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Water, Volume 15, Issue 18 (September-2 2023) – 158 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Precipitation isoscapes aid water isotope studies, compensating for data gaps. However, global model-simulated data's applicability to specific regions, especially d-excess prediction, requires exploration. We evaluated OIPC3.2, RCWIP1, RCWIP2 isoscapes for δ2H, δ18O, and d-excess prediction in China. Discrepancies stem from lacking water vapor source info in input variables. Future strides could involve source clustering, variable selection, and dedicated d-excess simulation for enhanced precision. View this paper
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19 pages, 6798 KiB  
Article
Characteristics, Source and Risk Assessment of Soil Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons around Oil Wells in the Yellow River Delta, China
by Yuxuan Wu, Yilei Zhao, Yue Qi, Junsheng Li, Yuchen Hou, Haojing Hao, Nengwen Xiao and Qiuying Zhi
Water 2023, 15(18), 3324; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183324 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is the most complete wetland ecosystem in the warm temperate zone of China and is rich in oil resources. However, with petroleum extraction and the development of the economy, pollution of the YRD has been paid increasing attention, [...] Read more.
The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is the most complete wetland ecosystem in the warm temperate zone of China and is rich in oil resources. However, with petroleum extraction and the development of the economy, pollution of the YRD has been paid increasing attention, in particular, pollution via polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as they have caused great harm to human health and the ecosystem balance. Based on the investigations of a research group in 2009, this study re-collected samples according to the same sampling points and analyzed the concentration, composition, source, ecological risk and health risk of PAHs in 2021. The concentration of ΣPAH16 in the surface soil of YRD in 2009 ranged from 2.6 to 8275.46 ng/g, with an average of 1744.41 ng/g. The concentration of ΣPAH16 in 2021 ranged from 56.25 to 582.56 ng/g, with an average of 149.63 ng/g. Therefore, the pollution situation in the YRD in 2021 was significantly improved compared with 2009. The composition of PAHs in soil in 2009 and 2021 was similar, which was dominated by low-ring PAHs. The evaluation results of the toxicity equivalent factor method showed that there was no potential ecological risk in the soil in 2009 and 2021. The evaluation results of the lifetime cancer risk increment model showed that the incremental lifetime cancer risk models (ILCRs) of soil PAHs in 2009 and 2021 were lower than the safety threshold of 10−6; therefore, there was no carcinogenic risk. The existing management measures for oil wells need to be further promoted to protect the regional ecological environment in the YRD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Environment Pollution and Control, Volume II)
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21 pages, 1766 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of the Humanitarian Supply Chains in the Event of Flash Flooding
by Wenping Xu, Wenzhuo Li, David Proverbs and Wenbo Chen
Water 2023, 15(18), 3323; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183323 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Humanitarian supply chains play a major role in enabling disaster-affected areas to recover in a timely manner and enable economic and social activities to be restored. However, the sudden onset and increasing frequency of natural disasters such as flash floods require humanitarian supply [...] Read more.
Humanitarian supply chains play a major role in enabling disaster-affected areas to recover in a timely manner and enable economic and social activities to be restored. However, the sudden onset and increasing frequency of natural disasters such as flash floods require humanitarian supply chains to be resilient during the relief process. In this study, the evaluation indicators were identified from the literature and the Delphi method, and the weights of the evaluation indicators were calculated using the ANP method; the ANP method was combined with the Pythagorean fuzzy VIKOR (PFs-VIKOR) to propose the ANP-PFs-VIKOR method model. The model was used to examine the example of the 2021 megaflood event in Zhengzhou City to evaluate the performance of the humanitarian supply chain in four cities. The findings suggest that the indicator with the strongest impact on the effectiveness of humanitarian supply chains is coordination among participating organizations. Dengfeng City was found to have the best performing humanitarian supply chain. The findings of this research provide some helpful indication of the importance of the various emergency measures which can help to inform policy recommendations for the Zhengzhou municipal government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Risk Management and Resilience Volume II)
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12 pages, 4729 KiB  
Article
Assessing 30-Year Land Use and Land Cover Change and the Driving Forces in Qianjiang, China, Using Multitemporal Remote Sensing Images
by Jie Xu, Meng Mu, Yunbing Liu, Zheng Zhou, Haihua Zhuo, Guangsheng Qiu, Jie Chen, Mingjun Lei, Xiaolong Huang, Yichi Zhang and Zheng Ren
Water 2023, 15(18), 3322; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183322 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Assessing Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) related with aquaculture areas is vital for evaluating the impacts of aquaculture ponds on the environment and developing a sustainable aquaculture production system. Most studies analyze changes in aquaculture land in coastal areas, and little [...] Read more.
Assessing Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) related with aquaculture areas is vital for evaluating the impacts of aquaculture ponds on the environment and developing a sustainable aquaculture production system. Most studies analyze changes in aquaculture land in coastal areas, and little research focuses on the inland area, where the conversions between agriculture and aquaculture land is primarily driven by socioeconomic factors. This study assessed LULCC related to aquaculture areas in Qianjiang City, China, from 1990 to 2022, using multitemporal Landsat images and a combination of decision tree classifier and visual interpretation. The LULCC was analyzed by the transition matrix. Results showed that the main LULC type was farmland, which accounted for more than 70% of the study area from 1990 to 2022. The built-up and aquaculture land showed an increasing trend year by year. In contrast, there was a gradual decline in forest/grass land from 1990 to 2016, and then its area increased slightly from 2016 to 2022 due to the policy of returning farmland to forest. Water areas were mainly composed of rivers and ponds, with subtle changes during the study period. The main driving forces of LULCC in Qianjiang City were economic and policy factors, with rapid GDP growth and government policies being the dominant factors. Full article
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24 pages, 18505 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Quality and Suitability Assessment for Irrigation Using Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Pollution Indices: A Case Study of North Al-Quwayiyah Governorate, Central Saudi Arabia
by Haya M. Alogayell, Eman Mohamed M. EL-Bana and Mohamed Abdelfattah
Water 2023, 15(18), 3321; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183321 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
The present work focuses on a comprehensive hydrochemical assessment of groundwater within a shallow aquifer located in the central region of Saudi Arabia. This aquifer serves as the principal source of groundwater supply for agricultural irrigation purposes. A total of twelve groundwater samples [...] Read more.
The present work focuses on a comprehensive hydrochemical assessment of groundwater within a shallow aquifer located in the central region of Saudi Arabia. This aquifer serves as the principal source of groundwater supply for agricultural irrigation purposes. A total of twelve groundwater samples were systematically collected and subjected to thorough analysis to determine various physicochemical parameters. These parameters encompassed electrical conductivity (EC), pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), as well as concentrations of major ions. Analysis of major ion analysis was employed to elucidate the chemical attributes of groundwater within the research area. This approach facilitated an understanding of the geochemical evolution and the potential suitability of the groundwater for agriculture irrigation. The recorded range of electrical conductivity (EC) for the groundwater in this region falls between 3283 and 11,000 µS/cm, with an average value of 6709.4 µS/cm. The pH levels of the groundwater exhibited a slightly alkaline nature, ranging from 7.8 to 8.6. All sampled wells exhibited brackish water conditions (TDS > 1000 mg/L) based on TDS concentrations. The findings of this investigation demonstrated that the average ion concentration followed the order: Na+ > Ca+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl > SO42− > HCO3 > NO32−. Applying Piper’s classification system, the groundwater samples were classified into two predominant categories: Ca-Cl and mix-Ca-Mg-Cl. The predominance of Ca2+ and Mg2+ over alkalis indicated mixed groundwater facies influenced by processes of reverse ion exchange and extensive interactions between water and rock formations. The distinct chemical characteristics of the groundwater were attributed to a combination of factors, including the percolation of irrigation-returned water, chemical transformations within the vadose zone, and extensive interactions with subsurface lithology. Despite major ion concentrations surpassing the permissible limits outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water, the assessment of quality indices was conducted to ascertain the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation purposes. These quality indices encompassed the permeability index (PI), magnesium hazard (MH), Kelly’s ratio (KR), sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), sodium percentage (Na%), and magnesium ratio (MR). A meticulous evaluation of groundwater quality for agricultural utilization indicated that all sampled groundwater sources were deemed suitable for irrigation purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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14 pages, 1708 KiB  
Article
Permeability Tests and Numerical Simulation of Argillaceous Dolomite in the Jurong Pumped-Storage Power Station, China
by Xufen Zhu, Wenjie Yang, Jie Zhang, Yong Huang and Lifang Zou
Water 2023, 15(18), 3320; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183320 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Due to its poor hydro-physical properties and other characteristics, argillaceous dolomite is susceptible to seepage failure under high water pressure, affecting the seepage stability of a rock mass. To ensure the safety of the project, when the argillaceous dolomite is present, it is [...] Read more.
Due to its poor hydro-physical properties and other characteristics, argillaceous dolomite is susceptible to seepage failure under high water pressure, affecting the seepage stability of a rock mass. To ensure the safety of the project, when the argillaceous dolomite is present, it is necessary to study the conditions pertaining to its seepage failure. Taking the argillaceous dolomite of Jurong Pumped Storage Power Station as the research object, the spatial distribution, occurrence, scale, degree of weathering, and mechanical and hydrogeological characteristics of the argillaceous dolomite were studied. Through on-site water pressure tests and laboratory variable head tests, the permeability characteristics of argillaceous dolomite were analyzed, and the hydraulic conductivity of the argillaceous dolomite in the upper reservoir and underground powerhouse areas was quantified. The argillaceous dolomite specimens were collected, and seepage failure tests were conducted to determine the critical water pressure for its seepage failure. Based on the results of the laboratory tests, a numerical model of groundwater flow was established. By changing the water level of the upper reservoir and the measures of the anti-seepage and drainage, the seepage stability of the argillaceous dolomite was discussed. The actual water pressure of argillaceous dolomite in the underground powerhouse area was identified during the operation of the Jurong pumped-storage power station. The calculations show that when fully enclosed anti-seepage and drainage measures are taken for the underground powerhouse, the maximum head of water is 98 m, which is lower than the critical water pressure of seepage failure for the argillaceous dolomite. Therefore, no seepage failure will occur. The results provide a scientific basis for the anti-seepage and drainage design of the underground powerhouse area. Full article
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22 pages, 5946 KiB  
Article
Optimized Design of Sponge-Type Comprehensive Pipe Corridor Rainwater Chamber Based on NSGA-III Algorithm
by Yazheng Ren, Huiying Zhang, Xinhua Wang, Zhanfei Gu, Linie Fu and Yang Cheng
Water 2023, 15(18), 3319; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183319 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
Currently, most of the studies using optimization algorithms to mitigate the urban flooding problem have no more than three optimization objectives, and few of them take the operation status of the traditional drainage system as one of the optimization objectives, which is not [...] Read more.
Currently, most of the studies using optimization algorithms to mitigate the urban flooding problem have no more than three optimization objectives, and few of them take the operation status of the traditional drainage system as one of the optimization objectives, which is not conducive to the overall design of the city. This study proposes to mitigate the urban flooding problem by using a sponge-type comprehensive pipe corridor rainwater chamber. A four-objective optimization model is established by coupling the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-III (NSGA-III), and two traditional drainage system state indicators (pipe overload time, node overflow volume), surface runoff coefficient, and total investment cost are selected as the optimization objectives for solving the problem. The results show that (1) the reduction rates of surface runoff coefficient, pipe overload time, and node overflow volume rate by the optimization model are 37.015–56.917%, 81.538–91.435%, and 51.578–84.963%, respectively; and the total investment cost is RMB 4.311–4.501 billion. (2) The effectiveness of combining SWMM and NSGA-III for an optimization solution is verified, and the relationship between the four objectives is explored. The study may provide useful information for urban flood control. Full article
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13 pages, 3255 KiB  
Article
Human Adenovirus Detection and Genetic Characterization in Irrigation Water from the Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia
by Abdulrahman Alkathiri, Saleh Eifan, Atif Hanif, Islam Nour, Abdullah E. Al-Anazi, Khalid Maniah, Riyadh Alotaibi and Yazeed Alharbi
Water 2023, 15(18), 3318; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183318 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Adenoviruses are considered one of the most persistent enteric pathogens that can penetrate entire aquifer matrices. An ongoing monitoring of irrigation water is essential to mitigate potential public health risks. We investigated the prevalence of human adenoviruses (HAdV) in the groundwater discharge basins [...] Read more.
Adenoviruses are considered one of the most persistent enteric pathogens that can penetrate entire aquifer matrices. An ongoing monitoring of irrigation water is essential to mitigate potential public health risks. We investigated the prevalence of human adenoviruses (HAdV) in the groundwater discharge basins of Aluraiji (AW-DB) and Diriyah (DW-DB) and in the irrigation water of Al Harriq (H-IW) and Al Hayer (AH-IW) from January to December 2021. The meteorological impact (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) on HAdV prevalence and molecular diversity was investigated by targeting a selected region of the Hexon gene. The samples were concentrated using the polyethylene glycol precipitation (PEG) method. HAdVs were detected using PCR and sequenced by Sanger sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The highest HAdV prevalence was recorded in H-IW, AH-IW, and DW-DB (100%). HAdV sequences were found to be closely related to species F (type 41) with a predominance of the 00-2B64 sequence (86.4%). Phylogenetic analysis depicted a close relationship of this study’s isolate 00-2B64 to a Brazilian and Saudi isolate, whereas 08-2B64 was found to be related to a sequence from an AnNazim landfill (LF1; d = 0.00) from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A high HAdV prevalence was recorded at a temperature range of 19–28 °C, wind speed was recorded at a range of (16–20 km/h), and relative humidity was recorded at a range of (15–25%). Meteorological variations exhibited no significant effect on the prevalence of HAdVs. The findings provided data on HAdV prevalence and predominant species in the irrigation water of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and presented information regarding the environmental effects of HAdV persistence. In public health contexts, this will help in the planning of disease control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quality and Human Health Risk)
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14 pages, 6763 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Investigation through Electrical Resistivity Tomography in the Galhareri District, Galgaduud Region, Somalia: Insights into Hydrogeological Properties
by Mahad Abdullahi Hussein, Mohammed Yusuf Ali and Hassan Ali Hussein
Water 2023, 15(18), 3317; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183317 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3855
Abstract
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was conducted to delineate groundwater potential zones in villages located in the Galhareri district of the Galgaduud region, central Somalia. A total of four ERT profiles were examined using the gradient configuration, chosen for its practical advantages over other [...] Read more.
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was conducted to delineate groundwater potential zones in villages located in the Galhareri district of the Galgaduud region, central Somalia. A total of four ERT profiles were examined using the gradient configuration, chosen for its practical advantages over other configurations. The study revealed that all profiles were situated within similar geological environments, characterized by comparable rock types. However, notable disparities were observed in lithological variations, particularly in the texture of rocks encountered at different locations and in the thicknesses of the encountered geo-electric layers. The two-dimensional inversion results derived from the electrical resistivity data unveiled the presence of four geo-electrical layers. The first layer was interpreted as sand dunes. The second layer exhibited relatively higher resistivity values, indicating the presence of compact limestone and sandstone. The resistivity of the third layer suggested the existence of a lower resistivity layer, interpreted as weathered limestone, while the fourth layer demonstrated very low inverted resistivity, interpreted as sandy clay with sandstone. The ERT models constructed for the survey area effectively delineated the aquifer zone, represented by layer 3, which likely consists of weathered limestone, sandy clay, and sandstone. The resistivity values obtained for the aquifer zone, specifically at depths ranging from 200 to 300 m, were relatively low, suggesting that the groundwater quality is brackish in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
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16 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Residual Saturation Effects on CO2 Migration and Caprock Sealing: A Study of Permeability and Capillary Pressure Models
by Bingfei Chu, Guanhong Feng, Yan Zhang, Shengwen Qi, Pushuang Li and Tianming Huang
Water 2023, 15(18), 3316; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183316 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
In CO2 geological storage, multiphase flow plays a vital role in the movement and distribution of CO2. However, due to the limitations of fluid buoyancy and capillary forces, CO2 encounters challenges in penetrating the caprock, and the potential for [...] Read more.
In CO2 geological storage, multiphase flow plays a vital role in the movement and distribution of CO2. However, due to the limitations of fluid buoyancy and capillary forces, CO2 encounters challenges in penetrating the caprock, and the potential for leakage remains a concern due to variations in injection conditions. The migration and distribution of CO2 in the process of CO2 geological storage in saline formations are determined by relative permeability and capillary pressure, which are key factors. Consequently, this study focuses on two essential models: relative permeability and capillary pressure models. A two-dimensional isothermal reservoir–caprock model was constructed, utilizing data from the Shenhua CCS demonstration project. The analysis indicates that the core parameters in the model are residual gas saturation and residual water saturation. Specifically, residual gas saturation governs the diffusion distance of CO2 within the reservoir–caprock system, while its combined effect with residual water saturation affects the permeation rate of CO2. Through the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to analyze the impact of different models on caprock integrity, it was determined that when selecting caprock models and optimizing parameters, precedence should be given to models with lower residual saturation and caprocks that offer sufficient capillary pressure for optimal sealing effects. These research findings can serve as references for practical CO2 storage projects, providing guidance on activities such as adjusting water injection strategies and controlling gas injection pressures to optimize geological storage efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
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16 pages, 2832 KiB  
Review
The Effect of Iron-Modified Biochar on Phosphorus Adsorption and the Prospect of Synergistic Adsorption between Biochar and Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: A Review
by Lei Liu, Nannan He, Ali Borham, Siwen Zhang, Ruqing Xie, Chen Zhao, Jiawei Hu and Juanjuan Wang
Water 2023, 15(18), 3315; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183315 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
The release of endogenous phosphorus (P) from sediments is the main cause of lake eutrophication, even after the successful control of exogenous P. Among others, the release of iron-bound P is a major source of endogenous P, and it is necessary to reduce [...] Read more.
The release of endogenous phosphorus (P) from sediments is the main cause of lake eutrophication, even after the successful control of exogenous P. Among others, the release of iron-bound P is a major source of endogenous P, and it is necessary to reduce the P concentration by enhancing iron–phosphorus binding. Iron (Fe)-modified biochar adsorption is an effective and widely used method for fixing P in sediments. In this paper, the modification method, mechanism, and application effect of Fe-modified biochar are reviewed. It is found that most of the modification methods are realized through a physicochemical pathway. Therefore, the prospect of biochar modification through a biological pathway is presented. In particular, the possible application of iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) for promoting iron–phosphorus binding and biochar modifications is discussed. The potential effects of biochar additions on microbial communities in water and sediments are also discussed. In the future research, emphasis should be placed on the adsorption mechanism and effect analysis in simulated polluted environments before large-scale use, to ensure the economic practicability and sustainability of Fe-modified biochar applications. Full article
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14 pages, 1593 KiB  
Article
Removal of Phosphorus and Cadmium from Wastewaters by Periphytic Biofilm
by Jin Zhang, Yawei Liu, Jiajia Liu, Yu Shen, Hui Huang, Yongli Zhu, Jiangang Han and Haiying Lu
Water 2023, 15(18), 3314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183314 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Phosphorus (Pi) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in water sources pose significant health risks and environmental concerns. Periphytic biofilms have been recognized for their ability to effectively remove these contaminants from aquatic environments. This study aimed to investigate the impact of photon and electron [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (Pi) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in water sources pose significant health risks and environmental concerns. Periphytic biofilms have been recognized for their ability to effectively remove these contaminants from aquatic environments. This study aimed to investigate the impact of photon and electron treatments on Pi and Cd removal by periphytic biofilms. The experiments spanned a monthly timeframe, focusing on how photon and electron treatments affected the contaminant removal efficiency of periphytic biofilms. The results revealed that while the introduction of electrons had a minimal impact on contaminant accumulation, the enhancement of photon exposure significantly improved the absorption capacity of periphytic biofilms. This, in turn, led to enhanced removal of Pi and Cd from the water. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that photons played a crucial role in inducing nitrate and ammonium conversion, thereby facilitating the accumulation of 4.70 mg kg−1 Pi and 2.40 mg kg−1 Cd in periphytic biofilms. In contrast, electron treatment had limited effects on nitrate conversion. These findings provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the removal of water contaminants by periphytic biofilms under the influence of electron and photon treatments. Furthermore, they have practical implications for improving pollutant removal capabilities in aquatic ecosystems using periphytic biofilms. Full article
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13 pages, 3708 KiB  
Article
Excess Sludge Disintegration by Discharge Plasma Coupled with Thiosulfate
by Hekai Jin, Song Lin, Yueyun Yang, Zhixin Liang, Yiqi Chen, Lei Hua, Ying Zhang, Hongtao Jia, Guodong Zhang and Tiecheng Wang
Water 2023, 15(18), 3313; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183313 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Surplus sludge disposal and treatment are major issues in wastewater treatment plants. Discharge plasma oxidation is an effective approach for sludge dewatering and digestion. In this study, excess sludge disintegration by non-thermal discharge plasma coupled with thiosulfate (TSA) was investigated. After 20 min [...] Read more.
Surplus sludge disposal and treatment are major issues in wastewater treatment plants. Discharge plasma oxidation is an effective approach for sludge dewatering and digestion. In this study, excess sludge disintegration by non-thermal discharge plasma coupled with thiosulfate (TSA) was investigated. After 20 min of the single discharge plasma treatment, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) increased to 404.93 mg L−1, and it climbed even more to 549.08 mg L−1 after adding 15 mmol L−1 of TSA. The water content of the filter cake also reduced even more in the presence of TSA. There was an appropriate dosage of TSA available. In the discharge plasma coupled with TSA system, reactive oxygen species (·OH and O2) were generated and had significant involvement in the disintegration of the sludge. The addition of TSA enhanced the production of OH. These reactive oxygen species decomposed the floc structures and facilitated the transformation of organic compounds, resulting in a decrease in the average size of the sludge aggregates. The ratio of soluble extracellular polymer substances (S-EPS) was enhanced, while the ratio of the tightly bound fraction was reduced after the treatment. Thus, discharge plasma coupled with TSA promoted microbial cell lysis and facilitated the release of intracellular organic matter and bound water, ultimately enhancing the sludge’s dewaterability. Full article
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20 pages, 7532 KiB  
Article
Measurement of Green Water Resource Utilization Efficiency for Carbon Neutrality: A Multiple Water Use Sectoral Perspective Considering Carbon Emission
by Chenguang Zhao, Qiting Zuo, Junxia Ma, Chao Zang and Qingsong Wu
Water 2023, 15(18), 3312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183312 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Green and high-efficiency water resource utilization patterns hold paramount importance in promoting sustainable economic and social development, as well as in attaining the goal of carbon neutrality. Most research on water utilization efficiency have taken a general perspective to quantify it, neglecting independent [...] Read more.
Green and high-efficiency water resource utilization patterns hold paramount importance in promoting sustainable economic and social development, as well as in attaining the goal of carbon neutrality. Most research on water utilization efficiency have taken a general perspective to quantify it, neglecting independent relationships and green effects among water use sectors. This study proposed an integrated measurement model of green water resource utilization efficiency (GWRUE), combined with the carbon dioxide emission equivalent analysis method of water resource behaviors, and constructed an input–output indicator system of GWRUE from four dimensions: domestic, industrial, agricultural, and ecological water. The aim is to achieve the measurement of GWRUE towards carbon neutrality. In this paper, 18 cities in Henan Province were used as instances to carry out the study. The results show that (1) The CO2 emission equivalent from multiple water use sectors in Henan Province showed a tendency of fluctuating reduction during the study period, from a peak of 21,090,100 tons in 2012 to a low of 12,351,900 tons in 2021, with large spatial variations, and the CO2 emission effect existed in most cities, with Zhengzhou being the highest. (2) The GWRUE of domestic, industrial, and agricultural water in Henan Province and 18 cities exhibited an overall upward trend, while that of ecological water presented a downward trend and was at the lowest level among the four sectors. (3) Consolidated GWRUE in Henan Province tended to decrease and then increase; its value was 0.512 in 2011, 0.448 in 2017, and 0.586 in 2021, and most of its cities were at a Medium level. The findings of this study can serve as a theoretical and practical basis for improving the level of green and efficient utilization of water resources, as well as offer references for relevant water use sectors to formulate CO2 emission reduction policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2023)
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15 pages, 5061 KiB  
Article
A New Land Cover Map of Two Watersheds under Long-Term Environmental Monitoring in the Swedish Arctic Using Sentinel-2 Data
by Yves Auda, Erik J. Lundin, Jonas Gustafsson, Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Simon Cazaurang and Laurent Orgogozo
Water 2023, 15(18), 3311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183311 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1865
Abstract
A land cover map of two arctic catchments near the Abisko Scientific Research Station was obtained based on a classification from a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by [...] Read more.
A land cover map of two arctic catchments near the Abisko Scientific Research Station was obtained based on a classification from a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. Two classification algorithms, support vector machine and random forest, were tested and gave very similar results. The percentage of correctly classified pixels was over 88% in both cases. The developed workflow relies solely on open-source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as demonstrated by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 shows some trends in vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area. This land cover map is key input data for permafrost modeling and, hence, for the quantification of climate change impacts in the studied area. Full article
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14 pages, 2047 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Optimal Conditions for the Mass Culture of Large-Type Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) at Low Temperatures
by Hae-Kyun Yoo, So-Sun Kim, Ki-Wook Lee, Suk-Young Lee, Min-Min Jung and Soo-Ji Woo
Water 2023, 15(18), 3310; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183310 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1848
Abstract
We aimed to determine the optimal conditions for the mass culture of rotifers, which can be used as feed for cold-water fish species at low temperatures. The growth and specific growth rates (SGRs) of rotifers were assessed considering water temperature, salinity, density, dissolved [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine the optimal conditions for the mass culture of rotifers, which can be used as feed for cold-water fish species at low temperatures. The growth and specific growth rates (SGRs) of rotifers were assessed considering water temperature, salinity, density, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, and the amount of Chlorella supplied as feed. The growth of rotifers was higher at 15 °C than at 10 °C and at salinities of ~11–17 psu. Initial inoculation densities of 500 and 700 individuals/mL resulted in the highest rotifer density, and SGR was highest at 100 individuals/mL. DO concentration did not significantly affect the growth and SGRs of rotifers. Enrichment with fatty acids is important to supplement the diet of cold-water fish species. Highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased with enrichment time to 14.04 ± 0.86% at 12 h and 15.58 ± 2.20% at 24 h. Thus, the optimal conditions for rotifer mass culture are a water temperature of 15 °C, salinity of 11–17 psu, initial inoculation density of 300–500 individuals/mL, DO concentration of 8 mg/L or more, and Chlorella supply at 7.5 × 1012 cells/mL. Therefore, the present study suggests optimal culture conditions of rotifers at low temperatures for breeding cold-water fish species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Ecology of Zooplankton: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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21 pages, 9977 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Spatiotemporal Variability of Evapotranspiration (ET) and the Contribution of Influencing Factors for Different Land Cover Types in the Yunnan Province
by Wei Su, Huaiyong Shao, Wei Xian, Zhanglin Xie, Cunbo Zhang and Huilin Yang
Water 2023, 15(18), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183309 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and is sensitive to climate and land-use change due to its obvious link to ecohydrological processes. Therefore, understanding the spatiotemporal variability of evapotranspiration and its drivers under different land cover types plays an important [...] Read more.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and is sensitive to climate and land-use change due to its obvious link to ecohydrological processes. Therefore, understanding the spatiotemporal variability of evapotranspiration and its drivers under different land cover types plays an important role in estimating the impact of environmental change on the regional water cycle. In this study, we first estimated the spatiotemporal variations of ET for different land cover types in the Yunnan Province from 2001 to 2020 using the MODIS-Terra ET product (MOD16A2.06) and meteorological datasets, and quantified the contribution of six factors: namely, temperature (TEMP), precipitation (PRCP), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WDSP), soil moisture (SLME), NDVI, elevation, and slope, to the ET under different land cover types by using a ridge regression model. We then discussed the main reasons for the differences in ET in the Yunnan Province under different land cover types. The conclusions are as follows: during the study period, the annual mean ET ranged from 27 to 1183 mm, and there was a large spatial heterogeneity in its spatial distribution, with the smallest increasing trend of 2.1 mm/year in agricultural land and the largest increasing trend of 4.7 mm/year in grassland. Except for cropland, the sum of the relative contributions of the three influence factors, precipitation (PRCP), NDVI, and elevation, to all land cover types exceeded 40%, making them the most dominant factors influencing ET changes in the Yunnan Province. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate, vegetation, topography, and soils on ET, and contributes to the development of appropriate water resource management policies for different subsurface types in the context of climate warming and revegetation programs. Full article
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18 pages, 4423 KiB  
Article
Application of Closed-Circuit Television Image Segmentation for Irrigation Channel Water Level Measurement
by Kwihoon Kim and Jin-Yong Choi
Water 2023, 15(18), 3308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183308 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Measuring water levels in an irrigation channel is an important task in irrigation system decision making and estimating the quantity of irrigation water supplies. This study aimed to measure water levels with image information from an irrigation channel. Images were obtained from a [...] Read more.
Measuring water levels in an irrigation channel is an important task in irrigation system decision making and estimating the quantity of irrigation water supplies. This study aimed to measure water levels with image information from an irrigation channel. Images were obtained from a CCTV (closed-circuit television) camera and manually annotated to create ground-truth mask images. A comparative analysis was performed using four backbone models (ResNet-18, ResNet-50, VGGNet-16, and VGGNet-19) and two segmentation models (U-Net and Link-Net). ROIs (Regions of Interest), mostly related to the water levels, were selected for converting water pixels to water levels. The U-Net with ResNet-50 backbone model outperformed other combinations in terms of the F1 score and robustness, and selecting an ROI and using a quadratic line between water pixels and water levels showed an R2 of 0.99, MAE (Mean Absolute Error) of 0.01 m, and ME (Maximum Error) of 0.05 m. The F1 score of 313 test datasets was 0.99, indicating that the water surface was sufficiently segmented and the water level measurement errors were within the irrigation system’s acceptable range. Although this methodology requires initial work to build the datasets and the model, it enables an accurate and low-cost water level measurement. Full article
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25 pages, 5557 KiB  
Article
A General Method to Improve Runoff Prediction in Ungauged Basins Based on Remotely Sensed Actual Evapotranspiration Data
by Ziling Gui, Feng Zhang, Da Chang, Aili Xie, Kedong Yue and Hao Wang
Water 2023, 15(18), 3307; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183307 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2675
Abstract
The availability of remotely sensed (RS) actual evapotranspiration (ET) provides a possibility for improving runoff prediction in ungauged basins. To develop a general practical method to improve runoff prediction by directly incorporating RS-ET into rainfall-runoff (RR) models, two modeling schemes are proposed: (i) [...] Read more.
The availability of remotely sensed (RS) actual evapotranspiration (ET) provides a possibility for improving runoff prediction in ungauged basins. To develop a general practical method to improve runoff prediction by directly incorporating RS-ET into rainfall-runoff (RR) models, two modeling schemes are proposed: (i) using RS-ET as direct input; and (ii) using RS-ET as partial direct input. The principle is to use RS-ET in cases where the runoff prediction can be improved. The two schemes are compared in over 200 basins using three RR models (Xinanjiang model, SIMHYD, and GR4J) and RS-ET inverted from AVHRR, and the modeling results in ungauged basins are assessed using the spatial proximity method. Results show that: (i) it is beneficial to incorporate RS-ET into the Xinanjiang model for over 85% of the basins, but this is not the case for SIMHYD and GR4J models; (ii) further model improvements can be obtained by using RS-ET as partial direct input, and are achieved in 91.1%, 59.0%, and 53.2% of the basins for Xinanjiang, SIMHYD, and GR4J, respectively; and (iii) incorporation of RS-ET is more applicable for Xinanjiang while less so for GR4J, and the efficacy is superior for basins that are relatively arid and were originally poorly simulated. Overall, using RS-ET as partial direct input is recommended. Full article
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23 pages, 4327 KiB  
Article
Urban Governance and Sanitation in the Peri-Urban Commune of Agoè-Nyvé 6 in Togo: Diagnosis of the Sanitation System in Adétikopé
by Efui Holaly Gbekley, Koko Zébéto Houedakor, Kossi Komi, Sossawè Poli, Djiwonou Koffi Adjalo, Ablam Nyakpo, Ayayivi Mensah Ayivigan, Abdourahamane Aissa Ghanny Vanessa Ali, Kossiwa Zinsou-Klassou and Pèssiezoum Adjoussi
Water 2023, 15(18), 3306; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183306 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
In African cities, the ever-increasing production of wastewater and excreta poses a major management problem. The aim of this study was to take stock of wastewater and excreta management in Adétikopé in the commune of Agoè-Nyivé 6. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study [...] Read more.
In African cities, the ever-increasing production of wastewater and excreta poses a major management problem. The aim of this study was to take stock of wastewater and excreta management in Adétikopé in the commune of Agoè-Nyivé 6. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the population of the locality of Adétikopé in terms of wastewater and excreta management, which took place from August 2022 to July 2023. It involved 5256 households in 12 villages in the locality of Adétikopé and was carried out via a field survey, interviews, observations and documentary research. The results showed that 72.60% of respondents were women. The majority of households (85.62%) had latrines, 66.40% of which had never been emptied. The remainder used a mechanical emptying truck (5.48%). Households without latrines (14.38%) defecate with neighbors (14.28%) in the open (66.67%) and in public latrines (19.05%). The same applies to wastewater from cooking, washing and dishwashing, which is most often dumped on the public highway (78.77%). Wastewater is a breeding ground for mosquitoes that cause malaria, which is the most common disease in the area. The results of this study show that wastewater and excreta are managed by most concessions in an unhealthy way and discharged into the environment. It is important to step up public awareness campaigns on the harmful consequences of poor wastewater and excreta disposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
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22 pages, 14287 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics and Driving Mechanisms on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Context of Climate Change
by Yinghui Chang, Chuncheng Yang, Li Xu, Dongfeng Li, Haibin Shang and Feiyang Gao
Water 2023, 15(18), 3305; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183305 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (TP) is susceptible to climate change and human activities, which brought about drastic alterations in vegetation on the plateau. However, the trends and driving mechanisms of vegetation changes remain unclear. Therefore, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to [...] Read more.
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (TP) is susceptible to climate change and human activities, which brought about drastic alterations in vegetation on the plateau. However, the trends and driving mechanisms of vegetation changes remain unclear. Therefore, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of vegetation and the consistency of dynamic trends in the TP from 2000 to 2020 in this study. The independent contributions and interactive factors of natural and human activities on vegetation changes were investigated through the Geodetector model. The drivers of vegetation under different dry–wet zones and precipitation gradients were quantitatively separated, and the internal mechanisms of vegetation changes were discussed from multiple perspectives. The results showed that from 2000 to 2020, the NDVI had an overall increasing trend, with an increasing rate of 0.0027 a−1, and the spatial pattern was different, increasing gradually from the northwest to the southeast. Consistent improvement occurred in the central and southeastern parts of the TP, while the western and northern parts consistently deteriorated. The annual mean precipitation had the greatest explanatory power for vegetation changes (0.781). The explanatory power of the integrated effects between two factors was greater than that of individual factors. The integrated effects between annual mean precipitation and other driving factors had the strongest explanatory power on vegetation variations. The driving mechanisms of vegetation dynamics varied among different dry–wet zones, and the vegetation growth was more sensitive to the response of precipitation in arid and semi-arid climate zones. This study enhances our understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms of vegetation changes on the plateau, which can provide a reference for ecological conservation, and has implications for further prediction and assessment of vegetation ecosystem stability. Full article
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15 pages, 9553 KiB  
Article
Changes in Nutrient Concentrations and Limitations of Poyang Lake Associated with Socioeconomic Development in the Watershed from 1978 to 2021
by Cheng Zhang, Guodong Su and Xia Li
Water 2023, 15(18), 3304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183304 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Socioeconomic development often leads to environmental pollution and degradation initially while, beyond a certain point, there is the potential for improvements in environmental quality. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive review of published literature and national data to investigate changes in nutrient [...] Read more.
Socioeconomic development often leads to environmental pollution and degradation initially while, beyond a certain point, there is the potential for improvements in environmental quality. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive review of published literature and national data to investigate changes in nutrient concentrations and limitations in Poyang Lake from 1978 to 2021. Our objective was to examine the relationships between these changes and the process of socioeconomic development in the watershed. The findings revealed a rapid socioeconomic development of the Poyang Lake Watershed, showing significant changes in various indexes. For example, population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), urbanization, grain and meat productions, sewage amount and treatment rate, and forest coverage in the watershed showed increasing trends with different fitting curves, each following distinct fitting curves such as exponential, binary, and linear models. Concurrently, the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Poyang Lake exhibited a linear increase over the years, surpassing eutrophication thresholds since the early 1980s. However, TN and TP have shown a decreasing trend in recent years. Notably, the lake displayed co-limitation by N and P, with TN primarily driving the N:P ratio. TN and TP showed a significant “∩” shape with the increase in GDP and urbanization, while they increased with the population. TN:TP showed an increasing pattern with GDP and urbanization but a “U” shape with the population. This research contributes significant insights into the long-term changes in nutrient concentrations, shifts in nutrient limitations, and their associations with socioeconomic development. The findings highlight the need for a balanced and strategic approach to appropriately manage both nutrients for effective eutrophication mitigation. Full article
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16 pages, 10580 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Main Factors on the Accuracy of Hydrological Modelling of Flooded Lands
by Khrystyna Burshtynska, Iryna Zayats, Maksym Halochkin, Krzysztof Bakuła and Lyubov Babiy
Water 2023, 15(18), 3303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183303 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 960
Abstract
This paper proposes a general methodological approach to hydrological modeling for determining the areas of flooded land in the plain part of the Dniester riverbed, the second largest river in Ukraine. The purpose of the study is the selection of parameters for modeling [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a general methodological approach to hydrological modeling for determining the areas of flooded land in the plain part of the Dniester riverbed, the second largest river in Ukraine. The purpose of the study is the selection of parameters for modeling flooded zones in the plain section of the Dniester riverbed, taking into account the rising water level caused by the freshet that occurred in the western part of Ukraine on 22–24 June 2020. The proposed study examines the workflow of hydrological modeling of the flooded land zone and the main components of this scheme: the construction of the DTM, considering the roughness of the riparian territory by Manning’s coefficients, and indications of water rise. In the experiment, the influence of DTM reproduction resolution and Manning coefficients was analyzed, and their optimal values were selected, which allowed obtaining the parameters of hydrological modeling with a higher probability. The identified flooding areas were tested using a high-resolution space image during the flood in June 2020. The distance between the profiles affects not only the value of the modeling area but also their detail. The accuracy of the modeled flooded area is 5.1% for a 5 m interval between the profiles, 6.9% for 50 m, 8.2% for 100 m, and 10.8% for 200 m. These results allow determining the degree of influence of the distance between intervals on the modeling accuracy. Using different values of Manning’s coefficients for individual sections with different bedding surfaces and the selected spacing between profiles, which was 50 m, the accuracy of the modeling was investigated. After the modelling, the simulated flood areas were obtained in vector form, which allows for determining their areas and comparing them with the test flooded area. In the presented research, the RMSE of determining the flooded areas is about 5%. The test area of 600.6 hectares was determined with an accuracy of 0.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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17 pages, 2479 KiB  
Article
Socio-Hydrological Approach for Water Resource Management and Human Well-Being in Pinglin District, Taiwan
by Tasi-Jung Jiang, Pankaj Kumar, Herlin Chien and Osamu Saito
Water 2023, 15(18), 3302; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183302 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Despite being a limited resource, pollution, poor management, and other drivers like climate change make available water unsuitable and insufficient for human consumption and ecosystem maintenance. Therefore, a transdisciplinary approach is needed for managing this precious resource. The overall aim of this paper [...] Read more.
Despite being a limited resource, pollution, poor management, and other drivers like climate change make available water unsuitable and insufficient for human consumption and ecosystem maintenance. Therefore, a transdisciplinary approach is needed for managing this precious resource. The overall aim of this paper is to address water inequalities and improve human well-being using an integrated approach of key informant interviews, hydrological modeling, and the payment of ecosystem services (PES) scheme in Pinglin District, Taiwan. This site is an upstream area of Feicui Reservoir, which protects the downstream tap water supply. Key informant interviews were conducted to identify the gaps in and challenges to water resource management. This was followed by a scenario-based hydrological simulation using a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) tool to project future water quality by the year 2050 (using biochemical oxygen demand and total coliform content as key indicator parameters) and to trace the factors responsible for water pollution. Survey analysis of key informant interviews depicts that this area is facing several challenges, such as lack of water infrastructure, agricultural subsidy, construction restrictions, etc., which cumulatively cause water scarcity in the upstream regions. On the other hand, hydrological simulation results show that population decline and climate change under an RCP 8.5 scenario will have an enormous negative impact on water quality. The concentrations of BOD and E. coli in river water will expand by 110.1% and 117.3%, respectively, by 2050 compared to 2018. Finally, the results of the study suggest that the PES scheme can play a positive role in enabling integrated water resource management. For example construction of a small-scale wastewater treatment plant in the upstream area will reduce the total E. coli concentration by up to 90%. While the initial cost of construction will be taken care of by the government, the operation and management cost of this infrastructure will be covered by people living downstream, who need to pay only $0.10 per year per person. The obtained results should be vital for both the stakeholders and decision-makers in this region. Full article
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14 pages, 1797 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Sewage Molecular Markers: Linear Alkylbenzenes in Sediments of an Industrialized Region in Peninsular Malaysia
by Sadeq A. A. Alkhadher, Hussein E. Al-Hazmi, Suhaimi Suratman, Mohamad P. Zakaria, Najat Masood, Bartosz Szeląg, Sami M. Magam, Ebrahim H. H. Al-Qadami, Joanna Majtacz, Przemysław Kowal, Tonni A. Kurniawan, Sameer A. M. Abdulrahman and Saeed S. Albaseer
Water 2023, 15(18), 3301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183301 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
In this study, the use of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) was employed to pinpoint the sources of human activity that cause detrimental impacts on the coastal environment and river ecosystems. LABs were detected using GC–MS in sediment samples assembled from Kim Kim River (KKR) [...] Read more.
In this study, the use of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) was employed to pinpoint the sources of human activity that cause detrimental impacts on the coastal environment and river ecosystems. LABs were detected using GC–MS in sediment samples assembled from Kim Kim River (KKR) and the Port Dickson coast (PDC). To assess the significance of variations in the distribution and concentrations of LABs across the sampling sites, this study utilized several statistical techniques such as post hoc tests, LSD techniques, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Pearson correlation coefficient using a significance level of p < 0.05. The degradation levels of LABs and wastewater treatment were assessed in the study using internal congeners (I/E), homologs of C13 and C12, and long-to-short-chain (L/S) ratios. The results revealed that the LAB concentrations varied between 88.3 and 112 ng/g dw in KKR and 119 to 256 ng/g dw in the PDC. Most of the surveyed areas exhibited a substantial count of C13–LABs homologs that displayed a significant difference (p < 0.05). The I/E ratios ranged from 1.7 to 2.0 in KKR and from 2.0 to 4.1 in the PDC, suggesting that the effluents originated from sources associated with the physical phase and biological phase in wastewater treatment systems (WWTSs). The results revealed that the degradation of LABs varied between 34% and 38% in KKR and between 40% and 64% in the PDC. This study underscores the importance of ongoing improvements to WWTSs and emphasizes the potential of LABs as indicators for monitoring wastewater contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality, Water Security and Risk Assessment)
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17 pages, 4419 KiB  
Article
Tracking Multiphase Flows through Steep Reservoirs with External Constraint
by Mubbashar Nazeer, Waqas Ali and Farooq Hussain
Water 2023, 15(18), 3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183300 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Problem statement: The study offers theoretical formulations for high-viscosity particulate flows in inclined reservoirs, taking into account the presence of homogeneous spheroidal particles of various types to produce discrete two-phase suspensions. Purpose: The primary objective of this analytical and comparative study is to [...] Read more.
Problem statement: The study offers theoretical formulations for high-viscosity particulate flows in inclined reservoirs, taking into account the presence of homogeneous spheroidal particles of various types to produce discrete two-phase suspensions. Purpose: The primary objective of this analytical and comparative study is to identify the most dependable nanoparticles among hafnium and crystal metals that are suspended in an Eyring–Powell fluid through an inclined channel while being subjected to external magnetic and gravitational forces. Solution methodology: The flow dynamics of multiphase flows are formulated utilizing the stress tensor of the base fluid. The regular perturbation method (RPM) is employed to attain a more closed-form solution. The perturbation method is frequently employed in engineering problems to obtain an approximated solution, even when demonstrating the convergence of the solution is challenging. The rough solution is also validated through a thorough parametric analysis that shows the role of relevant parameters that contribute to the multiphase flow. Results: A concise parametric study is carried out against some of the most pertinent parameters and reveals that additional particles have promising effects on the momentum of each multiphase flow, whereas Eyring–Powell multiphase suspensions lessen in momentum due to strong internal viscous forces. The velocity of fluid and particle phases diminish with Hartmann number M and Froude number Fr. The second-order material constant B and concentration of nanoparticles C boost the motion of the fluid. The velocities of the particulate phase are quicker than the fluid phase. The hafnium particle is more reliable than crystal particles. Solution benchmark: Numerical and graphical findings have also been compared with the existing literature for the limiting case and found to be fully in agreement. Applications: This study’s findings provide a wider understanding of subterranean flows, specifically within the petroleum sector, with a focus on multiphase flows. Originality: The current study represents the authors’ original work and has not been previously submitted or published elsewhere. Full article
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16 pages, 4978 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of the Driving Factors of Water Quality Variations in the Minjiang River in Southwestern China
by Chuankun Liu, Yue Hu, Fuhong Sun, Liya Ma, Wei Wang, Bin Luo, Yang Wang and Hongming Zhang
Water 2023, 15(18), 3299; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183299 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
The Minjiang River is an important first-level tributary of the Yangtze River. Understanding the driving factors of water quality variations in the Minjiang River is crucial for future policy planning of watershed ecology protection of the Yangtze River. The water quality of the [...] Read more.
The Minjiang River is an important first-level tributary of the Yangtze River. Understanding the driving factors of water quality variations in the Minjiang River is crucial for future policy planning of watershed ecology protection of the Yangtze River. The water quality of the Minjiang River is impacted by both meteorological factors and anthropogenic factors. By using wavelet analysis, machine learning, and Shapley analysis approaches, the impacts of meteorological factors and anthropogenic factors on the permanganate index (CODMn) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations at the outlet of the Minjiang River Basin were quantified. The observed CODMn and NH3-N concentration data in the Minjiang River from 2016 to 2020 were decomposed into long-term trend signals and periodic signals. The long-term trends in water qualities showed that anthropogenic factors were the major driving factors, accounting for 98.38% of the impact on CODMn concentrations and 98.18% of the impact on NH3-N concentrations. The periodic fluctuations in water qualities in the Minjiang River Basin were mainly controlled by meteorological factors, with an impact of 68.89% on CODMn concentrations and 63.94% on NH3-N concentrations. Compared to anthropogenic factors, meteorological factors have a greater impact on water quality in the Minjiang River Basin during both the high-temperature and rainy seasons from July to September and during the winter from December to February. The separate quantification of impacts of driving factors on the varying water quality signals contributed to the originality in this work, providing more intuitive insights for the assessment of the influences of policies and the climate change on the water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Water Quality and Pollutant Behavior)
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14 pages, 9031 KiB  
Article
Dam Surface Deformation Monitoring and Analysis Based on PS-InSAR Technology: A Case Study of Xiaolangdi Reservoir Dam in China
by Qun Wang, Yufei Gao, Tingting Gong, Tiejun Liu, Zhengwei Sui, Jinghui Fan and Zhenyu Wang
Water 2023, 15(18), 3298; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183298 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
The Xiaolangdi Dam is a key project for the control and development of the Yellow River. It bears the functions of flood control, controlling water and sediment in the lower reaches, ice prevention, industrial and agricultural water supply, power generation, and so on. [...] Read more.
The Xiaolangdi Dam is a key project for the control and development of the Yellow River. It bears the functions of flood control, controlling water and sediment in the lower reaches, ice prevention, industrial and agricultural water supply, power generation, and so on. Its safety is related to people’s life and property safety and local economic and social development. It is of great significance to carry out comprehensive and regular deformation monitoring for dams since the deformation is an important evaluation index for dam safety. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology has been a rapidly evolving technology in the field of space geodesy in recent years. It offers advantages such as high monitoring precision, extensive coverage, and high monitoring point density, making it a powerful tool for monitoring deformations in hydraulic engineering projects. Based on Sentinel-1 data covering the Xiaolangdi Dam from September 2020 to November 2022, the PS-InSAR technique was used to obtain the surface deformation of the Xiaolangdi Dam, and reservoir water level data on image acquisition dates were obtained for joint analysis. The results show that there is a large deformation in the center of the dam crest of the Xiaolangdi Dam, while both sides of the slope and downstream dam foot are relatively stable. The time series deformation of the dam body is closely related to the reservoir water level change. When the water level increases, the dam body tends to deform downstream; when the water level decreases, the dam body tends to deform upstream. The deformation and water level of the Xiaolangdi Dam exhibit a clear negative correlation. There is no significant cumulative deformation on the dam slopes or at the base of the dam. However, cumulative deformation occurs over time in the central area of the dam’s crest. The deformation process at the central area of the dam’s crest follows a continuous and non-disruptive pattern, which is consistent with the typical deformation behavior of the Xiaolangdi earth–rock dam structure. Therefore, it is judged that the current deformation of the Xiaolangdi Dam does not impact the safe operation of the dam. InSAR technology enables the rapid acquisition of high-precision, high-density deformation information on the surfaces of reservoir dams. With an increasing number of radar satellites in various frequency bands, such as Sentinel-1 and TerraSAR-X, there is now an ample supply of available data sources for InSAR applications. Consequently, InSAR technology can be extended to routine monitoring applications for reservoir dam deformations, especially for small and medium-sized reservoirs that may not be equipped with ground measurement tools like GNSS. This holds significant importance and potential for enhancing the safety monitoring of such reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geohazards Monitoring Assessment: Earth-Observation Techniques)
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17 pages, 916 KiB  
Article
Heavy Metals and Microbial Diversity: A Comparative Analysis of Rivers Swat and Kabul
by Basharat Ali, Anwarzeb Khan, Syed Shujait Ali, Haji Khan, Mehboob Alam, Asmat Ali, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei, Mikhlid H. Almutairi and Ki In Kim
Water 2023, 15(18), 3297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183297 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Water contamination with heavy metals seriously affects water and sediment quality and may affect the aquatic biota. This study assessed the impact of heavy metals on the morphological characteristics of aquatic microorganisms in potentially contaminated water. Different physicochemical parameters and heavy metals contents [...] Read more.
Water contamination with heavy metals seriously affects water and sediment quality and may affect the aquatic biota. This study assessed the impact of heavy metals on the morphological characteristics of aquatic microorganisms in potentially contaminated water. Different physicochemical parameters and heavy metals contents were analyzed for toxicological assessment along with microbial diversity in the rivers Swat and Kabul. The pH of River Swat water was neutral to slightly alkaline, while River Kabul was neutral to slightly acidic. The results showed substantial variations in heavy metal concentration across different sampling points. In both River Swat and River Kabul water samples, Cu and Zn concentrations were below the permissible limits for surface and drinking water qualities while the rest of the heavy metals exceeded the permissible limit with Cd being the most abundant heavy metal. Similarly, in sediment samples all the heavy metals were below the permissible limits except for Cd that exceeded the Environment Canada (EC) limits in River Swat and EC and NOVA limits in River Kabul. The rest of the heavy metals concentrations were within the permissible limits, with few exceptions. The results showed that in River Swat, most of the contamination was of geogenic origin, while the main source of contamination in River Kabul was anthropogenic. Results of microbial analysis showed that River Swat has more diversity than River Kabul, which may be due to the low contamination profile of River Swat. It was further observed that high heavy metal concentrations negatively impact the morphological characteristics of microorganisms. The heavy metals concentration and microbial diversity were closely related to each other. Full article
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15 pages, 6600 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Priority Selection Method for Underground Dam Installation Considering Humanities and Social Factors Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process in Korea
by Jung-Ryel Choi, Jang Hyun Sung, Dong-Ho Kang, Kyung-Su Choo and Byung-Sik Kim
Water 2023, 15(18), 3296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183296 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
Most of Korea’s precipitation is concentrated between June and September, and 65% of the country’s territory is covered with mountains, which means there is less time for rainfall to reach the surface. These hydrological characteristics pose challenges in securing and managing water resources. [...] Read more.
Most of Korea’s precipitation is concentrated between June and September, and 65% of the country’s territory is covered with mountains, which means there is less time for rainfall to reach the surface. These hydrological characteristics pose challenges in securing and managing water resources. Moreover, the Yeongdong Area of Gangwon Province does not easily allow the construction of reservoirs and dams, which adds to the difficulty of developing structural measures to address water shortage caused by water supply restrictions. One measure proposed for addressing damage to residents, as well as social conflicts caused by water shortages, is to use underground dams and other high-capacity underground facilities to secure water for Korea’s eastern coastal areas. Unlike dams and reservoirs above the ground, underground dams are not affected by floods and offer an eco-friendly way to address the continuous water demand growth by storing water in underground spaces. This study prioritizes underground dam sites in six areas in the Yeongdong Area of Gangwon Province (Goseong, Sokcho, Yangyang, Gangneung, Donghae, and Samcheok) by conducting an expert survey and analyzing the results with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy AHP. The findings indicate that the Sangcheon River in Sokcho, where an underground dam already exists, satisfies the criteria proposed in this study. We expect the study’s findings and methods to be used to determine suitable dam sites and water resource management plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stormwater Management and Underground Drainage Systems)
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24 pages, 2632 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on Catalytic Activities of Green-Synthesized Selenium Nanoparticles on Dye Removal for Wastewater Treatment
by Amin Barani, Seyedeh Roya Alizadeh and Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh
Water 2023, 15(18), 3295; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183295 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
The increase in economic activities and the industrialization of countries have caused the growth of pollution created by waste and sewage. In particular, the textile industry produces large amounts of liquid contaminants due to the large amounts of water employed during the production [...] Read more.
The increase in economic activities and the industrialization of countries have caused the growth of pollution created by waste and sewage. In particular, the textile industry produces large amounts of liquid contaminants due to the large amounts of water employed during the production of fabrics. In addition, dyes are another category of organic compound used in many industries, such as pharmaceuticals and rubber making. The presence of limitations in physico-chemical methods for the degradation of various dyes has stimulated the interest of researchers worldwide. One of the most economical ways is the use of photocatalytic decomposition under UV light radiation by green nanoparticles (NPs). In recent years, various metal NPs have been made using the green method that is cost-effective, eco-friendly, safe, and simple. Selenium (Se) is a crucial semiconductor metal that is widely utilized for its outstanding photovoltaic and optoelectronic attributes. Due to the excellent physical characteristics of Se, such as thermo-conductivity, anisotropy, and high photoconductivity, it has been used for removing various organic dyes. Hence, green SeNPs have attracted much attention in the catalytic decomposition process. The current review focuses on providing comprehensive studies concerning the degradation or reduction of various organic dyes through green SeNPs as an effective and efficient method and their mechanisms. It highlights the importance of utilizing green chemistry and catalytic properties. The aim is to benefit researchers from both academic and industrial backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Catalysis in Wastewater Treatment)
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