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Fine Morphology of the Mouthparts in Cheilocapsus nigrescens (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) Reflects Adaptation for Phytophagous Habits

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of the Ministry of Education, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
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Insects 2019, 10(5), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050143
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 19 May 2019
To obtain a better understanding of feeding adaptations, the fine structure of the mouthparts in adults of Cheilocapsus nigrescens Liu and Wang, including the sculpture and interlocking mechanisms of the stylets and distribution and abundance of sensilla located on the labium, were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mouthparts are similar to those of previously studied mirid species in most aspects and composed of a cone-shaped labrum, a tube-like, four-segmented labium with a deep groove on the anterior side, and a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets. Each mandibular stylet tip has about 6–8 indistinctive notches, which help in penetrating the leaf surface. A series of transverse squamous textures are present on the adaxial surface of the mandibular stylets. The maxillary stylets interlock to form a food canal and a salivary canal, equipped with an external longitudinal process that engages grooves in the mandibular stylets. Three kinds of sensilla, including four types of sensilla basiconica (I, II, III, and IV), four types of sensilla trichodea (I, II, III, and IV), and one type of sensillum campaniformium, occur at different locations on the labium. Among them, sensilla trichodea I and II are the most abundant; sensilla basiconica II occurs between the first segment and second segment, and between the third and fourth segment. The tripartite apex of the labium consists of two lateral lobes and an apical plate. Each lateral lobe possesses a field of 11 sensilla basiconica IV and 1 sensillum trichodeum IV. The morphology of the mouthparts and the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in C. nigrescens are discussed with respect to their possible taxonomic and functional significance. In particular, the indistinct notches of the mandibular stylet and smooth inner surface of the right maxillary stylets are suited primarily for phytophagy. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytophagy; stylet; sensilla; fine morphology; scanning electron microscopy phytophagy; stylet; sensilla; fine morphology; scanning electron microscopy
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Wang, Y.; Li, L.; Dai, W. Fine Morphology of the Mouthparts in Cheilocapsus nigrescens (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) Reflects Adaptation for Phytophagous Habits. Insects 2019, 10, 143.

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