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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Knockdown Bioassay Methods to Assess Phosphine Resistance in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

1
Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66503, USA
2
Department of Entomology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
3
Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
4
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, GPO Box 46, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(5), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050140
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Resistance to the fumigant phosphine in Tribolium castaneum occurs worldwide. This study evaluated tests based on adult knockdown time, the time for a beetle to become immobile, when exposed to a high concentration of phosphine. We recorded knockdown times of beetles that remained completely still for 30 s when exposed to 3000 ppm of phosphine in a large, gas-tight glass tube. Beetles were used from 12 populations, of which six were ‘susceptible’ to phosphine, three were ‘weakly resistant’, and three were ‘strongly resistant’. Knockdown times were determined for single beetles, as well as for groups of ten beetles for which the time to knockdown for either five beetles (KT50) or ten beetles (KT100) were recorded. Similar knockdown times occurred across susceptible and resistant populations. However, the KT100 tests generated conservative times for diagnosing strong vs. weak resistance. The strong resistant populations were all over 100 min with KT100, compared to 60 min or less for susceptible and weak resistant populations. Special tests on single beetles revealed higher knockdown times in insects that were deliberately disturbed compared to those without any disturbances. Work reported here suggests a knockdown test conducted on beetles in a matter of minutes or hours could help classify phosphine resistance status prior to decisions on phosphine fumigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: fumigation; hydrogen phosphide; narcosis; resistance management; stored products fumigation; hydrogen phosphide; narcosis; resistance management; stored products
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cato, A.; Afful, E.; Nayak, M.K.; Phillips, T.W. Evaluation of Knockdown Bioassay Methods to Assess Phosphine Resistance in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Insects 2019, 10, 140.

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