration and estimated aerosol deposition. Adult T. confusum exposed nearest to the aerosol application points had the highest percentage of affected adults (>60%). The aerosol also had vertical movement when released at the top of a three-story open room; instantaneous concentrations were recorded on the ground floor. The aerosol residual was highly effective after 6-weeks post aerosol exposure, as 80% of the bioassays did not have any adult emergence from exposed larvae. This research demonstrates a practical use of aerosol insecticides and their potential to be an effective alternative to structural fumigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessReview
Minimal Thermal Requirements for Development and Activity of Stored Product and Food Industry Pests (Acari, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera and Blattodea): A Review
Insects 2019, 10(5), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050149
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Low temperatures play an important role in arthropods because they affect both the individual and population development of all physiological and behavioural activities. Manipulation with low temperatures is a primary nonchemical pest control method. For stored product and food industry practitioners, a knowledge [...] Read more.
Low temperatures play an important role in arthropods because they affect both the individual and population development of all physiological and behavioural activities. Manipulation with low temperatures is a primary nonchemical pest control method. For stored product and food industry practitioners, a knowledge of pest thermal requirements, in particular threshold temperatures at which development and other activities of a particular pest species cease, is of crucial importance. This review presents summary data regarding the lower temperature thresholds of 121 species of stored product and food industry pests from six arthropod taxa (Acari, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera, and Blattodea). In particular, this review collected and summarized information regarding the lower development thresholds, lower population thresholds, lower acoustic or respiratory thresholds, lower walking and flying thresholds and lower trap capture thresholds for flying and walking arthropods. The average lower development threshold (LDT) differed among orders: the lowest was reported for Acari (6.8 °C) and Diptera (8.1 °C), followed by Lepidoptera (11.3 °C) and Psocoptera (13.8 °C), and the highest was reported for Coleoptera (14 °C) and Blattodea (15 °C). An exclusion-function was established showing the percentage of pest species (n = 112) that were developmentally suppressed (excluded) due to temperatures reaching the LDT in the range of decreasing temperatures from 25 °C to 0 °C. We scaled various temperature thresholds from the lowest to highest temperature as follows: the walking threshold, the trap capture threshold for walking insects, the lower development threshold, lower population threshold, lower flying threshold and the lower trap capture threshold for flying pests. Important pest species were identified for which information regarding the lower temperature threshold is missing, or for which the information is too variable and should be refined in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Contribution of Surrounding Margins in the Promotion of Natural Enemies in Mediterranean Apple Orchards
Insects 2019, 10(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050148
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
(1) Habitat management can enhance beneficial arthropod populations and provide ecosystem services such as biological control. However, the implementation of ecological infrastructures inside orchards has a number of practical limitations. Therefore, planting/growing insectary plants in the margins of orchards should be considered as [...] Read more.
(1) Habitat management can enhance beneficial arthropod populations and provide ecosystem services such as biological control. However, the implementation of ecological infrastructures inside orchards has a number of practical limitations. Therefore, planting/growing insectary plants in the margins of orchards should be considered as an alternative approach. (2) Here, we assessed the efficacy of a flower margin composed by four insectary plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lobularia maritima, Moricandia arvensis and Sinapis alba), which was placed on an edge of four Mediterranean apple orchards to attract natural enemies of two apple tree aphids (Dysaphis plantaginea and Eriosoma lanigerum). We also characterized the natural enemies present in the aphid colonies. (3) Our results show that the implementation of a flower margin at the edge of apple orchards attracts predators (Syrphidae, Thysanoptera, Araneae, Heteroptera, Coleoptera) and parasitoids. Parasitoids are the main natural enemies present in aphid colonies in our area. (4) The implementation of the flower margins successfully recruited natural enemy populations, and the presence of parasitoids in the surroundings of the orchards increased the parasitism of D. plantaginea colonies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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Open AccessArticle
New Litter Trap Devices Outperform Pitfall Traps for Studying Arthropod Activity
Insects 2019, 10(5), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050147
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Soil fauna play a key role in nutrient cycling and decomposition, and in recent years, researchers have become more and more interested in this compartment of terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, soil fauna can act as ecosystem engineers by creating, modifying, and maintaining the [...] Read more.
Soil fauna play a key role in nutrient cycling and decomposition, and in recent years, researchers have become more and more interested in this compartment of terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, soil fauna can act as ecosystem engineers by creating, modifying, and maintaining the habitat for other organisms. Ecologists usually utilize live catches in pitfalls traps as a standard method to study the activity of epigeic fauna in addition to relative abundance. Counts in pitfall traps can be used as estimates of relative activity to compare among experimental treatments. This requires taking independent estimates of abundance (e.g., by sifting soil litter, mark–recapture), which can then be used as covariates in linear models to compare the levels of fauna activity (trap catches) among treatments. However, many studies show that the use of pitfall traps is not the most adequate method to estimate soil fauna relative abundances, and these concerns may be extensible to estimating activity. Here, we present two new types of traps devised to study activity in litter fauna, and which we call “cul-de-sac” and “basket traps”, respectively. We experimentally show that, at least for litter dwellers, these new traps are more appropriate to estimate fauna activity than pitfall traps because: (1) pitfall traps contain 3.5× more moisture than the surrounding environment, potentially attracting animals towards them when environmental conditions are relatively dry; (2) cul-de-sac and basket traps catch ca. 4× more of both meso- and macrofauna than pitfall traps, suggesting that pitfall traps are underestimating activity; and (3) pitfall traps show a bias towards collecting 1.5× higher amounts of predators, which suggests that predation rates are higher within pitfall traps. We end with a protocol and recommendations for how to use these new traps in ecological experiments and surveys aiming at estimating soil arthropod activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial Gene Sequence (COI) Reveals the Genetic Structure and Demographic History of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) in and around China
Insects 2019, 10(5), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050146
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is among the most destructive quarantine pests of forests. Here, we reconstructed the genetic structure and determined the population differentiation of gypsy moths across its distribution range at different times. This information could be used to both [...] Read more.
The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is among the most destructive quarantine pests of forests. Here, we reconstructed the genetic structure and determined the population differentiation of gypsy moths across its distribution range at different times. This information could be used to both improve the prevention and detection of gypsy moths in the field. Using 31 newly designed species-specific primers targeting fragments of 216–1102 bp, we identified 103 full-length cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences from eight fresh samples and 95 L. dispar specimens collected between 1955 and 1996, mainly in China. Combining 103 full-length COI gene sequences with 146 COI gene sequences from Genbank or DNA barcode libraries, we analyzed the genetic differentiation, gene flow and haplotypes between gypsy moth populations in order to reflect the genetic structure and population dynamics of gypsy moths. We discovered 25 previously unknown haplotypes from old gypsy moth specimens. We found that the genetic diversity among gypsy moth populations (collected in the same region at different time points) was relatively high. Furthermore, the genetic structure of Chinese geographical populations (Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Beijing) in different years was distinct. Our results suggested that some gypsy moths in China showed the genetic affinity with European gypsy moths (a sub-species of gypsy moths found mainly in Europe). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioassays and Methodologies for Insecticide Tests with Larvae of Trogoderma granarium (Everts), the Khapra Beetle
Insects 2019, 10(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050145
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
New insecticide treatment options would be beneficial for control programs for Trogoderma granarium Everts, the khapra beetle, in the United States. Two insecticides were evaluated, the Polyzone® formulation of deltamethrin and a formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene combined with deltamethrin [...] Read more.
New insecticide treatment options would be beneficial for control programs for Trogoderma granarium Everts, the khapra beetle, in the United States. Two insecticides were evaluated, the Polyzone® formulation of deltamethrin and a formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene combined with deltamethrin and the synergist piperonyl butoxide. In the test with Polyzone® deltamethrin, concrete arenas were treated with a low and high rate, and held outside, inside a shed, or inside a lab. Compared to storage in the lab, residue degradation increased slightly in the shed, and then further outside, as evidenced by greater larval survival and adult emergence. Across all environmental treatments, the high rate was more effective than the lower rate. For the combination methoprene product, the effect of food contact with treated surfaces was examined. When treating arenas with food and transferring the food to clean dishes, there was no immediate effect on larval survival, but there was a reduction in survival and emergence to the adult stage after one month. For both tests, larvae apparently often went into diapause after they were introduced onto the treatment arenas. Both treatments could be utilized in management programs if T. granarium infestations are detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Oilseed Rape Seed Treatment with Imidacloprid on Survival, Feeding Behavior, and Detoxifying Enzymes of Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis erysimi
Insects 2019, 10(5), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050144
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
Imidacloprid application, as a seed coating agent on oilseed rape, is recommended to control mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). In this study, responses of L. erysimi were investigated, including survival, feeding behavior, and detoxifying enzymes, on the oilseed rape seedlings grown [...] Read more.
Imidacloprid application, as a seed coating agent on oilseed rape, is recommended to control mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). In this study, responses of L. erysimi were investigated, including survival, feeding behavior, and detoxifying enzymes, on the oilseed rape seedlings grown from seeds coated with imidacloprid at rates of 6, 12, or 18 g active ingredient (a.i.)/kg seed. The results showed that the aphids’ survival rate, together with that of the progeny of the survivors, on the seed-treated seedlings significantly decreased. This indicates that the aphid population in fields can be suppressed effectively. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique was used to record aphid feeding behaviors on two-, four-, and six-leaf stages of oilseed rape seedlings that had been seed-coated with imidacloprid, and individual responses were revealed during the aphid feeding behavior. On the plants at the two-leaf stage, aphid feeding behaviors were influenced, showing decreased frequency of stylet penetration into the leaf (probe) or into the mesophyll cells (potential drops, pds for short), and shortened duration of stylet event in the leaf (probe) or in the phloem. On the plants at the four- and six-leaf stages, these impacts of imidacloprid were weakened; however, the saliva secretion duration in phloem was shortened to less than 5 min in all imidacloprid treatments. The activity of mixed-function oxidase in aphids maintained on the treated seedlings with imidacloprid was elevated. In conclusion, imidacloprid could be used as a seed coating agent for aphid control, but chemical resistance in aphids should not be ignored. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fine Morphology of the Mouthparts in Cheilocapsus nigrescens (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) Reflects Adaptation for Phytophagous Habits
Insects 2019, 10(5), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050143
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 19 May 2019
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Abstract
To obtain a better understanding of feeding adaptations, the fine structure of the mouthparts in adults of Cheilocapsus nigrescens Liu and Wang, including the sculpture and interlocking mechanisms of the stylets and distribution and abundance of sensilla located on the labium, were studied [...] Read more.
To obtain a better understanding of feeding adaptations, the fine structure of the mouthparts in adults of Cheilocapsus nigrescens Liu and Wang, including the sculpture and interlocking mechanisms of the stylets and distribution and abundance of sensilla located on the labium, were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mouthparts are similar to those of previously studied mirid species in most aspects and composed of a cone-shaped labrum, a tube-like, four-segmented labium with a deep groove on the anterior side, and a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets. Each mandibular stylet tip has about 6–8 indistinctive notches, which help in penetrating the leaf surface. A series of transverse squamous textures are present on the adaxial surface of the mandibular stylets. The maxillary stylets interlock to form a food canal and a salivary canal, equipped with an external longitudinal process that engages grooves in the mandibular stylets. Three kinds of sensilla, including four types of sensilla basiconica (I, II, III, and IV), four types of sensilla trichodea (I, II, III, and IV), and one type of sensillum campaniformium, occur at different locations on the labium. Among them, sensilla trichodea I and II are the most abundant; sensilla basiconica II occurs between the first segment and second segment, and between the third and fourth segment. The tripartite apex of the labium consists of two lateral lobes and an apical plate. Each lateral lobe possesses a field of 11 sensilla basiconica IV and 1 sensillum trichodeum IV. The morphology of the mouthparts and the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in C. nigrescens are discussed with respect to their possible taxonomic and functional significance. In particular, the indistinct notches of the mandibular stylet and smooth inner surface of the right maxillary stylets are suited primarily for phytophagy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Residual Efficacy of Pyrethrin + Methoprene Aerosol on Two Dermestids: Impact of Particle Size, Species, and Temperature
Insects 2019, 10(5), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050142
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Residual effects of pyrethrin + methoprene aerosol dispensed at 4 and 16-µm particle sizes and an untreated control, was assessed against late-stage larvae of Trogoderma inclusum (LeConte), the larger cabinet beetle, and T. variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle. Treated arenas were stored at [...] Read more.
Residual effects of pyrethrin + methoprene aerosol dispensed at 4 and 16-µm particle sizes and an untreated control, was assessed against late-stage larvae of Trogoderma inclusum (LeConte), the larger cabinet beetle, and T. variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle. Treated arenas were stored at 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C and bioassays were conducted at 1, 3, or 6 weeks post-treatment. Larval development was monitored through adult emergence to compare the efficacy of treatments by using both the percentage of normal adult emergence and a developmental index as dependent variables. There was no overall effect of temperature on residual activity as measured using either adult emergence or developmental index values. Both the 4 and 16-µm particle sizes resulted in reduced adult emergence and low developmental index values compared to untreated controls. The insecticide was more effective on T. variabile than on T. inclusum. The impact of particle size varied between species, both particle sizes reduced adult emergence and developmental index in T. variabile, but only the 16-µm particle size resulted in reduction of adult emergence of T. inclusum. Furthermore, there was a reduction in activity of methoprene with residual exposure time. The variations in susceptibility of species to methoprene, differences in efficacy of particle sizes, and decrease in residual persistence at smaller particle sizes highlight the need for attaining optimal particle size to improve overall efficacy of aerosol mixtures containing methoprene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Open AccessArticle
Tamarixia radiata Behaviour is Influenced by Volatiles from Both Plants and Diaphorina citri Nymphs
Insects 2019, 10(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050141
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) is an important ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a globally destructive pest of citrus. In the present study, a Y-tube olfactometer was employed to investigate whether the parasitoid T. radiata is capable of utilizing the odour [...] Read more.
Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) is an important ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a globally destructive pest of citrus. In the present study, a Y-tube olfactometer was employed to investigate whether the parasitoid T. radiata is capable of utilizing the odour source emitted by both plants and insect hosts during its foraging. The odour sources included Murraya paniculata (L.) shoots, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th D. citri instar nymphs, both individually and in combinations. Moreover, nymph-stage choice for parasitism, including 3rd, 4th, and 5th D. citri instar nymphs, was carried out. The results indicated that female T. radiata were only significantly attracted to volatiles emitted by M. paniculata shoots, 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar nymphs of D. citri, but could not distinguish between them. T. radiata males were not attracted by odours sourced from any instar D. citri nymphs. Female T. radiata adults exhibited a significant preference to later instar nymphal stages of D. citri for oviposition. The results from this study can be used to guide further investigations on the searching behaviour of this parasitoid and its utilization in D. citri biocontrol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Knockdown Bioassay Methods to Assess Phosphine Resistance in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050140
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Resistance to the fumigant phosphine in Tribolium castaneum occurs worldwide. This study evaluated tests based on adult knockdown time, the time for a beetle to become immobile, when exposed to a high concentration of phosphine. We recorded knockdown times of beetles that remained [...] Read more.
Resistance to the fumigant phosphine in Tribolium castaneum occurs worldwide. This study evaluated tests based on adult knockdown time, the time for a beetle to become immobile, when exposed to a high concentration of phosphine. We recorded knockdown times of beetles that remained completely still for 30 s when exposed to 3000 ppm of phosphine in a large, gas-tight glass tube. Beetles were used from 12 populations, of which six were ‘susceptible’ to phosphine, three were ‘weakly resistant’, and three were ‘strongly resistant’. Knockdown times were determined for single beetles, as well as for groups of ten beetles for which the time to knockdown for either five beetles (KT50) or ten beetles (KT100) were recorded. Similar knockdown times occurred across susceptible and resistant populations. However, the KT100 tests generated conservative times for diagnosing strong vs. weak resistance. The strong resistant populations were all over 100 min with KT100, compared to 60 min or less for susceptible and weak resistant populations. Special tests on single beetles revealed higher knockdown times in insects that were deliberately disturbed compared to those without any disturbances. Work reported here suggests a knockdown test conducted on beetles in a matter of minutes or hours could help classify phosphine resistance status prior to decisions on phosphine fumigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification and Expression Analysis of Four Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050139
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are molecular chaperones that play crucial roles in the stress adaption of insects. In this study, we identified and characterized four sHsp genes (LsHsp19.4, 20.2, 20.3, and 22.2) from the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma [...] Read more.
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are molecular chaperones that play crucial roles in the stress adaption of insects. In this study, we identified and characterized four sHsp genes (LsHsp19.4, 20.2, 20.3, and 22.2) from the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). The four cDNAs encoded proteins of 169, 180, 181, and 194 amino acids with molecular weights of 19.4, 20.2, 20.3, and 22.2 kDa, respectively. The four LsHsp sequences possessed a typical sHsp domain structure. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that LsHsp19.4 and 20.3 transcripts were most abundant in pupae, whereas the transcript levels of LsHsp20.2 and 22.2 were highest in adults. Transcripts of three LsHsp genes were highly expressed in the larval fat body, whereas LsHsp20.2 displayed an extremely high expression level in the gut. Expression of the four LsHsp genes was dramatically upregulated in larvae exposed to 20-hydroxyecdysone. The majority of the LsHsp genes were significantly upregulated in response to heat and cold treatments, while LsHsp19.4 was insensitive to cold stress. The four genes were upregulated when challenged by immune triggers (peptidoglycan isolated from Staphylococcus aureus and from Escherichia coli 0111:B4). Exposure to CO2 increased LsHsp20.2 and 20.3 transcript levels, but the LsHsp19.4 transcript level declined. The results suggest that different LsHsp genes play important and distinct regulatory roles in L. serricorne development and in response to diverse stresses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Water Immersion and Soil Moisture Content on Larval and Pupal Survival of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050138
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Bactrocera minax, one of the most devastating citrus pests in Asia, has two developmental stages (mature larva and pupa) that complete their life cycle in the soil. Currently, southern China has a climate with abundant autumn rains, and soil moisture can be [...] Read more.
Bactrocera minax, one of the most devastating citrus pests in Asia, has two developmental stages (mature larva and pupa) that complete their life cycle in the soil. Currently, southern China has a climate with abundant autumn rains, and soil moisture can be a major factor affecting the survival of larvae and pupae of B. minax. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of water immersion and high soil moisture content on the development of mature larvae and pupae of B. minax. When immersed in water for 1 d, 100% of mature larvae of B. minax were knocked out. When larvae were immersed for less than 6 d, however, more than 92% of knocked-out larvae recovered within 24 h. The days of water immersion with 50% and 90% recovery ratios (indicated as RD50 and RD90) were 10.3 d and 6.4 d, respectively. When larvae were immersed less than 6 d, the mortality ratios of larvae were not significantly different from those that were not immersed at all. The days of immersion causing 50% and 90% mortality of larvae (MD50 and MD90, respectively) were 7.6 d and 11.1 d, respectively. The pupation ratios of larvae were also observed to be not significantly different compared to non-immersion, and the days of immersion causing 50% and 90% pupation (PD50 and PD90, respectively) were 6.6 d and 0.8 d, respectively. Larval respiration rates were reduced after water immersion as a strategy for larval survival. High water content was not detrimental to pupae of B. minax. Adult emergence did not significantly decrease in soil with high water content, even though pupae were under those conditions for 161–175 d. The respiration rates of pupae were lower in soil with different moisture levels and were not significantly different, which ensured the survival of pupae in high water content. Reduced respiration rate is a strategy for survival of larvae and pupae, and remarkable tolerance to high moisture conditions could explain the high rate of spread and geographical distribution of B. minax. The results of this study provide a reference for the occurrence and control of B. minax. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Raspberry as a Source for the Development of Drosophila suzukii Attractants: Laboratory and Commercial Polytunnel Trials
Insects 2019, 10(5), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050137
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
Several commercial products and home-made attractants have been developed for monitoring and mass-trapping of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Growers in Mexico have adopted an attractant based on a fermenting mixture of raspberry pulp and sucrose, with anecdotally promising results. We [...] Read more.
Several commercial products and home-made attractants have been developed for monitoring and mass-trapping of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Growers in Mexico have adopted an attractant based on a fermenting mixture of raspberry pulp and sucrose, with anecdotally promising results. We compared the capture rates of traps baited with raspberry pulp + sucrose with captures from a range of alternative attractants. Raspberry pulp alone or with sucrose was more attractive than apple cider vinegar (ACV) or SuzukiiTrap and similar to baker’s yeast + sucrose in laboratory cage studies. Synthetic raspberry aroma (0.1–10% concentration), in water or mixed with ACV, did not improve capture rates in the laboratory. Traps baited with raspberry + sucrose or ACV had similar captures of D. suzukii in raspberry or blackberry polytunnels in Michoacán, Mexico. Raspberry + sucrose baited traps captured significantly higher numbers of other drosophilid species, leading to higher total numbers of captured flies (all species), which may explain why Mexican growers favor the raspberry-based attractant. The commercial products SuzukiiTrap and Z-Kinol had lower captures than ACV in polytunnels, although SuzukiiTrap had the highest selectivity in captures of D. suzukii (81% of flies captured). A two-component trap (2C trap) baited with ACV + ethanol as the drowning solution and raspberry pulp + sucrose or baker’s yeast + sucrose in a ventilated tube device was markedly more effective than the trap currently used by growers. We conclude that raspberry pulp + sucrose is as effective for the attraction of D. suzukii as ACV under commercial polytunnel conditions. The 2C trap performed better than the transparent cup trap currently used by berry producers in Mexico. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Yellow Fever Virus in Sylvatic Mosquitoes during Disease Outbreaks of 2017–2018 in Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Insects 2019, 10(5), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050136
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
Brazil has experienced several arbovirus outbreaks in recent years, among which yellow fever stands out. The state of Minas Gerais faced outbreaks of sylvatic yellow fever in 2017 and 2018, with 1002 confirmed cases and 340 deaths. This work presents the results of [...] Read more.
Brazil has experienced several arbovirus outbreaks in recent years, among which yellow fever stands out. The state of Minas Gerais faced outbreaks of sylvatic yellow fever in 2017 and 2018, with 1002 confirmed cases and 340 deaths. This work presents the results of survey efforts to detect the yellow fever virus in mosquitoes from two conservation areas in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A total of 867 mosquitoes of 20 species were collected between September 2017 and May 2018, the most abundant being Psorophora (Janthinosoma) ferox (von Humboldt, 1819) (31.3%), Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901 (19.1%) and Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar, 1921 (18.2%). Total RNA was extracted from the mosquitoes for real-time PCR analysis for yellow fever, chikungunya, mayaro, Zika and dengue viruses. The yellow fever infection rate was 8.2% for Hg. janthinomys (13 mosquitoes), which is the main vector of sylvatic yellow fever in Brazil. In addition to surveying the mosquito fauna of these conservation units, this work demonstrates the importance of monitoring the circulation of viruses near large urban centers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Prevalence of a Newly Discovered Wutai Mosquito Phasivirus in Mosquitoes from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Insects 2019, 10(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050135
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Many RNA viruses have recently emerged, threatening humans and causing harm to animals and plants. Bunyaviruses represent one of the largest groups of RNA viruses and are able to infect a wide range of hosts (invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants). Recently, new insect-specific viruses [...] Read more.
Many RNA viruses have recently emerged, threatening humans and causing harm to animals and plants. Bunyaviruses represent one of the largest groups of RNA viruses and are able to infect a wide range of hosts (invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants). Recently, new insect-specific viruses have been isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies worldwide. Little is known regarding the impact of these viruses on the vector life cycles and the stages of oviposition, breeding, blood feeding, and the mosquito’s lifespan. This study describes, for the first time in South America, the detection and characterization of a recently discovered bunyavirus corresponding to the Wutai mosquito phasivirus, confirming its high prevalence in the Culex spp. and Aedes spp. mosquitoes collected in the urban environment of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. The knowledge of the mosquito’s insect-specific virus infection can improve virus evolution studies and may contribute to the understanding of intrinsic factors that influence vector competence to transmit pathogenic viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vectors and Vector-borne Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Abundance and Population Decline Factors of Chrysopid Juveniles in Olive Groves and Adjacent Trees
Insects 2019, 10(5), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050134
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Numerous species of the family Chrysopidae, commonly found in agroecosystems, whose larvae predate on several pests of economic importance, are regarded as biological control agents. Their abundance and diversity are influenced by vegetation cover, although little is known about the effects of semi-natural [...] Read more.
Numerous species of the family Chrysopidae, commonly found in agroecosystems, whose larvae predate on several pests of economic importance, are regarded as biological control agents. Their abundance and diversity are influenced by vegetation cover, although little is known about the effects of semi-natural habitats on their populations. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the trees in semi-natural habitats adjacent to olive groves, juvenile stages of the family Chrysopidae and factors influencing their population decline, which is crucial for an effective habitat management program aimed at conserving these important predators. Using cardboard band traps (eight per tree), the juvenile stages were collected from 25 almond, oak, olive and pine trees over a one-year sampling period. The population decline was caused by parasitoids (26.5%), predators (5.1%) and unknown factors (13.2%). In addition, chrysopids established in olive trees showed the lowest rate of parasitism. We identified ten chrysopid species that emerged from the juveniles collected from almond, oak, olive and pine trees, with a predominance of Pseudomallada prasinus. The chrysopid–parasitoid complex was composed of five species; Baryscapus impeditus (Eulophidae), which was the most abundant, was preferentially associated with Chrysopa pallens, Chrysoperla lucasina and Chrysoperla mediterranea. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Sex Ratio of Small Hive Beetles: The Role of Pupation and Adult Longevity
Insects 2019, 10(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050133
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
The sex ratio of sexually reproducing animal species tends to be 1:1, which is known as Fisher’s principle. However, differential mortality and intraspecific competition during pupation can result in a biased adult sex ratio in insects. The female-biased sex ratio of small hive [...] Read more.
The sex ratio of sexually reproducing animal species tends to be 1:1, which is known as Fisher’s principle. However, differential mortality and intraspecific competition during pupation can result in a biased adult sex ratio in insects. The female-biased sex ratio of small hive beetles (SHBs) is known from both laboratory and field studies, but the underlying reasons are not well understood. Here, we used laboratory mass and individual pupation to test if differential mortality between sexes and/or intraspecific interactions can explain this sex ratio. The data show a significant female-biased adult sex ratio in both mass and individual rearing, even when assuming that all dead individuals were males. Our results therefore suggest that neither differential mortality during pupation nor intraspecific interactions are likely to explain the female-biased sex ratio of freshly emerged adult SHBs. We regard it as more likely that either competition during the larval feeding stage or genetic mechanisms are involved. In addition, we compared our data with previously published data on the sex ratio of both freshly emerged and field-collected SHBs to investigate possible gender differences in adult longevity. The data show a significantly greater female bias in the sex ratio upon emergence, compared to field-collected SHBs, suggesting that adult females have a shorter longevity. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Insecticidal Properties of Capsaicinoids and Glucosinolates Extracted from Capsicum chinense and Tropaeolum tuberosum
Insects 2019, 10(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050132
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
Food security and biodiversity conservation are threatened by the emergence and spread of pest and pathogens, and thus there is a current need to develop pest management strategies that are sustainable and friendly to the environment and human health. Here, we performed laboratory [...] Read more.
Food security and biodiversity conservation are threatened by the emergence and spread of pest and pathogens, and thus there is a current need to develop pest management strategies that are sustainable and friendly to the environment and human health. Here, we performed laboratory and field bioassays to evaluate the insecticidal effects of several concentrations of capsaicinoids and glucosinolates (separately and mixed) on an aphid pest (Aphis cytisorum). The capsaicinoids were extracted from the fruits of Capsicum chinense and glucosinolates from the tubers of native Andean crop Tropaeolum tuberosum. We found that both capsaicinoids and glucosinolates have a biocidal effect on A. cytisorum, acting within a fairly short time. Under laboratory conditions, the toxicity of the compounds increased in relation to their concentrations, causing a high percentage of mortality (83–99%) when the aphids were exposed to dilutions of 10% capsaicinoids, 75–100% glucosinolates, or a mixture of 10% capsaicinoids and 90% glucosinolates. The mortality of aphids sprayed in the field with 5% capsaicinoids, 50% glucosinolates, or with a mixture of 5% capsaicinoids and 45% glucosinolates reached 87–97%. Results obtained from laboratory and field experiments were consistent. Our results suggest the potential use of bioinsecticides based on capsaicinoids and/or glucosinolates as an effective alternative to synthetic pesticides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Control of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050131
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an important predator of the mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a major pest of Agave sisalana in China. Limited reports on the efficacy of C. montrouzieri against D. neobrevipes are available. This study reports the predatory efficacy and [...] Read more.
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an important predator of the mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a major pest of Agave sisalana in China. Limited reports on the efficacy of C. montrouzieri against D. neobrevipes are available. This study reports the predatory efficacy and functional response of C. montrouzieri against D. neobrevipes under laboratory conditions. The prey consumption rate per day of 4th instar larvae of C. montrouzieri feeding on 1st instar D. neobrevipes nymphs (241.3 mealybugs) was the highest among the different larval life stages of the beetle. For C. montrouzieri, the prey consumption per day of adult females (19.8 mealybugs) was significantly higher compared to males (15.2 mealybugs) when feeding on 3rd instar D. neobrevipes nymphs. The functional responses of C. montrouzieri on 1st and 2nd instar D. neobrevipes nymphs were determined as Holling type II. The search rates of C. montrouzieri 4th instar larvae towards the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs of D. neobrevipes were higher than those of the other beetle life stages. In addition, the handling times of 4th instar larvae were shorter than those of the other beetle life stages. The results from this study indicate that C. montrouzieri can be used as a predator of D. neobrevipes and, therefore, it should be evaluated further for use as a biocontrol agent in D. neobrevipes management programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hygiene Defense Behaviors Used by a Fungus-Growing Ant Depend on the Fungal Pathogen Stages
Insects 2019, 10(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050130
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
Parasites and their hosts use different strategies to overcome the defenses of the other, often resulting in an evolutionary arms race. Limited animal studies have explored the differential responses of hosts when challenged by differential parasite loads and different developmental stages of a [...] Read more.
Parasites and their hosts use different strategies to overcome the defenses of the other, often resulting in an evolutionary arms race. Limited animal studies have explored the differential responses of hosts when challenged by differential parasite loads and different developmental stages of a parasite. The fungus-growing ant Trachymyrmex sp. 10 employs three different hygienic strategies to control fungal pathogens: Grooming the antibiotic-producing metapleural glands (MGs) and planting or weeding their mutualistic fungal crop. By inoculating Trachymyrmex colonies with different parasite concentrations (Metarhizium) or stages (germinated conidia or ungermianted conidia of Metarhizium and Escovopsis), we tested whether ants modulate and change hygienic strategies depending on the nature of the parasite challenge. There was no effect of the concentration of parasite on the frequencies of the defensive behaviors, indicating that the ants did not change defensive strategy according to the level of threat. However, when challenged with conidia of Escovopsis sp. and Metarhizium brunneum that were germinated or not-germinated, the ants adjusted their thygienic behavior to fungal planting and MG grooming behaviors using strategies depending on the conidia germination status. Our study suggests that fungus-growing ants can adjust the use of hygienic strategies based on the nature of the parasites. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Bacillus thuringiensis Spores and Vegetative Bacteria: Infection Capacity and Role of the Virulence Regulon PlcR Following Intrahaemocoel Injection of Galleria mellonella
Insects 2019, 10(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050129
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
Bacillus thuringiensis is an invertebrate pathogen that produces insecticidal crystal toxins acting on the intestinal barrier. In the Galleria mellonella larvae infection model, toxins from the PlcR virulence regulon contribute to pathogenicity by the oral route. While B. thuringiensis is principally an oral [...] Read more.
Bacillus thuringiensis is an invertebrate pathogen that produces insecticidal crystal toxins acting on the intestinal barrier. In the Galleria mellonella larvae infection model, toxins from the PlcR virulence regulon contribute to pathogenicity by the oral route. While B. thuringiensis is principally an oral pathogen, bacteria may also reach the insect haemocoel following injury of the cuticle. Here, we address the question of spore virulence as compared to vegetative cells when the wild-type Bt407cry- strain and its isogenic ∆plcR mutant are inoculated directly into G. mellonella haemocoel. Mortality dose-response curves were constructed at 25 and 37 °C using spores or vegetative cell inocula, and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) in all infection conditions was determined after 48 h of infection. Our findings show that (i) the LD50 is lower for spores than for vegetative cells for both strains, while the temperature has no significant influence, and (ii) the ∆plcR mutant is four to six times less virulent than the wild-type strain in all infection conditions. Our results suggest that the environmental resistant spores are the most infecting form in haemocoel and that the PlcR virulence regulon plays an important role in toxicity when reaching the haemocoel from the cuticle and not only following ingestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Underlying Transmission of Insect Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Taxonomic and Functional Ant Diversity Along tropical, Subtropical, and Subalpine Elevational Transects in Southwest China
Insects 2019, 10(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050128
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
Although elevational gradients of biodiversity have long been the topic of scientific research, information on patterns of, and processes that shape insect community structure across elevation is still lacking. Addressing this gap requires the use of both taxonomic and functional approaches when studying [...] Read more.
Although elevational gradients of biodiversity have long been the topic of scientific research, information on patterns of, and processes that shape insect community structure across elevation is still lacking. Addressing this gap requires the use of both taxonomic and functional approaches when studying diversity across elevational gradients. In this study, we examined taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity of ant assemblages sampled along tropical, subtropical, and subalpine elevational transects in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Species richness was used to quantify taxonomic alpha diversity, and two indices (FD and FRic) were calculated using morphological measurements to quantify functional alpha diversity. Taxonomic and functional beta diversity were partitioned into their turnover- and nestedness-resultant components. Though temperature and functional alpha diversity decreased linearly with increasing elevation, taxonomic alpha diversity showed a significant logarithmic decrease, with few species present at elevations greater than 3000 m a.s.l. The turnover-resultant component of taxonomic beta diversity increased with increasing elevational distance, while the nestedness-resultant component of functional beta diversity increased with increasing elevational distance in the subtropical transect. The observed patterns of taxonomic and functional diversity reflected ants’ thermophilic nature, implying functional adaptations (i.e., nested functional diversity) at higher elevations where environmental conditions were unfavorable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Early Olfactory Environment Influences Antennal Sensitivity and Choice of the Host-Plant Complex in a Parasitoid Wasp
Insects 2019, 10(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050127
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
Early experience of olfactory stimuli associated with their host–plant complex (HPC) is an important driver of parasitoid foraging choices, notably leading to host fidelity. Mechanisms involved, such as peripheral or central modulation, and the impact of a complex olfactory environment are unknown. Using [...] Read more.
Early experience of olfactory stimuli associated with their host–plant complex (HPC) is an important driver of parasitoid foraging choices, notably leading to host fidelity. Mechanisms involved, such as peripheral or central modulation, and the impact of a complex olfactory environment are unknown. Using olfactometer assays, we compared HPC preference of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) females originating from two different HPCs, either with the other HPC in close vicinity (complex environment) or without (simple environment). We also investigated antennal responses to volatiles differentially emitted by the two respective HPCs. In a simple environment, HPC of origin had an influence on olfactory choice, but the preferences observed were asymmetric according to parasitoid origin. Electroantennographic recordings revealed significant sensitivity differences for some of the tested individual volatiles, which are emitted differentially by the two HPCs. Besides, presence of an alternative HPC during early stages modified subsequent parasitoid preferences. We discuss how increased olfactory complexity could influence parasitoid host foraging and biological control in diversified cropping systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Life History Effects Linked to an Advantage for wAu Wolbachia in Drosophila
Insects 2019, 10(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050126
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
Wolbachia endosymbiont infections can persist and spread in insect populations without causing apparent effects on reproduction of their insect hosts, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we test for fitness effects of the wAu infection of Drosophila simulans by comparing [...] Read more.
Wolbachia endosymbiont infections can persist and spread in insect populations without causing apparent effects on reproduction of their insect hosts, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we test for fitness effects of the wAu infection of Drosophila simulans by comparing multiple infected and uninfected polymorphic isofemale lines derived from nature. We show a fitness advantage (higher offspring number) for lines with the wAu Wolbachia infection when breeding on grapes, but only where there was Talaromyces and Penicillium fungal mycelial growth. When breeding on laboratory medium, the wAu infection extended the development time and resulted in larger females with higher fecundity, life history traits, which may increase fitness. A chemical associated with the fungi (ochratoxin A) did not specifically alter the fitness of wAu-infected larvae, which developed slower and emerged with a greater weight regardless of toxin levels. These findings suggest that the fitness benefits of Wolbachia in natural populations may reflect life history changes that are advantageous under particular circumstances, such as when breeding occurs in rotting fruit covered by abundant mycelial growth. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Diversity and Ecosystem Services of Trichoptera
Insects 2019, 10(5), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050125
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
The holometabolous insect order Trichoptera (caddisflies) includes more known species than all of the other primarily aquatic orders of insects combined. They are distributed unevenly; with the greatest number and density occurring in the Oriental Biogeographic Region and the smallest in the East [...] Read more.
The holometabolous insect order Trichoptera (caddisflies) includes more known species than all of the other primarily aquatic orders of insects combined. They are distributed unevenly; with the greatest number and density occurring in the Oriental Biogeographic Region and the smallest in the East Palearctic. Ecosystem services provided by Trichoptera are also very diverse and include their essential roles in food webs, in biological monitoring of water quality, as food for fish and other predators (many of which are of human concern), and as engineers that stabilize gravel bed sediment. They are especially important in capturing and using a wide variety of nutrients in many forms, transforming them for use by other organisms in freshwaters and surrounding riparian areas. The general pattern of evolution for trichopteran families is becoming clearer as more genes from more taxa are sequenced and as morphological characters are becoming understood in greater detail. This increasingly credible phylogeny provides a foundation for interpreting and hypothesizing the functional traits of this diverse order of freshwater organisms and for understanding the richness of the ecological services corresponding with those traits. Our research also is gaining insight into the timing of evolutionary diversification in the order. Correlations for the use of angiosperm plant material as food and case construction material by the earliest ancestors of infraorder Plenitentoria—by at least 175 Ma—may provide insight into the timing of the origin of angiosperms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Ecosystem Services of Aquatic Insects)
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Open AccessArticle
Behavioural Phenotypic Plasticity of Submerged Oviposition in Damselflies (Insecta: Odonata)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050124
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
Emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa is a common species within the temperate zone, with no special need for protection. The tactic of submerged oviposition is well known from other Odonata species, but has rarely been noticed or described in Lestes sponsa. Our study [...] Read more.
Emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa is a common species within the temperate zone, with no special need for protection. The tactic of submerged oviposition is well known from other Odonata species, but has rarely been noticed or described in Lestes sponsa. Our study investigated the tactics of oviposition in this species, and shows that submerged oviposition indeed occurs frequently in Lestes sponsa. We experimentally tested the difference in the roles of males and females during the submerged ovipositional behaviour by combining males/females from submerging populations with males/females from non-submerging populations. We discovered that, whereas submerging males coupling with non-submerging females did not lead to submersion, the opposite combination of pairs submerged. Other patterns of submersions are discussed further in this paper. Our research led to the conclusion that damselflies have the ability to learn and react to different situations in keeping with the learning potential of insects in general. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Amiri, E. et al. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus: Honey Bee Queen–Worker Interaction and Potential Virus Transmission Pathways. Insects 2019, 10, 9
Insects 2019, 10(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050123
Received: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
It has been brought to our attention that one note was missing in the Funding section of our published paper [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Termites (Blattodea Latreille 1810, Termitoidae Latreille 1802) of Abuko Nature Reserve, Nyambai Forest Park and Tanji Bird Reserve (The Gambia)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050122
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
From 28 October to 5 November 2013, a termite study was undertaken in 3 protected sites in The Gambia (West Africa). The aim of the study is to investigate the diversity of termites in three protected areas in the western region of the [...] Read more.
From 28 October to 5 November 2013, a termite study was undertaken in 3 protected sites in The Gambia (West Africa). The aim of the study is to investigate the diversity of termites in three protected areas in the western region of the country. Termite sampling is carried out in 100 m × 2 m transects that are replicated three (3) times in each site. A total of thirty-one (31) termite species, that belong to fungus growing (11), harvester (1), humuvorous (12) and xylophagous (7), were recorded. The following nineteen (19) species are new to The Gambia: Coptotermes intermedius, Astalotermes near quietus, Ancistrotermes cavithorax, Macrotermes bellicosus, Microtermes grassei, M. lepidus, M. subhyalinus, Odontotermes erraticus, O. pauperans, O. sudanensis, Basidentitermes sp., Euchilotermes tensus arcuata, Noditermes cristifrons, Amitermes evuncifer, Amitermes spinifer, Microcerotermes fuscotibialis, Microcerotermes near parvulus, Microcerotermes near solidus and Promirotermes holmgreni. Additional description and/or ecological information on Odontotermes erraticus, Cubitermes severus, Cubitermes n. proximatus, Euchilotermes tensus arcuata, Basidentitermes sp., and Noditermes cristifrons are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology of Termites)
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