Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Case Study: A Practical Application of an Aerosol Treatment in a Commercial Mill
Previous Article in Journal
The Contribution of Surrounding Margins in the Promotion of Natural Enemies in Mediterranean Apple Orchards
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bioassays and Methodologies for Insecticide Tests with Larvae of Trogoderma granarium (Everts), the Khapra Beetle
Open AccessReview

Minimal Thermal Requirements for Development and Activity of Stored Product and Food Industry Pests (Acari, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera and Blattodea): A Review

1
Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507/73, CZ-16106 Prague 6-Ruzyne, Czech Republic
2
Key Laboratory of Ministry of Agriculture for Monitoring and Green Management of Crop Pests, Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(5), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050149
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Low temperatures play an important role in arthropods because they affect both the individual and population development of all physiological and behavioural activities. Manipulation with low temperatures is a primary nonchemical pest control method. For stored product and food industry practitioners, a knowledge of pest thermal requirements, in particular threshold temperatures at which development and other activities of a particular pest species cease, is of crucial importance. This review presents summary data regarding the lower temperature thresholds of 121 species of stored product and food industry pests from six arthropod taxa (Acari, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera, and Blattodea). In particular, this review collected and summarized information regarding the lower development thresholds, lower population thresholds, lower acoustic or respiratory thresholds, lower walking and flying thresholds and lower trap capture thresholds for flying and walking arthropods. The average lower development threshold (LDT) differed among orders: the lowest was reported for Acari (6.8 °C) and Diptera (8.1 °C), followed by Lepidoptera (11.3 °C) and Psocoptera (13.8 °C), and the highest was reported for Coleoptera (14 °C) and Blattodea (15 °C). An exclusion-function was established showing the percentage of pest species (n = 112) that were developmentally suppressed (excluded) due to temperatures reaching the LDT in the range of decreasing temperatures from 25 °C to 0 °C. We scaled various temperature thresholds from the lowest to highest temperature as follows: the walking threshold, the trap capture threshold for walking insects, the lower development threshold, lower population threshold, lower flying threshold and the lower trap capture threshold for flying pests. Important pest species were identified for which information regarding the lower temperature threshold is missing, or for which the information is too variable and should be refined in future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperature; development; individual; populations; thresholds; respiration; walking; flying; forensic entomology; pest management temperature; development; individual; populations; thresholds; respiration; walking; flying; forensic entomology; pest management
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Stejskal, V.; Vendl, T.; Li, Z.; Aulicky, R. Minimal Thermal Requirements for Development and Activity of Stored Product and Food Industry Pests (Acari, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera and Blattodea): A Review. Insects 2019, 10, 149.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop