As a result of the inexorable development of the economy and the ever-increasing population, the demand for water in the urban and rural sectors has increased, and this in turn has caused the water quality and eutrophication of the reservoir to become a legitimate concern in the water environment management of river basins. Phosphorus (P) is one of the limiting nutrients in aquatic ecosystems; P in the sediment is a primary factor for eutrophication. Yuecheng Reservoir is located in one of the most productive and intensively cultivated agricultural regions in North China. Detailed knowledge of the sediment is lacking at this regional reservoir. The first study to look into the different P fractions and its diffusion fluxes at the water sediment interface of the Yuecheng Reservoir makes it possible to learn about the internal P loading. According to the results, the concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 1576.3 to 2172.6 mg kg and the P fraction concentration sequence is as follows: P associated with calcium (Ca–Pi) > organic P (Po) > P bound to aluminum (Al), ferrum (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides and hydroxides (Fe/Al–Pi). The results demonstrated that, although the construction of a large number of water conservancy projects in the upper reaches of the river resulted in the decrease of inflow runoff, the pollutions from terrestrial plants or materials played a key role in the sediment phosphorus fraction, and they should be emphasized on the water environment management of river basin.
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