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Water, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Maize Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Penman-Monteith Equation and Modeling the Bulk Canopy Resistance
Water 2019, 11(12), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122650 (registering DOI) - 15 Dec 2019
Abstract
Some techniques, such as the Katerji and Perrier approach, estimate the bulk canopy resistance (rc) as a function of meteorological variables and then calculate the hourly evapotranspiration using the Penman–Monteith equation, so that traditional crop coefficients are not needed. As [...] Read more.
Some techniques, such as the Katerji and Perrier approach, estimate the bulk canopy resistance (rc) as a function of meteorological variables and then calculate the hourly evapotranspiration using the Penman–Monteith equation, so that traditional crop coefficients are not needed. As far as we know, there are no published studies regarding using this method for a maize crop. The objective of this study was to calibrate and validate the canopy resistance for an irrigated continuous maize crop in the Midwestern United States (US). In addition, we determined the effect of derivation year, bowen ratio, and the extent of canopy. In this study we derive empirical coefficients necessary to estimate rc for maize, five years (2001–2005) were considered. A split-sample approach was taken, in which each year’s data was taken as a potential calibration data set and validation was accomplished while using the other four years of data. We grouped the data by green leaf area index (GLAI) and the Bowen ratio (β) by parsing the data into a 3 × 3 grouping: LAI (≥2, ≥3, and ≥4) and |β| (≤0.1, ≤0.2, and ≤0.3). The best fit data indicated reasonably good results for all nine groupings, so that the calibration coefficients derived for the conditions LAI ≥ 2 and |β| ≤ 0.3 were taken in light of the longer span associated with LAI ≥ 2 and the larger number of hours. For the calibrations in this subgroup, the results indicate that the annual empirical coefficients for rc are nearly the same and equally effective, regardless of the year used for calibration. Our validation included all the daytime hours regardless of β. Thus, it was concluded that the calibration at our site was independent of the derivation year. Knowledge of the Bowen ratio was useful in calibration, but accurate ET estimates (validation) can be obtained without knowledge of the Bowen ratio. Validation resulted in hourly ET estimates for irrigated maize that explained 83% to 86% of the variation in measured ET with an accuracy of ± 0.2 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment on Permeability and Grout Take of Limestone: A Case Study at Mut Dam, Karaman, Turkey
Water 2019, 11(12), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122649 (registering DOI) - 15 Dec 2019
Abstract
The main purposes of the present study are to evaluate pilot grouting and to develop regression equations for prediction of grout intake. There are no permeability problems with the sandstone-siltstone-claystone alternations and basement clayey limestone at the dam site. Karstic limestone block is [...] Read more.
The main purposes of the present study are to evaluate pilot grouting and to develop regression equations for prediction of grout intake. There are no permeability problems with the sandstone-siltstone-claystone alternations and basement clayey limestone at the dam site. Karstic limestone block is permeable due to karstification and heavy discontinuities. For the purpose of the study, Q system, geological strength index (GSI), secondary permeability index (SPI), joint spacing (JSP), joint apertures (Ap), Lugeon (Lu), and the permeability coefficient (k) were determined. Karstic limestone block rock mass properties correlated with grouting material amount. A series of simple and multiple nonlinear regression analyses was performed between grout take material amount (Gt) and average values of these rock mass properties. Significant determination coefficients were determined. Prediction capacity of the empirical equations were also examined with root mean square error (RMSE), values account for (VAF), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and prediction error evaluations. Considering simple regression analyses, the equation derived with Gt-SPI gives the best performance. The best prediction is determined with the equation derived with rock quality designation values (RQD), SPI, and joint aperture as input parameters with the multiple nonlinear regression analysis, in addition to this, other empirical equations also provide acceptable results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Management of Hydraulic Infrastructure)
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Open AccessArticle
Documenting a Century of Coastline Change along Central California and Associated Challenges: From the Qualitative to the Quantitative
Water 2019, 11(12), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122648 (registering DOI) - 15 Dec 2019
Abstract
Wave erosion has moved coastal cliffs and bluffs landward over the centuries. Now climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and the changes in wave action are accelerating coastline retreat around the world. Documenting the erosion of cliffed coasts and projecting the rate of coastline [...] Read more.
Wave erosion has moved coastal cliffs and bluffs landward over the centuries. Now climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and the changes in wave action are accelerating coastline retreat around the world. Documenting the erosion of cliffed coasts and projecting the rate of coastline retreat under future SLR scenarios are more challenging than historical and future shoreline change studies along low-lying sandy beaches. The objective of this research was to study coastal erosion of the West Cliff Drive area in Santa Cruz along the Central California Coast and identify the challenges in coastline change analysis. We investigated the geological history, geomorphic differences, and documented cliff retreat to assess coastal erosion qualitatively. We also conducted a quantitative assessment of cliff retreat through extracting and analyzing the coastline position at three different times (1953, 1975, and 2018). The results showed that the total retreat of the West Cliff Drive coastline over 65 years ranges from 0.3 to 32 m, and the maximum cliff retreat rate was 0.5 m/year. Geometric errors, the complex profiles of coastal cliffs, and irregularities in the processes of coastal erosion, including the undercutting of the base of the cliff and formation of caves, were some of the identified challenges in documenting historical coastline retreat. These can each increase the uncertainty of calculated retreat rates. Reducing the uncertainties in retreat rates is an essential initial step in projecting cliff and bluff retreat under future SLR more accurately and in developing a practical adaptive management plan to cope with the impacts of coastline change along this highly populated edge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dynamic and Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle
Transmissibility Upscaling on Unstructured Grids for Highly Heterogeneous Reservoirs
Water 2019, 11(12), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122647 (registering DOI) - 15 Dec 2019
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Abstract
One critical point of modeling of flow in porous media is the capacity to consider parameters that are highly variable in space. It is then very challenging to simulate numerically fluid flow on such heterogeneous porous media. The continuous increase in computing power [...] Read more.
One critical point of modeling of flow in porous media is the capacity to consider parameters that are highly variable in space. It is then very challenging to simulate numerically fluid flow on such heterogeneous porous media. The continuous increase in computing power makes it possible to integrate smaller and smaller heterogeneities into geological models of up to tens of millions of cells. On such meshes, despite computer performance, multi-phase flow equations cannot be solved in an acceptable time for hydrogeologists and reservoir engineers, especially when the modeling considers several components in each fluid and when taking into account rock-fluid interactions. Taking average reservoir properties is a common approach to reducing mesh size. During the last decades, many authors studied the upscaling topic. Two different ways have been investigated to upscale the absolute permeability: (1) an average of the permeability for each cell, which is then used for standard transmissibility calculation, or (2) computing directly the upscaled transmissibility values using the high-resolution permeability values. This paper is related to the second approach. The proposed method uses the half-block approach and combines the finite volume principles with algebraic methods to provide an upper and a lower bound of the upscaled transmissibility values. An application on an extracted map of the SPE10 model shows that this approach is more accurate and faster than the classical transmissibility upscaling method based on flow simulation. This approach keeps the contrast of transmissibility values observed at the high-resolution geological scale and improves the accuracy of field-scale flow simulation for highly heterogeneous reservoirs. Moreover, the upper and lower bounds delivered by the algebraic method allow checking the quality of the upscaling and the gridding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phosphorus Fractions in the Sediments of Yuecheng Reservoir, China
Water 2019, 11(12), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122646 (registering DOI) - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 77
Abstract
As a result of the inexorable development of the economy and the ever-increasing population, the demand for water in the urban and rural sectors has increased, and this in turn has caused the water quality and eutrophication of the reservoir to become a [...] Read more.
As a result of the inexorable development of the economy and the ever-increasing population, the demand for water in the urban and rural sectors has increased, and this in turn has caused the water quality and eutrophication of the reservoir to become a legitimate concern in the water environment management of river basins. Phosphorus (P) is one of the limiting nutrients in aquatic ecosystems; P in the sediment is a primary factor for eutrophication. Yuecheng Reservoir is located in one of the most productive and intensively cultivated agricultural regions in North China. Detailed knowledge of the sediment is lacking at this regional reservoir. The first study to look into the different P fractions and its diffusion fluxes at the water sediment interface of the Yuecheng Reservoir makes it possible to learn about the internal P loading. According to the results, the concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 1576.3 to 2172.6 mg kg and the P fraction concentration sequence is as follows: P associated with calcium (Ca–Pi) > organic P (Po) > P bound to aluminum (Al), ferrum (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides and hydroxides (Fe/Al–Pi). The results demonstrated that, although the construction of a large number of water conservancy projects in the upper reaches of the river resulted in the decrease of inflow runoff, the pollutions from terrestrial plants or materials played a key role in the sediment phosphorus fraction, and they should be emphasized on the water environment management of river basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake and River Restoration: Method, Evaluation and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Regional and Seasonal Distributions of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) Concentrations in Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Korea
Water 2019, 11(12), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122645 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Volatile N-Nitrosamines (NAs), including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), an emerging contaminant in drinking water, have been reported to induce cancer in animal studies. This study aims to investigate the regional and seasonal distributions of the concentrations of NDMA, one of the most commonly [...] Read more.
Volatile N-Nitrosamines (NAs), including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), an emerging contaminant in drinking water, have been reported to induce cancer in animal studies. This study aims to investigate the regional and seasonal distributions of the concentrations of NDMA, one of the most commonly found NAs with high carcinogenicity, in municipal tap water in Korea. NDMA in water samples was quantitatively determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) as a 5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalenesulfonyl (dansyl) derivative after optimization to dry the SPE adsorbent and remove dimethylamine prior to derivatization. Tap water samples were collected from 41 sites in Korea, each of which was visited once in summer and once in winter. The average (±standard deviation) NDMA concentration among all the sites was 46.6 (±22.7) ng/L, ranging from <0.13 to 80.7 ng/L. Significant NDMA differences in the regions, excluding the Jeju region, were not found, whereas the average NDMA concentration was statistically higher in winter than in summer. A multiple regression analysis for the entire data set indicated a negative relationship between NDMA concentration and water temperature. High levels of NDMA in Korea may pose excessive cancer risks from the consumption of such drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Optimal Operation of the Inter-Basin Water Transfer Project Considering the Unknown Shapes of Pareto Fronts
Water 2019, 11(12), 2644; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122644 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 151
Abstract
Studies have shown that the performance of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms depends to a large extent on the shape of the Pareto fronts of the problem. Although, most existing algorithms have poor applicability in dealing with this problem, especially in the multi-objective optimization operation [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that the performance of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms depends to a large extent on the shape of the Pareto fronts of the problem. Although, most existing algorithms have poor applicability in dealing with this problem, especially in the multi-objective optimization operation of reservoirs with unknown Pareto fronts. Therefore, this paper introduces an evolutionary algorithm with strong versatility and robustness named the Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm with Reference Point Adaptation (AR-MOEA). In this paper, we take two water conservancy hubs (Huangjinxia and Sanhekou) of the Hanjiang to Wei River Water Diversion Project as example, and build a multi-objective operation model including water supply, ecology, and power generation. We use the AR-MOEA, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), the Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D) and the Indicator-Based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA) to search the optimal solutions, respectively. We analyze the performance of four algorithms and the operation rules in continuous dry years. The results indicate that (1) the AR-MOEA can overcome the difficulty of the shape and distribution of the unknown Pareto fronts in the multi-objective model. (2) AR-MOEA can improve the convergence and uniformity of the Pareto solution. (3) If we make full use of the regulation ability of the Sanhekou reservoir in the dry season, the water supply for coping with possible continuous dry years can be guaranteed. The study results contribute to the identification of the relationship among objectives, and is valued for water resources management of the Hanjiang to Wei River Water Diversion Project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Capacities for Diversified Flood Risk Management Strategies: Learning from Pilot Projects
Water 2019, 11(12), 2643; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122643 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Diversification of flood risk management strategies (FRMS) in response to climate change relies on the adaptive capacities of institutions. Although adaptive capacities enable flexibility and adjustment, more empirical research is needed to better grasp the role of adaptive capacities to accommodate expected climate [...] Read more.
Diversification of flood risk management strategies (FRMS) in response to climate change relies on the adaptive capacities of institutions. Although adaptive capacities enable flexibility and adjustment, more empirical research is needed to better grasp the role of adaptive capacities to accommodate expected climate change effects. This paper presents an analytical framework based on the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) and Triple-loop Learning. The framework is applied to evaluate the adaptive capacities that were missing, employed, and developed throughout the ‘Alblasserwaard-Vijfheerenlanden’ (The Netherlands) and the ‘Wesermarsch’ (Germany) pilot projects. Evaluations were performed using questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups. From the 22 capacities of ACW, three capacities were identified important for diversifying the current FRMS; the capacity to develop a greater variety of solutions, continuous access to information about diversified FRMS, and collaborative leadership. Hardly any capacities related to ‘learning’ and ‘governance’ were mentioned by the stakeholders. From a further reflection on the data, we inferred that the pilot projects performed single-loop learning (incremental learning: ‘are we doing what we do right?’), rather than double-loop learning (reframing: ‘are we doing the right things?’). As the development of the framework is part of ongoing research, some directions for improvement are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Risk Governance for More Resilience)
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Open AccessReview
Applications of Bayesian Networks as Decision Support Tools for Water Resource Management under Climate Change and Socio-Economic Stressors: A Critical Appraisal
Water 2019, 11(12), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122642 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 157
Abstract
Bayesian networks (BNs) are widely implemented as graphical decision support tools which use probability inferences to generate “what if?” and “which is best?” analyses of potential management options for water resource management, under climate change and socio-economic stressors. This paper presents a systematic [...] Read more.
Bayesian networks (BNs) are widely implemented as graphical decision support tools which use probability inferences to generate “what if?” and “which is best?” analyses of potential management options for water resource management, under climate change and socio-economic stressors. This paper presents a systematic quantitative literature review of applications of BNs for decision support in water resource management. The review quantifies to what extent different types of data (quantitative and/or qualitative) are used, to what extent optimization-based and/or scenario-based approaches are adopted for decision support, and to what extent different categories of adaptation measures are evaluated. Most reviewed publications applied scenario-based approaches (68%) to evaluate the performance of management measures, whilst relatively few studies (18%) applied optimization-based approaches to optimize management measures. Institutional and social measures (62%) were mostly applied to the management of water-related concerns, followed by technological and engineered measures (47%), and ecosystem-based measures (37%). There was no significant difference in the use of quantitative and/or qualitative data across different decision support approaches (p = 0.54), or in the evaluation of different categories of management measures (p = 0.25). However, there was significant dependence (p = 0.076) between the types of management measure(s) evaluated, and the decision support approaches used for that evaluation. The potential and limitations of BN applications as decision support systems are discussed along with solutions and recommendations, thereby further facilitating the application of this promising decision support tool for future research priorities and challenges surrounding uncertain and complex water resource systems driven by multiple interactions amongst climatic and non-climatic changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hydro-Meteorological Characterization of Major Floods in Spanish Mountain Rivers
Water 2019, 11(12), 2641; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122641 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 123
Abstract
Spain, one of the most mountainous countries in Europe, suffers from frequent river flooding due to specific climatic and topographic features. Many headwaters of the largest rivers in Spain are located in mountainous areas of mid-to-high elevation. These include the Pyrenees, the Central [...] Read more.
Spain, one of the most mountainous countries in Europe, suffers from frequent river flooding due to specific climatic and topographic features. Many headwaters of the largest rivers in Spain are located in mountainous areas of mid-to-high elevation. These include the Pyrenees, the Central System, and the Cantabrian mountains, that have a sustained snowpack during the winter months. Most previous research on flood generation in Spain has focused on intense rainfall events, and the role of snowmelt has been ignored or considered marginal. In this paper we present a regional-scale study to quantify the relative importance of rainfall versus snowmelt in the largest floods recorded in mountain rivers in Spain during the last decades (1980–2014). We further analyzed whether catchments characteristics and weather types may favor the occurrence of rainfall or snowmelt induced floods. Results show that in 53% of the 250 analyzed floods the contribution of rainfall was larger than 90%, and in the rest of events snowmelt contribution was larger than 10%. Floods where snowmelt was the main contributor represented only 5% of the total events. The average contribution of snowmelt represents 18% of total runoff in floods that were analyzed. The role of snowmelt in floods, rather than triggering the event, was usually amplifying the duration of the event, especially after the peak flow was reached. In general, the importance of snowmelt in floods is greater in catchments with characteristics that favor snow accumulation. However, this does not apply to floods where contribution of snowmelt was larger than 90%, which tend to occur at catchments at mid-elevations that accumulate unusual amounts of snow that melt rapidly. Floods were more frequent under both cyclonic and anticyclonic synoptic situations over the Iberian Peninsula, as well as under advection of western and eastern flows. Our results contribute to the ongoing improvement of knowledge about the role of snow in the hydrology of Spanish rivers and on the importance of mountain processes on the hydrology of downstream areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing the Adoption of Water Conservation Technologies by Smallholder Farmer Households in Tanzania
Water 2019, 11(12), 2640; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122640 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 170
Abstract
In Tanzania, the increasing population coupled with climate change amplifies issues of food insecurity and negatively impacts the livelihoods of smallholder farmer households. To address these issues a range of water conservation techniques (WCTs) have been useful. However, the adoption of these WCTs [...] Read more.
In Tanzania, the increasing population coupled with climate change amplifies issues of food insecurity and negatively impacts the livelihoods of smallholder farmer households. To address these issues a range of water conservation techniques (WCTs) have been useful. However, the adoption of these WCTs in Tanzania has been limited due to many reasons. With the objective to better understand and identify the factors that significantly influence the adoption of WCTs in Tanzania, the study uses survey data from 701 smallholder farmer households and a bivariate logistic regression, to provide, for the first time, a comprehensive model for the adoption of WCTs in Tanzania that includes a range of individual, household, socio-economic, and farmer perception related variables (factors). The evaluation shows that 120 farmers (17.12%) adopted WCTs and finds the farmer perceptions of rainfall instability, household wealth, and food security to be crucial. The results suggest that policy interventions should encourage conservation behavior (especially when the rainfall is perceived to be uncertain), emphasize the economic and food security-related benefits of adopting WCTs, include strategies that make adoption of WCTs attractive to female-led households, attempt to reach greater number of farmers via social networks and provide better access to public funds for farmers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Degradation of Micropollutants by UV–Chlorine Treatment in Reclaimed Water: pH Effects, Formation of Disinfectant Byproducts, and Toxicity Assay
Water 2019, 11(12), 2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122639 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 114
Abstract
The utilization of reclaimed water is a reliable and sustainable approach to enhance water supply in water-deficient cities. However, the presence of micro-organic pollutants (MPs) in reclaimed water has potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, we investigated [...] Read more.
The utilization of reclaimed water is a reliable and sustainable approach to enhance water supply in water-deficient cities. However, the presence of micro-organic pollutants (MPs) in reclaimed water has potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of 12 target MPs in the influent and reclaimed water collected from a local wastewater treatment plant, and the ultraviolet (UV)–chlorine process was applied to analyze its ability to remove MPs. The results showed that all 12 MPs were detected in both the influent and the reclaimed water, with the concentrations ranging from 25.5 to 238 ng/L and 8.6 to 42.5 ng/L, respectively. Over 52% of all the target MPs were readily degraded by the UV–chlorine process, and the removal efficiency was 7.7% to 64.2% higher than the corresponding removal efficiency by chlorination or UV irradiation only. The degradation efficiency increased with the increasing initial chlorine concentration. The pH value had a slight influence on the MP degradation and exhibited different trends for different MPs. The formation of known disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) during the UV–chlorine process was 33.8% to 68.4% of that in the chlorination process, but the DBPs’ formation potentials were 1.3 to 2.2 times higher. The toxicity assay indicated that UV–chlorine can effectively reduce the toxicity of reclaimed water. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Filters to Reduce Phosphorus Losses: Field Observations and Modelling Tests in Tile-Drained Lowland Catchments
Water 2019, 11(12), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122638 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 110
Abstract
In this study, we analyzed Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus (DRP) and Total Phosphorus (TP) concentration dynamics over two years in surface waters of five nested catchments in northeastern Germany. Based on this, we constructed a filter box filled with iron-coated sand for Phosphorus (P) [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyzed Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus (DRP) and Total Phosphorus (TP) concentration dynamics over two years in surface waters of five nested catchments in northeastern Germany. Based on this, we constructed a filter box filled with iron-coated sand for Phosphorus (P) removal at the edge of a tile-drained field. Results of the filter box experiment were used for a model scenario analysis aiming at evaluating the P removal potential at catchment scale. DRP and TP concentrations were generally low but they exceeded occasionally target values. Results of the filter box experiment indicated that 28% of the TP load could be retained but the DRP load reduction was negligible. We assume that DRP could not be reduced due to short residence times and high flow dynamics. Instead, particulate P fractions were probably retained mechanically by the filter material. The scenario analysis revealed that the P removal potential of such filters are highest in areas, in which tile drainage water is the dominant P source. At a larger spatial scale, in which other P (point) sources are likewise important, edge-of-field P filters can only be one part of an integrated catchment strategy involving a variety of measures to reduce P losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle
Variability of Water Transit Time Distributions at the Strengbach Catchment (Vosges Mountains, France) Inferred Through Integrated Hydrological Modeling and Particle Tracking Algorithms
Water 2019, 11(12), 2637; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122637 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 112
Abstract
The temporal variability of transit-time distributions (TTDs) and residence-time distributions (RTDs) has received particular attention recently, but such variability has barely been studied using distributed hydrological modeling. In this study, a low-dimensional integrated hydrological model is run in combination with particle-tracking algorithms to [...] Read more.
The temporal variability of transit-time distributions (TTDs) and residence-time distributions (RTDs) has received particular attention recently, but such variability has barely been studied using distributed hydrological modeling. In this study, a low-dimensional integrated hydrological model is run in combination with particle-tracking algorithms to investigate the temporal variability of TTDs, RTDs, and StorAge Selection (SAS) functions in the small, mountainous Strengbach watershed belonging to the French network of critical-zone observatories. The particle-tracking algorithms employed rely upon both forward and backward formulations that are specifically developed to handle time-variable velocity fields and evaluate TTDs and RTDs under transient hydrological conditions. The model is calibrated using both traditional streamflow measurements and magnetic resonance sounding (MRS)—which is sensitive to the subsurface water content—and then verified over a ten-year period. The results show that the mean transit time is rather short, at 150–200 days, and that the TTDs and RTDs are not greatly influenced by water storage within the catchment. This specific behavior is mainly explained by the small size of the catchment and its small storage capacity, a rapid flow mainly controlled by gravity along steep slopes, and climatic features that keep the contributive zone around the stream wet all year long. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Role and Impact of Hydrograph Shape on Tidal Current-Induced Scour in Physical-Modelling Environments
Water 2019, 11(12), 2636; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122636 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 119
Abstract
For physical model tests, the time-varying characteristics of tidal currents are often simplified by a hydrograph following a shape of a unidirectional current or by resolving the tidal velocity signal into discrete steps of constant flow velocity. The influence of this generalization of [...] Read more.
For physical model tests, the time-varying characteristics of tidal currents are often simplified by a hydrograph following a shape of a unidirectional current or by resolving the tidal velocity signal into discrete steps of constant flow velocity. The influence of this generalization of the hydrograph’s shape on the scouring process in tidal currents has not yet been investigated systematically, further increasing the uncertainty in the prediction of scour depth and rate. Therefore, hydraulic model tests were carried out to investigate and quantify the influence of the hydrograph shape on the scouring processes under tidal currents. Several different hydrographs including those with continuously changing velocities, constant unidirectional currents, square-tide velocities and stepped velocity time series were analyzed. Results show that the scouring process in tidal currents is characterized by concurrent sediment backfilling and displacement which can only be reproduced by hydrographs that incorporate a varying flow direction. However, if only a correct representation of final scour depths is of interest, similar scour depths as in tidal currents might be achieved by a constant, unidirectional current, provided that a suitable flow velocity is selected. The effective flow work approach was found capable to identify such suitable hydraulic loads with reasonable practical accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle
Field Testing of Porous Pavement Performance on Runoff and Temperature Control in Taipei City
Water 2019, 11(12), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122635 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 119
Abstract
The Taipei University of Technology, under contract from the Taipei City Government, completed a study on porous asphalt (PA) and permeable interlocking concrete brick (PICB) pavement performance with respect to stormwater runoff reduction and surface temperature mitigation. Additionally, the variation of infiltration rates [...] Read more.
The Taipei University of Technology, under contract from the Taipei City Government, completed a study on porous asphalt (PA) and permeable interlocking concrete brick (PICB) pavement performance with respect to stormwater runoff reduction and surface temperature mitigation. Additionally, the variation of infiltration rates against time of these pavements was monitored. The results show the following: (a) Runoff peak reduction ranged from 16% for large, intense storms to 55% for small, long-duration storms. Rainfall volume reduction ranged from 16% to 77% with an average of 37.6%; (b) Infiltration rate: for PICB, it decreased by 25% to 50% over a 15-month monitoring period, but the rate at one location increased significantly after cleaning; for PA, the rate remained high at one location, but decreased by 70%–80% after 10 months at two other locations, due mainly to clogging problems; (c) Surface temperature: during storm events, porous concrete bricks had on average lower temperatures compared to regular concrete with a maximum difference of 6.6 °C; for porous asphalt the maximum drop was 3.9 °C. During dry days, both PA and PICB showed a tendency of faster temperature increase as the air temperature rose, but also faster temperature decreases as the air cooled when compared to regular pavements. On very hot days, much lower surface temperatures were observed for porous pavements (for PA: 17.0 °C and for PICB: 14.3 °C) than those for regular pavements. The results suggest that large-scale applications of porous pavements could help mitigate urban heat island impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Bridging the Data Gap in the Water Scarcity Footprint by Using Crop-Specific AWARE Factors
Water 2019, 11(12), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122634 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 107
Abstract
The assessment of the water scarcity footprint of products emerged as an important step in supporting water management strategies. Among others, the AWARE methodology was published as a consensus-based indicator to perform such an assessment at a watershed level and monthly scale. The [...] Read more.
The assessment of the water scarcity footprint of products emerged as an important step in supporting water management strategies. Among others, the AWARE methodology was published as a consensus-based indicator to perform such an assessment at a watershed level and monthly scale. The need to adopt such a detailed resolution, however, collides with the availability of data, so that general year and country-wide factors are commonly used. The objective of this study is to develop and verify the applicability of 26 crop-specific water scarcity characterization factors to help assess the water scarcity footprint when data and information availability is limited. To do so, a weighted average consumption approach was adopted, starting from local AWARE characterization factors and local crop-specific water consumption. The resulting factors, ranging from 0.19 m3/ton eq for “other perennial crop” in Brunei to 9997 m3/ton eq for “other annual crop” in Mauritania, illustrate the large variability of potential water scarcity impacts. Factors were applied to the water consumption of selected crops to assess their water scarcity footprint. The results of the study confirmed that the use of crop-specific factors is recommended as they are a better proxy of water scarcity in a region when compared to their national generic counterparts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Satellite Remote Sensing Are Used to Calculated River Discharge Attenuation Coefficients of Ungauged Catchments in Arid Desert
Water 2019, 11(12), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122633 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
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Abstract
The arid desert ecosystem is very fragile, and the change of its river discharge has a direct impact on irrigation and natural environment. River discharge attenuation coefficients is a key index to reveal the stability of desert river ecosystem. However, due to the [...] Read more.
The arid desert ecosystem is very fragile, and the change of its river discharge has a direct impact on irrigation and natural environment. River discharge attenuation coefficients is a key index to reveal the stability of desert river ecosystem. However, due to the harsh conditions in desert areas, it is difficult to establish a hydrological station to obtain data and calculate the attenuation coefficients, so it is urgent to develop new methods to master the attenuation coefficients of rivers. In this study, Taklamakan desert river was selected as the research area, and the river discharge of the desert river were estimated by combining low-altitude UAV and satellite remote sensing technology, so as to calculate the attenuation status of the river in its natural state. Combined with satellite remote sensing, the surface runoff in the desert reaches of the Hotan River from 1993 to 2017 were estimated. The results showed that the base of runoff attenuation in the lower reaches of the Hotan River is 40%. Coupled UAV and satellite remote sensing technology can provide technical support for the study of surface runoff in desert rivers within ungauged basins. Using UAV and satellite remote sensing can monitor surface runoff effectively providing important reference for river discharge monitoring in ungauged catchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
REUTIVAR: Model for Precision Fertigation Scheduling for Olive Orchards Using Reclaimed Water
Water 2019, 11(12), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122632 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Olive orchard is the most representative and iconic crop in Andalusia (Southern Spain). It is also considered one of the major economic activities of this region. However, due to its extensive growing area, olive orchard is also the most water-demanding crop in the [...] Read more.
Olive orchard is the most representative and iconic crop in Andalusia (Southern Spain). It is also considered one of the major economic activities of this region. However, due to its extensive growing area, olive orchard is also the most water-demanding crop in the Guadalquivir River Basin. In addition, its fertilization is commonly imprecise, which causes over-fertilization, especially nitrogen. This leads to pollution problems in both soil and water, threating the environment and the system sustainability. This concern is further exacerbated by the use of reclaimed water to irrigate since water is already a nutrient carrier. In this work, a model which determines the real-time irrigation and fertilization scheduling for olive orchard, applying treated wastewater, has been developed. The precision fertigation model considers weather information, both historical and forecast data, soil characteristics, hydraulic characteristics of the system, water allocation, tree nutrient status, and irrigation water quality. As a result, daily information about irrigation time and fertilizer quantity, considering the most susceptible crop stage, is provided. The proposed model showed that by using treated wastewater, additional fertilization was not required, leading to significant environmental benefits but also benefits in the total farm financial costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Management of Irrigation System)
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Open AccessArticle
Examination of Blockage Effects on the Progression of Local Scour around a Circular Cylinder
Water 2019, 11(12), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122631 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
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Abstract
An evaluation of scour estimation methods has indicated that the effects of blockage ratio are neglected in both scour modelling and development of new predictive methods. The role of channel blockage on the mechanism and progression of local scour is not well understood, [...] Read more.
An evaluation of scour estimation methods has indicated that the effects of blockage ratio are neglected in both scour modelling and development of new predictive methods. The role of channel blockage on the mechanism and progression of local scour is not well understood, and further analysis is required in order to incorporate this effect into scour estimation. In the present investigation, local scour experiments were carried out under varying blockage ratio. The results were compared with data from literature in order to explore the effects of blockage ratio (D/b, where D is the pier diameter, and b is the channel width) on equilibrium scour depth (dse/D, where dse is the depth of scour at equilibrium). It was determined that D/b had a small influence on both dse/D and the progression of scour depth (ds/D) when relative coarseness D/d50 < 100 (where d50 is the median diameter of sediment), and that the influence appeared to be amplified when D/d50 > 100. The efficacy of scour estimation methods used to predict the progression of local scour was also dependent on D/d50. A method of scour estimation used to predict dse/D was evaluated, and it was similarly found to be particularly effective when D/d50 < 100. In future work, further experiments and analysis in the range of D/d50 > 100 are required in order to establish the role of D/b under prototype conditions and to refine existing scour estimation methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental, Numerical and Field Approaches to Scour Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Groundwater Potential by GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Making as a Spatial Prediction Tool: Case Study in the Tigris River Batman-Hasankeyf Sub-Basin, Turkey
Water 2019, 11(12), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122630 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 103
Abstract
The Tigris River Batman-Hasankeyf region sub-basin drainage area is in the Upper Tigris basin and lies between the area where the Batman stream joins the river and the Yanarsu stream flows into the river. Intensive agricultural activities are carried out in this region, [...] Read more.
The Tigris River Batman-Hasankeyf region sub-basin drainage area is in the Upper Tigris basin and lies between the area where the Batman stream joins the river and the Yanarsu stream flows into the river. Intensive agricultural activities are carried out in this region, and irrigation is generally obtained from groundwater just as it moves away from the riverfront. The study area is a valuable basin for both Turkey and the Middle East. In this study, the effectiveness of the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a spatial prediction tool was utilized in exploring the groundwater potential of the drainage area. In the analysis, eight hydrological and hydrogeological criteria were considered as influencing factors, namely, geomorphology, geology, rainfall, drainage density, slope, lineament density, land use, and soil properties. The weights of these criteria were determined through the AHP method; the Arc GIS 10.2.2 program and its submodules were used. The major findings of the study were that groundwater-potential index values of the basin were derived. Groundwater-potential-zone evaluation of the basin was obtained as follows: very poor (19%), poor (17%), moderate (34%), good (17%), very good (13%); and groundwater potential zone (GWPZ) maps of the sub-basin were created. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resilience to Climate Change and High Pressure)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Coherent Vortex Structures in a Backward-Facing Step Flow
Water 2019, 11(12), 2629; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122629 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Coherent vortex structures (CVS) are discovered for more than half a century, and they are believed to play a significant role in turbulence especially for separated flows. An experimental study is conducted for a pressured backward-facing step flow with Reynolds number (Re [...] Read more.
Coherent vortex structures (CVS) are discovered for more than half a century, and they are believed to play a significant role in turbulence especially for separated flows. An experimental study is conducted for a pressured backward-facing step flow with Reynolds number (Reh) being 4400 and 9000. A synchronized particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed for measurement of a wider range of velocity fields with high resolution. The CVS are proved to exist in the separation-reattachment process. For their temporal evolution, a life cycle is proposed that vortices form in the free shear layer, develop with pairings and divisions and finally shed at the reattachment zone, and sometimes new vortical structures are restructured with recovery of flow pattern. The CVS favor the free shear layer with frequent pairings and divisions particularly at the developing stage around x/h = 2~5 (x: distance from the step in flow direction, h: step height), which may contribute to the high turbulent intensity and shear stress there. A critical distance is believed to exist among CVS, which affects their amalgamation (pairing) and division events. Statistics show that the CVS are well organized in spatial distribution and show specific local features with the flow structures distinguished. The streamwise and vertical diameters (Dx and Dy) and width to height ratio (Dx/Dy) all obey to the lognormal distribution. With increase of Reh from 4400 to 9000, Dx decreases and Dy increases, but the mean diameter (D=0.5 × (Dx + Dy)) keeps around (0.28~0.29) h. As the increase of Reh, the vortical shape change toward a uniform condition, which may be contributed by enhancement of the shear intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Steroidal Hormones and Phenolic Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Surface Water in Cuautla River, Mexico
Water 2019, 11(12), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122628 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 123
Abstract
In this study, two hormones 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), and three phenolic compounds, bisphenol A (BPA), 4-N-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), were determined in surface water in the Cuautla River at the State of Morelos during [...] Read more.
In this study, two hormones 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), and three phenolic compounds, bisphenol A (BPA), 4-N-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), were determined in surface water in the Cuautla River at the State of Morelos during the dry-season in Mexico. The endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) were extracted from water samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with end-capped C18, and then the extracts were chemically derivatized to TMS (trimethylsylane)-compounds and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The most abundant compound was BPA (22.46 ± 30.17 ng L−1), followed by 4-t-OP (11.24 ± 11.76 ng L−1), 4-NP (7.53 ± 14.88 ng L−1), EE2 (2.37 ± 4.36 ng L−1) and E2 (0.97 ± 1.82 ng L−1). The residual amounts of target compounds could either reach stream surface water from direct domestic wastewater discharges, conventional wastewater treatment plant or can be a result from the use of agrochemicals in crop areas. The EDCs in Cuautla River exerted a high pressure on the aquatic ecosystem because their presences in surface water caused medium and high potential ecological risk. Besides, it was found that aquatic organisms were exposed to estrogenic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Spring Wheat Irrigation Schedule in Shallow Groundwater Area of Jiefangzha Region in Hetao Irrigation District
Water 2019, 11(12), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122627 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 116
Abstract
Due to the large spatial variation of groundwater depth, it is very difficult to determine suitable irrigation schedules for crops in shallow groundwater area. A zoning optimization method of irrigation schedule is proposed here, which can solve the problem of the connection between [...] Read more.
Due to the large spatial variation of groundwater depth, it is very difficult to determine suitable irrigation schedules for crops in shallow groundwater area. A zoning optimization method of irrigation schedule is proposed here, which can solve the problem of the connection between suitable irrigation schedules and different groundwater depths in shallow groundwater areas. The main results include: (1) Taking the annual mean groundwater depth 2.5 m as the dividing line, the shallow groundwater areas were categorized into two irrigation schedule zones. (2) On the principle of maximizing the yield, the optimized irrigation schedule for spring wheat in each zone was obtained. When the groundwater depth was greater than 2.5 m, two rounds of irrigation were chosen at the tillering–shooting stage and the shooting–heading stage with the irrigation quota at 300 mm. When the groundwater depth was less than 2.5 m, two rounds of irrigation were chosen at the tillering–shooting stage, and one round at the shooting–heading stage, with the irrigation quota at 240 mm. The main water-saving effect of the optimized irrigation schedule is that the yield, the soil water use rate, and the water use productivity increased, while the irrigation amount and the ineffective seepage decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of the Soil Water Movement in Irrigated Agriculture )
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Water Depth and Phosphorus Availability on Nitrogen Removal in Agricultural Wetlands
Water 2019, 11(12), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122626 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 143
Abstract
Excess nitrogen (N) from agricultural runoff is a cause of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Created free water surface (FWS) wetlands can be used as buffering systems to lower the impacts of nutrients from agricultural runoff. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Excess nitrogen (N) from agricultural runoff is a cause of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Created free water surface (FWS) wetlands can be used as buffering systems to lower the impacts of nutrients from agricultural runoff. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate critical factors for N removal in FWS wetlands receiving high nitrate (NO3) loads from agriculture. The study was performed in 12 experimental FWS wetlands in southern Sweden, receiving drainage water from an agricultural field area. The effects of water depth (mean depth of 0.4 m and 0.6 m, respectively) and phosphorus (P) availability (with or without additional P load) were investigated from July to October. The experiment was performed in a two-way design, with three wetlands of each combination of depth and P availability. The effects of P availability on the removal of NO3 and total N were strongly significant, with higher absolute N removal rates per wetland area (g m−2 day−1) as well as temperature-adjusted first-order area-based removal rate coefficients (Kat) in wetlands with external P addition compared to wetlands with no addition. Further, higher N removal in deep compared to shallow wetlands was indicated by statistically significant differences in Kat. The results show that low P availability may limit N removal in wetlands receiving agricultural drainage water. Furthermore, the results support that not only wetland area but also wetland volume may be important for N removal. The results have implications for the planning, location, and design of created wetlands in agricultural areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Inhomogeneous Effect of Different Meteorological Trends on Drought: An Example from Continental Croatia
Water 2019, 11(12), 2625; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122625 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 192
Abstract
The majority of central Europe has a transitional climate type as a result of interactions between maritime and continental climates. This study focuses on the appearance and severity of drought in continental Croatia, which is part of the transitional climate area. It is [...] Read more.
The majority of central Europe has a transitional climate type as a result of interactions between maritime and continental climates. This study focuses on the appearance and severity of drought in continental Croatia, which is part of the transitional climate area. It is situated between 15° E and 19° E. The altitude declines from west (167 m a.s.l) to east (88 m a.s.l.). The time period analysed is 1981–2018. Air temperature and precipitation data series from 13 meteorological stations were analysed. The analysis was done on an annual basis to define the spatio-temporal variability in air temperature and precipitation and their impact on drought episodes using the standardised evapotranspiration precipitation index. Different statistical methods (e.g., the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test and agglomerative hierarchical clustering) were used to examine the trend homogeneity of the analysed region. The analysis indicated inhomogeneity across the study area in terms of what significantly impacted the occurrence and severity of droughts. Drought occurrence is influenced more strongly by increasing trends in air temperature as compared with increasing or decreasing precipitation trends. The probability of severe drought occurrence was estimated using a copula function, and the results demonstrated that areas with higher precipitation could be more exposed to drought. Furthermore, the results demonstrated the impacts of specific regional characteristics on drought occurrence, severity, and duration, which indicates that small-scale research on droughts is more reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hydrological Extremes: Floods and Droughts)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Physiological Profiling and Functional Diversity of Groundwater Microbial Communities in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Area
Water 2019, 11(12), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122624 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
The disposal of municipal solid wastes in landfills represents a major threat for aquifer environments at the global scale. The aim of this study was to explore how groundwater geochemical characteristics can influence the microbial community functioning and the potential degradation patterns of [...] Read more.
The disposal of municipal solid wastes in landfills represents a major threat for aquifer environments at the global scale. The aim of this study was to explore how groundwater geochemical characteristics can influence the microbial community functioning and the potential degradation patterns of selected organic substrates in response to different levels of landfill-induced alterations. Groundwaters collected from a landfill area were monitored by assessing major physical-chemical parameters and the microbiological contamination levels (total coliforms and fecal indicators—Colilert-18). The aquatic microbial community was further characterized by flow cytometry and Biolog EcoPlatesTM assay. Three groundwater conditions (i.e., pristine, mixed, and altered) were identified according to their distinct geochemical profiles. The altered groundwaters showed relatively higher values of organic matter concentration and total cell counts, along with the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, in comparison to samples from pristine and mixed conditions. The kinetic profiles of the Biolog substrate degradation showed that the microbial community thriving in altered conditions was relatively more efficient in metabolizing a larger number of organic substrates, including those with complex molecular structures. We concluded that the assessment of physiological profiling and functional diversity at the microbial community level could represent a supportive tool to understand the potential consequences of the organic contamination of impacted aquifers, thus complementing the current strategies for groundwater management. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Toxicity Abatement of Wastewaters from Tourism Units by Constructed Wetlands
Water 2019, 11(12), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122623 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 167
Abstract
The present research intended to investigate the toxicity abatement of domestic wastewater after passing a biosystem composed of a constructed wetland (CW) followed by a pond. The wastewater was generated in a tourism house in a rural and mountainous context and passed through [...] Read more.
The present research intended to investigate the toxicity abatement of domestic wastewater after passing a biosystem composed of a constructed wetland (CW) followed by a pond. The wastewater was generated in a tourism house in a rural and mountainous context and passed through a septic tank before being diverted to a CW followed by a pond. A battery of ecotoxicological tests, comprising microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata), macrophytes (Lemna minor), cladocerans (Daphnia magna), and bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri), was used to assess the toxicity of the wastewater collected before and after the CW and the water of the pond. Physicochemical parameters (pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, phosphates, ammonium, and nitrate) were also determined. The CW was able to remove carbon and nutrients from the water with a concomitant reduction of its toxicity. This study, reinforced the added value of using toxicity tests as a complement to CW operational monitoring to validate the solution and to analyze possible readjustments that may be required to improve efficiency. This study lends further support to the claim that CWs can be a sustainable solution for treating small volumes of domestic wastewater in a rural context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress of Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of Woltman Meter Accuracy under Flow Perturbations
Water 2019, 11(12), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122622 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 152
Abstract
One of the unknowns in the instrumentation for water measurement is what degree of influence other hydraulic elements exert on the velocity profile and, consequently, on the measurement errors. In this work, the measurement errors of a horizontal-axis Woltman meter produced by a [...] Read more.
One of the unknowns in the instrumentation for water measurement is what degree of influence other hydraulic elements exert on the velocity profile and, consequently, on the measurement errors. In this work, the measurement errors of a horizontal-axis Woltman meter produced by a gate valve and by a butterfly valve in different hydraulic configurations were studied using a simplified numerical model. The gate valve was installed beside the meter and three pipe diameters upstream of the meter and were operated with closures of 75%, 50% and 25%, while the butterfly valve was installed at three pipe diameters upstream of the meter with closures of 0° (open) and 30°. The numerical model based on the rotor’s torque balance equations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was validated by experimental tests. According to the results, it was concluded that the proposed model is valid and capable of estimating the errors caused by the hydraulic fittings arranged next to the meter. In addition, it is evident that for the analysed operating range, both valves must be installed at least three diameters of straight pipe upstream of the meter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Irrigation Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Satellite Data of Land Surface Temperature, Lakes Area, and Water Level for Hydrological Model Calibration and Validation in the Yangtze River Basin
Water 2019, 11(12), 2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122621 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
This study shows the feasibility of the combined use of multi-satellite data and an energy–water balance model for improving the estimates of water fluxes over time and distributed in space in the Yangtze River basin. In particular, a new methodology is used to [...] Read more.
This study shows the feasibility of the combined use of multi-satellite data and an energy–water balance model for improving the estimates of water fluxes over time and distributed in space in the Yangtze River basin. In particular, a new methodology is used to constrain an internal model variable of the distributed hydrological model based on the satellite land surface temperature. The hydrological FEST-EWB model (flash flood event-based spatially distributed rainfall–runoff transformation–energy water balance model) with its energy–water balance scheme allows to continuously compute in time and distributed in space soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes thanks to a double link with satellite-derived data as input parameters (e.g., LAI) and as variables for model states’ updates as the land surface temperature (LST). This LST was used to calibrate the model soil parameters instead of using only dedicated ground measurements. The effects of the calibration procedure were evaluated at four available river cross-sections along the Yangtze River, considering also the presence of the Three Gorges Dam. Flow duration curves were also considered to understand the volume storages’ changes. The Poyang and Dongting Lakes dynamics were simulated from FEST-EWB and compared against satellite water extended from MERIS and ASAR data and water levels from LEGOS altimetry data (Topex/Poseidon). The FEST-EWB model was run at 0.009° spatial resolution and three hours of temporal resolutions for the period between 2003 and 2006. Absolute errors on LST estimates of 3 °C were obtained while discharge data were simulated with errors of 10%. Errors on the water area extent of 7% and on the water level of 3% were obtained for the two lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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