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Raspberry as a Source for the Development of Drosophila suzukii Attractants: Laboratory and Commercial Polytunnel Trials

1
Instituto de Ecología AC, Xalapa, Veracruz 91070, Mexico
2
Departamento de Investigación Aplicada, Driscoll’s Operaciones, Zapopan, Jalisco 45800, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(5), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050137
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract

Several commercial products and home-made attractants have been developed for monitoring and mass-trapping of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Growers in Mexico have adopted an attractant based on a fermenting mixture of raspberry pulp and sucrose, with anecdotally promising results. We compared the capture rates of traps baited with raspberry pulp + sucrose with captures from a range of alternative attractants. Raspberry pulp alone or with sucrose was more attractive than apple cider vinegar (ACV) or SuzukiiTrap and similar to baker’s yeast + sucrose in laboratory cage studies. Synthetic raspberry aroma (0.1–10% concentration), in water or mixed with ACV, did not improve capture rates in the laboratory. Traps baited with raspberry + sucrose or ACV had similar captures of D. suzukii in raspberry or blackberry polytunnels in Michoacán, Mexico. Raspberry + sucrose baited traps captured significantly higher numbers of other drosophilid species, leading to higher total numbers of captured flies (all species), which may explain why Mexican growers favor the raspberry-based attractant. The commercial products SuzukiiTrap and Z-Kinol had lower captures than ACV in polytunnels, although SuzukiiTrap had the highest selectivity in captures of D. suzukii (81% of flies captured). A two-component trap (2C trap) baited with ACV + ethanol as the drowning solution and raspberry pulp + sucrose or baker’s yeast + sucrose in a ventilated tube device was markedly more effective than the trap currently used by growers. We conclude that raspberry pulp + sucrose is as effective for the attraction of D. suzukii as ACV under commercial polytunnel conditions. The 2C trap performed better than the transparent cup trap currently used by berry producers in Mexico. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented raspberry pulp; sucrose; apple cider vinegar; fly captures; SuzukiiTrap; Z-Kinol; spotted wing drosophila; SWD fermented raspberry pulp; sucrose; apple cider vinegar; fly captures; SuzukiiTrap; Z-Kinol; spotted wing drosophila; SWD
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lasa, R.; Toledo-Hernández, R.A.; Rodríguez, D.; Williams, T. Raspberry as a Source for the Development of Drosophila suzukii Attractants: Laboratory and Commercial Polytunnel Trials. Insects 2019, 10, 137.

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