Next Article in Journal
Identification and Expression Analysis of Four Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)
Previous Article in Journal
Raspberry as a Source for the Development of Drosophila suzukii Attractants: Laboratory and Commercial Polytunnel Trials
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Effects of Water Immersion and Soil Moisture Content on Larval and Pupal Survival of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

1
Forewarning and Management of Agricultural and Forestry Pests, Hubei Engineering Technology Center, College of Agriculture, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
2
Department of Land-use Planning and Management, Ministry of Agriculture, Dodoma 2182, Tanzania
3
State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management of Crop, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
4
Ministry of Agriculture Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute, Mbeya 400, Tanzania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Zaiyuan Li and Consolatha Chambi contributed equally to this work.
Insects 2019, 10(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050138
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
  |  
PDF [1048 KB, uploaded 14 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Bactrocera minax, one of the most devastating citrus pests in Asia, has two developmental stages (mature larva and pupa) that complete their life cycle in the soil. Currently, southern China has a climate with abundant autumn rains, and soil moisture can be a major factor affecting the survival of larvae and pupae of B. minax. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of water immersion and high soil moisture content on the development of mature larvae and pupae of B. minax. When immersed in water for 1 d, 100% of mature larvae of B. minax were knocked out. When larvae were immersed for less than 6 d, however, more than 92% of knocked-out larvae recovered within 24 h. The days of water immersion with 50% and 90% recovery ratios (indicated as RD50 and RD90) were 10.3 d and 6.4 d, respectively. When larvae were immersed less than 6 d, the mortality ratios of larvae were not significantly different from those that were not immersed at all. The days of immersion causing 50% and 90% mortality of larvae (MD50 and MD90, respectively) were 7.6 d and 11.1 d, respectively. The pupation ratios of larvae were also observed to be not significantly different compared to non-immersion, and the days of immersion causing 50% and 90% pupation (PD50 and PD90, respectively) were 6.6 d and 0.8 d, respectively. Larval respiration rates were reduced after water immersion as a strategy for larval survival. High water content was not detrimental to pupae of B. minax. Adult emergence did not significantly decrease in soil with high water content, even though pupae were under those conditions for 161–175 d. The respiration rates of pupae were lower in soil with different moisture levels and were not significantly different, which ensured the survival of pupae in high water content. Reduced respiration rate is a strategy for survival of larvae and pupae, and remarkable tolerance to high moisture conditions could explain the high rate of spread and geographical distribution of B. minax. The results of this study provide a reference for the occurrence and control of B. minax. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bactrocera minax; soil water content; respiration rate; water immersion Bactrocera minax; soil water content; respiration rate; water immersion
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Chambi, C.; Du, T.; Huang, C.; Wang, F.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Juma Kayeke, M. Effects of Water Immersion and Soil Moisture Content on Larval and Pupal Survival of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae). Insects 2019, 10, 138.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top