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Cancers, Volume 12, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 289 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Incidence of Occult Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Larynx Squamous Cell Carcinoma, by Subsite, T Classification and Neck Level: A Systematic Review
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041059 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Background: Larynx cancer is a common site for tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract. In cases with a clinically negative neck, the indications for an elective neck treatment are still debated. The objective is to define the prevalence of occult metastasis based on [...] Read more.
Background: Larynx cancer is a common site for tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract. In cases with a clinically negative neck, the indications for an elective neck treatment are still debated. The objective is to define the prevalence of occult metastasis based on the subsite of the primary tumor, T classification and neck node levels involved. Methods: All studies included provided the rate of occult metastases in cN0 larynx squamous cell carcinoma patients. The main outcome was the incidence of occult metastasis. The pooled incidence was calculated with random effects analysis. Results: 36 studies with 3803 patients fulfilled the criteria. The incidence of lymph node metastases for supraglottic and glottic tumors was 19.9% (95% CI 16.4–23.4) and 8.0% (95% CI 2.7–13.3), respectively. The incidence of occult metastasis for level I, level IV and level V was 2.4% (95% CI 0–6.1%), 2.0% (95% CI 0.9–3.1) and 0.4% (95% CI 0–1.0%), respectively. For all tumors, the incidence for sublevel IIB was 0.5% (95% CI 0–1.3). Conclusions: The incidence of occult lymph node metastasis is higher in supraglottic and T3–4 tumors. Level I and V and sublevel IIB should not be routinely included in the elective neck treatment of cN0 laryngeal cancer and, in addition, level IV should not be routinely included in cases of supraglottic tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Treatment of Laryngeal Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
The Prognostic Value of the Detection of Microbial Translocation in the Blood of Colorectal Cancer Patients
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041058 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Dysbiosis has been associated with various diseases and is of major health importance. Dysbiosis leads to microbial translocation, which is the passage of microorganisms, their fragments, or their metabolites from the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation and other sites. The aim of [...] Read more.
Dysbiosis has been associated with various diseases and is of major health importance. Dysbiosis leads to microbial translocation, which is the passage of microorganisms, their fragments, or their metabolites from the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation and other sites. The aim of the study was to determine whether microbial translocation occurs in stage II/III-IV colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The aim was also to evaluate the usefulness of blood PCR for diagnosis of such translocation and correlate the presence of toll-like receptor/vitamin D receptor (TLR/VDR) gene polymorphisms with microbial DNA fragments detected in the blood of CRC patients. Three hundred and ninety-seven CRC patients enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood DNA was analyzed using PCR for the amplification of genomic DNA encoding 16S rRNA, the β-galactosidase gene of Escherichia coli, glutamine synthase gene of Bacteroides fragilis, and 5.8S rRNA of Candida albicans. Significantly higher rates of all microbial fragments, but E. coli, detected were observed in the CRC patients (p < 0.001); such detection of all four microbial fragments was also significantly associated with the metastatic disease (p < 0.001), leading to shorter survival rates (p < 0.001). Tumor location in the right colon also significantly correlated with shorter survival (p = 0.016). Individuals with homozygous mutant alleles of TLR/VDR polymorphisms had significantly higher detection rates of microbial DNA fragments. The detection of microbial DNA fragments in CRC patients highlighted the role of these microbes in cancer development, progression, and patients’ survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota in Colorectal Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Unique Role of Histone Methyltransferase PRDM8 in the Tumorigenesis of Virus-Negative Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041057 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a deadly skin cancer, and about 80% of its cases have been shown to harbor integrated Merkel polyomavirus in the tumor cell genome. Viral oncoproteins expressed in the tumor cells are considered as the oncogenic factors of these [...] Read more.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a deadly skin cancer, and about 80% of its cases have been shown to harbor integrated Merkel polyomavirus in the tumor cell genome. Viral oncoproteins expressed in the tumor cells are considered as the oncogenic factors of these virus-positive Merkel cell carcinoma (VP-MCC). In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of virus-negative MCC (VN-MCC) is less well understood. Using gene expression analysis of MCC cell lines, we found histone methyltransferase PRDM8 to be elevated in VN-MCC. This finding was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of MCC tumors, revealing that increased PRDM8 expression in VN-MCC is also associated with increased H3K9 methylation. CRISPR-mediated silencing of PRDM8 in MCC cells further supported the histone methylating role of this protein in VN-MCC. We also identified miR-20a-5p as a negative regulator of PRDM8. Taken together, our findings provide insights into the role of PRDM8 as a histone methyltransferase in VN-MCC tumorigenesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Tumorigenicity of Mouse ES Cells and the Augmented Anti-Tumor Therapeutic Effects under Parg Deficiency
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041056 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 300
Abstract
PolyADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins, and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase (PARP) family proteins synthesize PAR using NAD as a substrate. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) functions as the main enzyme for the degradation of PAR. In this study, we investigated the effects of Parg [...] Read more.
PolyADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins, and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase (PARP) family proteins synthesize PAR using NAD as a substrate. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) functions as the main enzyme for the degradation of PAR. In this study, we investigated the effects of Parg deficiency on tumorigenesis and therapeutic efficacy of DNA damaging agents, using mouse ES cell-derived tumor models. To examine the effects of Parg deficiency on tumorigenesis, Parg+/+ and Parg−/− ES cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. The results showed that Parg deficiency delays early onset of tumorigenesis from ES cells. All the tumors were phenotypically similar to teratocarcinoma and microscopic findings indicated that differentiation spectrum was similar between the Parg genotypes. The augmented anti-tumor therapeutic effects of X-irradiation were observed under Parg deficiency. These results suggest that Parg deficiency suppresses early stages of tumorigenesis and that Parg inhibition, in combination with DNA damaging agents, may efficiently control tumor growth in particular types of germ cell tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PARPs, PAR and NAD Metabolism and Their Inhibitors in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Cut-Off Analysis of CTC Change under Systemic Therapy for Defining Early Therapy Response in Metastatic Breast Cancer
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041055 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 363
Abstract
Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) can distinguish between aggressive and indolent metastatic disease in breast cancer patients and is thus considered an independent, negative prognostic factor. A clear decline in CTCs is observed in patients who respond to systemic therapy. Nevertheless, CTCs [...] Read more.
Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) can distinguish between aggressive and indolent metastatic disease in breast cancer patients and is thus considered an independent, negative prognostic factor. A clear decline in CTCs is observed in patients who respond to systemic therapy. Nevertheless, CTCs can decrease in patients experiencing disease progression during systemic therapy, too. This study aims to determine the differences between CTC decline in patients responding to therapy and those in whom disease is progressing. Therefore, CTC values were compared at the start and after one cycle of a new line of systemic therapy. In all, 108 initially CTC-positive patients (with ≥5 intact CTCs in 7.5 mL blood) were enrolled in this study and intact and apoptotic CTCs were measured via the CellSearch® system. A cut-off analysis was performed using Youden’s J statistics to differentiate between CTC change in the two groups. Here, 64 (59.3%) patients showed stable disease or partial response vs. 44 (40.7%) presenting disease progression. Median overall survival was 23 (range: 4–92) vs. 7 (2–43) months (p < 0.001). Median intact CTC count at enrollment was 15.0 (5–2760) vs. 30.5 (5–200000) cells (p = 0.39) and 2.5 (0–420) vs. 8.5 (0–15000) cells after one cycle of systemic therapy (p = 0.001). Median apoptotic CTC count at enrollment was 10.5 (0–1500) vs. 9 (0–800) cells (p = 0.475) and 1 (0–200) vs. 3 (0–250) cells after one cycle of systemic therapy (p = 0.01). A 50% reduction in baseline apoptotic CTC count represents the optimal cut-off to differentiate between therapy response and disease progression. An apoptotic CTC reduction of ≤10% is 74% specific for early disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circulating Tumor Cells' Heterogeneity and Precision Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
ALK Inhibitors-Induced M Phase Delay Contributes to the Suppression of Cell Proliferation
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041054 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a receptor-type tyrosine kinase, is involved in the pathogenesis of several cancers. ALK has been targeted with small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of different cancers, but absolute success remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of ALK [...] Read more.
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a receptor-type tyrosine kinase, is involved in the pathogenesis of several cancers. ALK has been targeted with small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of different cancers, but absolute success remains elusive. In the present study, the effects of ALK inhibitors on M phase progression were evaluated. Crizotinib, ceritinib, and TAE684 suppressed proliferation of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At approximate IC50 concentrations, these inhibitors caused misorientation of spindles, misalignment of chromosomes and reduction in autophosphorylation. Similarly, knockdown of ALK caused M phase delay, which was rescued by re-expression of ALK. Time-lapse imaging revealed that anaphase onset was delayed. The monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) inhibitor, AZ3146, and MAD2 knockdown led to a release from inhibitor-induced M phase delay, suggesting that spindle assembly checkpoint may be activated in ALK-inhibited cells. H2228 human lung carcinoma cells that express EML4-ALK fusion showed M phase delay in the presence of TAE684 at about IC50 concentrations. These results suggest that ALK plays a role in M phase regulation and ALK inhibition may contribute to the suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-expressing cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Self-Collection for Cervical Screening Programs: From Research to Reality
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041053 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 458
Abstract
In 2018, there were an estimated 570,000 new cases of cervical cancer globally, with most of them occurring in women who either had no access to cervical screening, or had not participated in screening in regions where programs are available. Where programs are [...] Read more.
In 2018, there were an estimated 570,000 new cases of cervical cancer globally, with most of them occurring in women who either had no access to cervical screening, or had not participated in screening in regions where programs are available. Where programs are in place, a major barrier for women across many cultures has been the requirement to undergo a speculum examination. With the emergence of HPV-based primary screening, the option of self-collection (where the woman takes the sample from the vagina herself) may overcome this barrier, given that such samples when tested using a PCR-based HPV assay have similar sensitivity for the detection of cervical pre-cancers as practitioner-collected cervical specimens. Other advantages of HPV-based screening using self-collection, beyond the increase in acceptability to women, include scalability, efficiency, and high negative predictive value, allowing for long intervals between negative tests. Self-collection will be a key strategy for the successful scale up of cervical screening programs globally in response to the WHO call for all countries to work towards the elimination of cervical cancer as a public health problem. This review will examine self-collection for HPV-based cervical screening including the collection devices, assays and possible routine laboratory processes considering how they can be utilized in cervical screening programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Papillomavirus and Cancers)
Open AccessBrief Report
Overexpression of Canonical Prefoldin Associates with the Risk of Mortality and Metastasis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041052 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Canonical prefoldin is a protein cochaperone composed of six different subunits (PFDN1 to 6). PFDN1 overexpression promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increases the growth of xenograft lung cancer (LC) cell lines. We investigated whether this putative involvement of canonical PFDN in LC translates [...] Read more.
Canonical prefoldin is a protein cochaperone composed of six different subunits (PFDN1 to 6). PFDN1 overexpression promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increases the growth of xenograft lung cancer (LC) cell lines. We investigated whether this putative involvement of canonical PFDN in LC translates into the clinic. First, the mRNA expression of 518 non-small cell LC (NSCLC) cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was evaluated. Patients with PFDN1 overexpression had lower overall survival (OS; 45 vs. 86 months; p = 0.034). We then assessed the impact of PFDN expression on outcome in 58 NSCLC patients with available tumor tissue samples. PFDN1, 3, and 5 overexpression were found in 38% (n = 22), 53% (n = 31), and 41% (n = 24) of tumor samples. PFDN1, 3, and 5 overexpression were significantly associated with lower OS, lower disease-free survival (DFS), and lower distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for PFDN1 and 3 with a trend for PFDN5. In multivariate analysis, PFDN5 retained significance for OS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.56; p = 0.007) and PFDN1 for DFS (HR 2.53; p = 0.010) and marginally for DMFS (HR 2.32; p = 0.053). Our results indicate that protein response markers, such as PFDN1, 3, and 5, may complement mRNA signatures and be useful for determining the most appropriate therapy for NSCLC patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Radiomics-Based Outcome Prediction for Pancreatic Cancer Following Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041051 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
(1) Background: Radiomics use high-throughput mining of medical imaging data to extract unique information and predict tumor behavior. Currently available clinical prediction models poorly predict treatment outcomes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we used radiomic features of primary pancreatic tumors to develop outcome prediction [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Radiomics use high-throughput mining of medical imaging data to extract unique information and predict tumor behavior. Currently available clinical prediction models poorly predict treatment outcomes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we used radiomic features of primary pancreatic tumors to develop outcome prediction models and compared them to traditional clinical models. (2) Methods: We extracted and analyzed radiomic data from pre-radiation contrast-enhanced CTs of 74 pancreatic cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy. A panel of over 800 radiomic features was screened to create overall survival and local-regional recurrence prediction models, which were compared to clinical prediction models and models combining radiomic and clinical information. (3) Results: A 6-feature radiomic signature was identified that achieved better overall survival prediction performance than the clinical model (mean concordance index: 0.66 vs. 0.54 on resampled cross-validation test sets), and the combined model improved the performance slightly further to 0.68. Similarly, a 7-feature radiomic signature better predicted recurrence than the clinical model (mean AUC of 0.78 vs. 0.66). (4) Conclusion: Overall survival and recurrence can be better predicted with models based on radiomic features than with those based on clinical features for pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiomics and Cancers)
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Open AccessReview
DNA Damage/Repair Management in Cancers
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041050 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 471
Abstract
DNA damage is well recognized as a critical factor in cancer development and progression. DNA lesions create an abnormal nucleotide or nucleotide fragment, causing a break in one or both chains of the DNA strand. When DNA damage occurs, the possibility of generated [...] Read more.
DNA damage is well recognized as a critical factor in cancer development and progression. DNA lesions create an abnormal nucleotide or nucleotide fragment, causing a break in one or both chains of the DNA strand. When DNA damage occurs, the possibility of generated mutations increases. Genomic instability is one of the most important factors that lead to cancer development. DNA repair pathways perform the essential role of correcting the DNA lesions that occur from DNA damaging agents or carcinogens, thus maintaining genomic stability. Inefficient DNA repair is a critical driving force behind cancer establishment, progression and evolution. A thorough understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in cancer will allow for better therapeutic intervention. In this review we will discuss the relationship between DNA damage/repair mechanisms and cancer, and how we can target these pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage and Repair in Cancers)
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Open AccessReview
Nanoparticles to Improve the Efficacy of Peptide-Based Cancer Vaccines
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041049 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Nanoparticles represent a potent antigen presentation and delivery system to elicit an optimal immune response by effector cells targeting tumor-associated antigens expressed by cancer cells. Many types of nanoparticles have been developed, such as polymeric complexes, liposomes, micelles and protein-based structures such as [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles represent a potent antigen presentation and delivery system to elicit an optimal immune response by effector cells targeting tumor-associated antigens expressed by cancer cells. Many types of nanoparticles have been developed, such as polymeric complexes, liposomes, micelles and protein-based structures such as virus like particles. All of them show promising results for immunotherapy approaches. In particular, the immunogenicity of peptide-based cancer vaccines can be significantly potentiated by nanoparticles. Indeed, nanoparticles are able to enhance the targeting of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and trigger cytokine production for optimal T cell response. The present review summarizes the categories of nanoparticles and peptide cancer vaccines which are currently under pre-clinical evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
TrkB-Induced Inhibition of R-SMAD/SMAD4 Activation is Essential for TGF-β-Mediated Tumor Suppressor Activity
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041048 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 363
Abstract
TrkB-mediated activation of the IL6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is associated with the induction of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) program and the acquisition of metastatic potential by tumors. Conversely, the transforming of growth factor-β (TGF-β) is implicated in tumor suppression through the canonical SMAD-dependent signaling [...] Read more.
TrkB-mediated activation of the IL6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is associated with the induction of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) program and the acquisition of metastatic potential by tumors. Conversely, the transforming of growth factor-β (TGF-β) is implicated in tumor suppression through the canonical SMAD-dependent signaling pathway. Hence, TrkB could play a role in disrupting the potent TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition, a concept that has not been fully explored. Here, we identified TrkB to be a crucial regulator of the TGF-β signaling pathway as it inhibits the TGF-β-mediated tumor suppression and the activation of TrkB kinase. We further show that the interactions between TrkB and SMADs inhibit TGF-β-mediated R-SMAD/SMAD4 complex formation and suppress TGF-β-induced nuclear translocation and target gene expression. Additionally, the knockdown of TrkB restored the tumor inhibitory activity of TGF-β signaling. These observations suggest that interactions between TrkB and SMADs are critical for the inhibition of TGF-β tumor suppressor activity in cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current Approaches for Combination Therapy of Cancer: The Role of Immunogenic Cell Death
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041047 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Cell death resistance is a key feature of tumor cells. One of the main anticancer therapies is increasing the susceptibility of cells to death. Cancer cells have developed a capability of tumor immune escape. Hence, restoring the immunogenicity of cancer cells can be [...] Read more.
Cell death resistance is a key feature of tumor cells. One of the main anticancer therapies is increasing the susceptibility of cells to death. Cancer cells have developed a capability of tumor immune escape. Hence, restoring the immunogenicity of cancer cells can be suggested as an effective approach against cancer. Accumulating evidence proposes that several anticancer agents provoke the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are determinants of immunogenicity and stimulate immunogenic cell death (ICD). It has been suggested that ICD inducers are two different types according to their various activities. Here, we review the well-characterized DAMPs and focus on the different types of ICD inducers and recent combination therapies that can augment the immunogenicity of cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunogenic Cell Death and Immunotherapy in Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle
Oligoprogressive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer under Treatment with PD-(L)1 Inhibitors
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041046 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Oligoprogression (OPD) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) occurs in approximately half of patients under targeted compounds (TKI) and facilitates use of regional therapies that can prolong survival. In order to characterize OPD in immunotherapy (IO)-treated NSCLC, we analyzed the failure pattern under PD-1/PD-L1 [...] Read more.
Oligoprogression (OPD) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) occurs in approximately half of patients under targeted compounds (TKI) and facilitates use of regional therapies that can prolong survival. In order to characterize OPD in immunotherapy (IO)-treated NSCLC, we analyzed the failure pattern under PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors (n = 297) or chemoimmunotherapy (n = 75). Under IO monotherapy, OPD was more frequent (20% vs. 10%, p < 0.05), occurred later (median 11 vs. 5 months, p < 0.01), affected fewer sites (mean 1.1 vs. 1.5, p < 0.05), and involved fewer lesions (1.4 vs. 2.3, p < 0.05) in the first compared to later lines. Lymph nodes (42%, mainly mediastinal) and the brain (39%) were mostly affected, followed by the lung (24%) and other organs. Compared to multifocal progression, OPD occurred later (11 vs. 4 months, p < 0.001) and was associated with longer survival (26 vs. 13 months, p < 0.001) and higher tumor PD-L1 expression (p < 0.001). Chemoimmunotherapy showed a similar incidence of OPD as IO monotherapy (13% vs. 11% at 2 years). Local treatments were applied regularly for brain but only in 50% for extracranial lesions. Thus, NSCLC oligoprogression is less common under IO than under TKI, but also favorable. Since its frequency drops later in the disease, regular restaging and multidisciplinary evaluation are essential in order to exploit the full therapeutic potential. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor (TACI): Another Potential Target for Immunotherapy of Multiple Myeloma?
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041045 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) has emerged as the next most likely oncological or hematological disease indication amenable for cellular immunotherapy. Much of the attention has been focused on B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) as a unique cell surface protein on myeloma cells that is [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) has emerged as the next most likely oncological or hematological disease indication amenable for cellular immunotherapy. Much of the attention has been focused on B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) as a unique cell surface protein on myeloma cells that is available for monoclonal antibodies, antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), T-cell redirecting bispecific molecules, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell targeting. BCMA is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily that binds two ligands B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and mediates the growth and survival of plasma and MM cells. Interestingly, transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI), another TNFR superfamily member, also binds the same ligands and plays largely overlapping roles as BCMA in normal plasma and malignant MM cells. In this article, we review the biology of TACI, focusing on its role in normal B and plasma cells and malignant MM cells, and also discuss various ways to incorporate TACI as a potential target for immunotherapies against MM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Immunotherapies for Multiple Myeloma)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Dietary Pattern Networks Associated with Gastric Cancer Using Gaussian Graphical Models: A Case-Control Study
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041044 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) are novel approaches to deriving dietary patterns that assess how foods are consumed in relation to one another. We aimed to apply GGMs to identify dietary patterns and to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and gastric cancer (GC) [...] Read more.
Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) are novel approaches to deriving dietary patterns that assess how foods are consumed in relation to one another. We aimed to apply GGMs to identify dietary patterns and to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and gastric cancer (GC) risk in a Korean population. In this case-control study of 415 GC cases and 830 controls, food intake was assessed using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that captured 33 food groups. The dietary pattern networks corresponding to the total population contained a main network and four subnetworks. For the vegetable and seafood network, those who were in the highest tertile of the network-specific score showed a significantly reduced risk of GC both in the total population (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47–0.93, p for trend = 0.018) and in males (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.34–0.89, p for trend = 0.012). Most importantly, the fruit pattern network was inversely associated with the risk of GC for the highest tertile (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.38–0.81, p for trend = 0.002). The identified vegetable and seafood network and the fruit network showed a protective effect against GC development in Koreans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Efficiency of Gene Electrotransfer in Breast-Cancer Cell Lines Cultured on a Novel Collagen-Free 3D Scaffold
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041043 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Gene Electro-Transfer (GET) is a powerful method of DNA delivery with great potential for medical applications. Although GET has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo, the optimal parameters remain controversial. 2D cell cultures have been widely used to investigate GET protocols, [...] Read more.
Gene Electro-Transfer (GET) is a powerful method of DNA delivery with great potential for medical applications. Although GET has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo, the optimal parameters remain controversial. 2D cell cultures have been widely used to investigate GET protocols, but have intrinsic limitations, whereas 3D cultures may represent a more reliable model thanks to the capacity of reproducing the tumor architecture. Here we applied two GET protocols, using a plate or linear electrode, on 3D-cultured HCC1954 and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell lines grown on a novel collagen-free 3D scaffold and compared results with conventional 2D cultures. To evaluate the electrotransfer efficiency, we used the plasmid pEGFP-C3 encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene. The novel 3D scaffold promoted extracellular matrix deposition, which particularly influences cell behavior in both in vitro cell cultures and in vivo tumor tissue. While the transfection efficiency was similar in the 2D-cultures, we observed significant differences in the 3D-model. The transfection efficiency in the 3D vs 2D model was 44% versus 15% (p < 0.01) and 24% versus 17% (p < 0.01) in HCC1954 and MDA-MB231 cell cultures, respectively. These findings suggest that the novel 3D scaffold allows reproducing, at least partially, the peculiar morphology of the original tumor tissues, thus allowing us to detect meaningful differences between the two cell lines. Following GET with plate electrodes, cell viability was higher in 3D-cultured HCC1954 (66%) and MDA-MB231 (96%) cell lines compared to their 2D counterpart (53% and 63%, respectively, p < 0.001). Based on these results, we propose the novel 3D scaffold as a reliable support for the preparation of cell cultures in GET studies. It may increase the reliability of in vitro assays and allow the optimization of GET parameters of in vivo protocols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
18F-FDG and 11C-Methionine PET/CT in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients: Comparison of Volume-Based PET Biomarkers
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041042 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 344
Abstract
11C-methionine (11C-MET) is a new positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for the assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, with preliminary data suggesting higher sensitivity and specificity than 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). However, the value of tumor [...] Read more.
11C-methionine (11C-MET) is a new positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for the assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, with preliminary data suggesting higher sensitivity and specificity than 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). However, the value of tumor burden biomarkers has yet to be investigated. Our goals were to corroborate the superiority of 11C-MET for MM staging and to compare its suitability for the assessment of metabolic tumor burden biomarkers in comparison to 18F-FDG. Twenty-two patients with newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve symptomatic MM who had undergone 11C-MET and 18F-FDG PET/CT were evaluated. Standardized uptake values (SUV) were determined and compared with total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) for both tracers: total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and total lesion 11C-MET uptake (TLMU). PET-derived values were compared to Revised International Staging System (R-ISS), cytogenetic, and serologic MM markers such as M component, beta 2 microglobulin (B2M), serum free light chains (FLC), albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In 11 patients (50%), 11C-MET detected more focal lesions (FL) than FDG (p < 0.01). SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak, TMTV, and TLMU were also significantly higher in 11C-MET than in 18F-FDG (p < 0.05, respectively). 11C-MET PET biomarkers had a better correlation with tumor burden (bone marrow plasma cell infiltration, M component; p < 0.05 versus p = n.s. respectively). This pilot study suggests that 11C-MET PET/CT is a more sensitive marker for the assessment of myeloma tumor burden than 18F-FDG. Its implications for prognosis evaluation need further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PET/CT in Multiple Myeloma Patients)
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Open AccessReview
Functional and Clinical Impact of CircRNAs in Oral Cancer
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041041 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
The increasing number of recently published works regarding the role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in oral cancer highlights the key contribution of this novel class of endogenous noncoding RNAs as regulators of critical signaling pathways and their clinical value as novel biomarkers. This [...] Read more.
The increasing number of recently published works regarding the role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in oral cancer highlights the key contribution of this novel class of endogenous noncoding RNAs as regulators of critical signaling pathways and their clinical value as novel biomarkers. This review summarizes and puts into context the existing literature in order to clarify the relevance of circRNAs as novel mediators of oral cancer pathogenesis as well as their potential usefulness as predictors of clinical outcome and response to therapy in this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular RNAs in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Heavily Vascularized Tumors by RAMBO Virus through Decreased Tumor Endothelial Cell Activation
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041040 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Vascularization is a common pathology for many solid tumors, and therefore anti-angiogenic strategies are being investigated as a therapeutic target for treatment. Numerous studies are also being conducted regarding the effects of oncolytic viruses, including ImlygicTM, an FDA approved oncolytic herpes [...] Read more.
Vascularization is a common pathology for many solid tumors, and therefore anti-angiogenic strategies are being investigated as a therapeutic target for treatment. Numerous studies are also being conducted regarding the effects of oncolytic viruses, including ImlygicTM, an FDA approved oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (oHSV) for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors such as Kaposi sarcoma (NCT04065152), and brain tumors. To our knowledge, the effects of combining oncolytic HSV with angiogenesis inhibition on endothelial cell activation has not been previously described. Here, we tested the effects of Rapid Antiangiogenesis Mediated By Oncolytic Virus (RAMBO), an oHSV which expresses a potent anti-angiogenic gene Vasculostatin on endothelial cell activation in heavily vascularized solid tumors. oHSV treatment induces endothelial cell activation, which inhibits virus propagation and oncolysis in adjacent tumor cells in vitro. Consistently, this was also observed in intravital imaging of intracranial tumor-bearing mice in vivo where infected tumor endothelial cells could efficiently clear the virus without cell lysis. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), leukocyte adhesion assay, and fluorescent microscopy imaging data, however, revealed that RAMBO virus significantly decreased expression of endothelial cell activation markers and leukocyte adhesion, which in turn increased virus replication and cytotoxicity in endothelial cells. In vivo RAMBO treatment of subcutaneously implanted sarcoma tumors significantly reduced tumor growth in mice bearing sarcoma compared to rHSVQ. In addition, histological analysis of RAMBO-treated tumor tissues revealed large areas of necrosis and a statistically significant reduction in microvessel density (MVD). This study provides strong preclinical evidence of the therapeutic benefit for the use of RAMBO virus as a treatment option for highly vascularized tumors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing of 117 Routine Clinical Samples Provides Further Insights into the Molecular Landscape of Uveal Melanoma
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041039 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Uveal melanoma (UM) has well-characterised somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) in chromosomes 1, 3, 6 and 8, in addition to mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, CYSLTR2, PLCB4, BAP1, SF3B1 and EIF1AX, most being linked to metastatic-risk. To gain further insight into the molecular [...] Read more.
Uveal melanoma (UM) has well-characterised somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) in chromosomes 1, 3, 6 and 8, in addition to mutations in GNAQ, GNA11, CYSLTR2, PLCB4, BAP1, SF3B1 and EIF1AX, most being linked to metastatic-risk. To gain further insight into the molecular landscape of UM, we designed a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel to detect SCNA and mutations in routine clinical UM samples. We compared hybrid-capture and amplicon-based target enrichment methods and tested a larger cohort of primary UM samples on the best performing panel. UM clinical samples processed either as fresh-frozen, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE), small intraocular biopsies or following irradiation were successfully profiled using NGS, with hybrid capture outperforming the PCR-based enrichment methodology. We identified monosomy 3 (M3)-UM that were wild-type for BAP1 but harbored SF3B1 mutations, novel frameshift deletions in SF3B1 and EIF1AX, as well as a PLCB4 mutation outside of the hotspot on exon 20 coinciding with a GNAQ mutation in some UM. We observed samples that harboured mutations in both BAP1 and SF3B1, and SF3B1 and EIF1AX, respectively. Novel mutations were also identified in TTC28, KTN1, CSMD1 and TP53BP1. NGS can simultaneously assess SCNA and mutation data in UM, in a reliable and reproducible way, irrespective of sample type or previous processing. BAP1 and SF3B1 mutations, in addition to 8q copy number, are of added importance when determining UM patient outcome. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
β-Caryophyllene Inhibits Cell Proliferation through a Direct Modulation of CB2 Receptors in Glioblastoma Cells
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041038 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and inflammation. b-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist that showed an important anti-inflammatory effect through the interaction of CB2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg) receptors. BCP effects were investigated in an [...] Read more.
Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and inflammation. b-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist that showed an important anti-inflammatory effect through the interaction of CB2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg) receptors. BCP effects were investigated in an in vitro model of glioblastoma. U-373 and U87, derived from a human glioblastoma, and human glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) were treated with BCP at different doses and time-points. AM360, a specific CB2 antagonist, was added 2 h before BCP treatment. BCP showed a significant anti-proliferative effect, reducing cell viability, inhibiting cell cycle, and increasing apoptosis, as demonstrated by Tunel assay, caspase-3 and caspase -9 activation. In addition, the pro-apoptotic BAX expression was increased, whereas the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression was reduced. Treatment with BCP decreased Beclin-1, LC3 and p62/SQSTM1 expression, indicating a possible switch of autophagy to apoptosis. BCP’s anti-inflammatory effect was demonstrated by NF-κB reduction, PPARg activation and TNF-a decrease; BCP significantly reduced Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) expression as a consequence of TNF-α inhibition. AM360 abrogated BCP effects, thus demonstrating the BCP mechanism of action through the CB2 receptor. These findings let us hypothesize that BCP may act as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma, acting on CB2 receptor and modulating JNK. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cancer-Selective Treatment of Cancerous and Non-Cancerous Human Cervical Cell Models by a Non-Thermally Operated Electrosurgical Argon Plasma Device
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041037 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is developing as a promising option for local anti-neoplastic treatment of dysplastic lesions and early intraepithelial cancer. Currently, high-frequency electrosurgical argon plasma sources are available and well established for clinical use. In this study, we investigated the effects [...] Read more.
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is developing as a promising option for local anti-neoplastic treatment of dysplastic lesions and early intraepithelial cancer. Currently, high-frequency electrosurgical argon plasma sources are available and well established for clinical use. In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with a non-thermally operated electrosurgical argon plasma source, a Martin Argon Plasma Beamer System (MABS), on cell proliferation and metabolism of a tissue panel of human cervical cancer cell lines as well as on non-cancerous primary cells of the cervix uteri. Similar to conventional CAP sources, we were able to show that MABS was capable of causing antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on cervical squamous cell and adenocarcinoma as well as on non-neoplastic cervical tissue cells due to the generation of reactive species. Notably, neoplastic cells were more sensitive to the MABS treatment, suggesting a promising new and non-invasive application for in vivo treatment of precancerous and cancerous cervical lesions with non-thermally operated electrosurgical argon plasma sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma in Cancer Treatment)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of CCL21/CCR7 Chemokine Axis in Breast Cancer Progression
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041036 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, predominantly caused by metastasis. It is generally accepted that the pattern of breast cancer metastasis is largely determined by the interaction between the chemokine receptors on cancer cells and the chemokines expressed at [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, predominantly caused by metastasis. It is generally accepted that the pattern of breast cancer metastasis is largely determined by the interaction between the chemokine receptors on cancer cells and the chemokines expressed at the sites of metastatic disease. Chemokine receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) family that appear to be implicated in inflammatory diseases, tumor growth and metastasis. One of its members, C-C Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), binds chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are important for tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance and tumorigenesis. These receptors have been shown to induce the pathobiology of breast cancer due to their ability to induce cellular proliferation and migration upon the binding of the cognate chemokine receptors. The underlying signaling pathways and exact cellular interactions within this biological system are not fully understood and need further insights. Thus, in this review, we summarize the essential roles of CCR7 and its receptors in breast cancer progression. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanisms of regulation that may lead to novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Despite the enormous advances in our knowledge of the nature of the chemokines in breast cancer metastasis, research about the involvement of CCR7 in cancer progression is still limited. Therefore, further studies are essential to illustrate the distinct roles of CCR7 in cancer progression and validate its potential as a preventive bio-factor for human breast cancer metastasis by targeting chemokine receptor genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors: New Targets for Cancer Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Carfilzomib Based Treatment Strategies in the Management of Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma with Extramedullary Disease
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041035 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Published experience with carfilzomib in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) and extramedullary disease (EMD) is still limited. The current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of carfilzomib containing therapy regimens in EMD. We retrospectively analyzed 45 patients with extramedullary RRMM [...] Read more.
Published experience with carfilzomib in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) and extramedullary disease (EMD) is still limited. The current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of carfilzomib containing therapy regimens in EMD. We retrospectively analyzed 45 patients with extramedullary RRMM treated with carfilzomib from June 2013 to September 2019. The median age at the start of carfilzomib was 64 (range 40–80) years. Twenty (44%) and 25 (56%) patients had paraosseous manifestation and EMD without adjacency to bone, respectively. The serological overall response rate (ORR) was 59%. Extramedullary response was evaluable in 33 patients, nine (27%) of them achieved partial remission (PR) (ORR = 27%). In 15 (33%) patients, we observed no extramedullary response despite serological response. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were five (95% CI, 3.5–6.5) and ten (95% CI, 7.5–12.5) months, respectively. EMD without adjacency to bone was associated with a significantly inferior PFS (p = 0.004) and OS (p = 0.04) compared to paraosseous lesions. Carfilzomib based treatment strategies showed some efficacy in heavily pretreated patients with extramedullary RRMM but could not overcome the negative prognostic value of EMD. Due to the discrepancy between serological and extramedullary response, evaluation of extramedullary response using imaging is mandatory in these patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Transgene Location, Transcriptional Control Elements and Transgene Features in Armed Oncolytic Adenoviruses
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041034 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Clinical results with oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) used as antitumor monotherapies show limited efficacy. To increase OAd potency, transgenes have been inserted into their genome, a strategy known as “arming OAds”. Here, we review different parameters that affect the outcome of armed OAds. Recombinant [...] Read more.
Clinical results with oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) used as antitumor monotherapies show limited efficacy. To increase OAd potency, transgenes have been inserted into their genome, a strategy known as “arming OAds”. Here, we review different parameters that affect the outcome of armed OAds. Recombinant adenovirus used in gene therapy and vaccination have been the basis for the design of armed OAds. Hence, early region 1 (E1) and early region 3 (E3) have been the most commonly used transgene insertion sites, along with partially or complete E3 deletions. Besides transgene location and orientation, transcriptional control elements, transgene function, either virocentric or immunocentric, and even the codons encoding it, greatly impact on transgene levels and virus fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Adenovirus in Cancer Therapy)
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Open AccessReview
Can Hemp Help? Low-THC Cannabis and Non-THC Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Cancer
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041033 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Cannabis has been used to relieve the symptoms of disease for thousands of years. However, social and political biases have limited effective interrogation of the potential benefits of cannabis and polarised public opinion. Further, the medicinal and clinical utility of cannabis is limited [...] Read more.
Cannabis has been used to relieve the symptoms of disease for thousands of years. However, social and political biases have limited effective interrogation of the potential benefits of cannabis and polarised public opinion. Further, the medicinal and clinical utility of cannabis is limited by the psychotropic side effects of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC). Evidence is emerging for the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in the treatment of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, with potential efficacy as an analgesic and antiemetic for the management of cancer-related pain and treatment-related nausea and vomiting, respectively. An increasing number of preclinical studies have established that ∆9-THC can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancerous cells through the modulation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R), but clinical confirmation remains lacking. In parallel, the anti-cancer properties of non-THC cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), are linked to the modulation of non-CB1R/CB2R G-protein-coupled receptors, neurotransmitter receptors, and ligand-regulated transcription factors, which together modulate oncogenic signalling and redox homeostasis. Additional evidence has also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids, and this may prove relevant in the context of peritumoural oedema and the tumour immune microenvironment. This review aims to document the emerging mechanisms of anti-cancer actions of non-THC cannabinoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabinoids and Cancer)
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Higher Level Computerized Clinical Decision Support Systems on Oncology Care: A Systematic Review
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041032 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Background: To deal with complexity in cancer care, computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are developed to support quality of care and improve decision-making. We performed a systematic review to explore the value of CDSSs using automated clinical guidelines, Artificial Intelligence, datamining or [...] Read more.
Background: To deal with complexity in cancer care, computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are developed to support quality of care and improve decision-making. We performed a systematic review to explore the value of CDSSs using automated clinical guidelines, Artificial Intelligence, datamining or statistical methods (higher level CDSSs) on the quality of care in oncology. Materials and Methods: The search strategy combined synonyms for ‘CDSS’ and ‘cancer.’ Pubmed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Association of Computing Machinery digital library and Web of Science were systematically searched from January 2000 to December 2019. Included studies evaluated the impact of higher level CDSSs on process outcomes, guideline adherence and clinical outcomes. Results: 11,397 studies were selected for screening, after which 61 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, nine studies were included in the final analysis with a total population size of 7985 patients. Types of cancer included breast cancer (63.1%), lung cancer (27.8%), prostate cancer (4.1%), colorectal cancer (3.1%) and other cancer types (1.9%). The included studies demonstrated significant improvements of higher level CDSSs on process outcomes and guideline adherence across diverse settings in oncology. No significant differences were reported for clinical outcomes. Conclusion: Higher level CDSSs seem to improve process outcomes and guidelines adherence but not clinical outcomes. It should be noticed that the included studies primarily focused on breast and lung cancer. To further explore the impact of higher level CDSSs on quality of care, high-quality research is required. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Mitochondrial Protein VDAC1 at the Crossroads of Cancer Cell Metabolism: The Epigenetic Link
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041031 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Carcinogenesis is a complicated process that involves the deregulation of epigenetics, resulting in cellular transformational events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and metastasis. Most chromatin-modifying enzymes utilize metabolites as co-factors or substrates and thus are directly dependent on such metabolites as acetyl-coenzyme A, S-adenosylmethionine, [...] Read more.
Carcinogenesis is a complicated process that involves the deregulation of epigenetics, resulting in cellular transformational events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and metastasis. Most chromatin-modifying enzymes utilize metabolites as co-factors or substrates and thus are directly dependent on such metabolites as acetyl-coenzyme A, S-adenosylmethionine, and NAD+. Here, we show that using specific siRNA to deplete a tumor of VDAC1 not only led to reprograming of the cancer cell metabolism but also altered several epigenetic-related enzymes and factors. VDAC1, in the outer mitochondrial membrane, controls metabolic cross-talk between the mitochondria and the rest of the cell, thus regulating the metabolic and energetic functions of mitochondria, and has been implicated in apoptotic-relevant events. We previously demonstrated that silencing VDAC1 expression in glioblastoma (GBM) U-87MG cell-derived tumors, resulted in reprogramed metabolism leading to inhibited tumor growth, angiogenesis, epithelial–mesenchymal transition and invasiveness, and elimination of cancer stem cells, while promoting the differentiation of residual tumor cells into neuronal-like cells. These VDAC1 depletion-mediated effects involved alterations in transcription factors regulating signaling pathways associated with cancer hallmarks. As the epigenome is sensitive to cellular metabolism, this study was designed to assess whether depleting VDAC1 affects the metabolism–epigenetics axis. Using DNA microarrays, q-PCR, and specific antibodies, we analyzed the effects of si-VDAC1 treatment of U-87MG-derived tumors on histone modifications and epigenetic-related enzyme expression levels, as well as the methylation and acetylation state, to uncover any alterations in epigenetic properties. Our results demonstrate that metabolic rewiring of GBM via VDAC1 depletion affects epigenetic modifications, and strongly support the presence of an interplay between metabolism and epigenetics. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
PET-FDG: Impetus
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12041030 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 284
Abstract
The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG)recommends FDG PET/CT (Fluoro-Deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography) as the gold standard imaging modality for initial evaluation and response to therapy assessment in multiple myeloma. In fact, FDG PET/CT, provides multiple useful indexes to risk-stratify patients and has [...] Read more.
The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG)recommends FDG PET/CT (Fluoro-Deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography) as the gold standard imaging modality for initial evaluation and response to therapy assessment in multiple myeloma. In fact, FDG PET/CT, provides multiple useful indexes to risk-stratify patients and has significant prognostic value. However, multiple myeloma remains a complex disease to interpret on imaging. The Italian myeloma criteria for PET use (IMPeTUs) were proposed to standardize FDG PET/CT reading in multiple myeloma. In this communication an overview on IMPeTUs is provided as well as some examples of application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PET/CT in Multiple Myeloma Patients)
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