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Cancers, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2019)
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Cover Story (view full-size image) Evasion from immunosurveillance is one of the hallmarks of tumor progression in human malignancies, [...] Read more. Evasion from immunosurveillance is one of the hallmarks of tumor progression in human malignancies, including breast cancer. Intensive research has helped unravel various mechanisms involved in this process, and has recently been rewarded by the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA4. Despite revolutionizing cancer management, these agents—used either as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy—have limits. Current efforts focus on a large number of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules involved in tumor evasion, consistent with the complexity of the tumor–host interactions. These molecules likely represent promising targets of immunotherapy and it is thus of paramount importance to understand their biology. Here, we summarize the data regarding their expression, their role in tumor evasion from immunosurveillance and ongoing clinical trials in breast cancer. View this paper